The Minsk Metro (Belarusian: Мінскі метрапалітэн, Russian: Минский метрополитен) is a rapid transit system that serves Minsk, the capital of Belarus. Opened in 1984, it presently consists of 3 lines and 33 stations, totaling 40.8 kilometres (25.4 mi). In 2013, the system carried 328.3 million passengers, which averages to a daily ridership of approximately 899,450.
During the 1950s–1970s the population of the city grew to over a million and designs for a rapid transit system were initially proposed during the late 1960s. Construction began on 3 May 1977, and the system was opened to the public on 30 June 1984, becoming the ninth metro system in the Soviet Union. The original eight station section has since expanded into a three-line 33 station network with 40.8 kilometres (25.4 mi) of route.
Despite the dissolution of the Soviet Union the construction of the Minsk metro continued uninterrupted throughout the 1990s (as opposed to other ex-Soviet Metros like those of Yerevan and Samara, which were halted due to a complete lack of funding). Some experts attribute it to the slow reform of the Soviet planned economy in Belarus, which turned out to be beneficial for metro expansion. For example, the final phase of the Aŭtazavodskaja Line, originally planned for 2006, was opened in late 2005, and similarly the northern extension of the Maskoŭskaja Line, originally scheduled for 2008, opened on 7 November 2007. There were also 3 new stations opened on the southern end of the Maskoŭskaja line in November 2012.
|Instytut Kultury–Maskoŭskaja||Maskoŭskaja||30 June 1984|
|Maskoŭskaja–Uschod||Maskoŭskaja||30 December 1986|
|Traktarny zavod–Frunzienskaja||Aŭtazavodskaja||31 December 1990|
|Pieršamajskaja||Aŭtazavodskaja||28 May 1991|
|Frunzienskaja–Puškinskaja||Aŭtazavodskaja||3 July 1995|
|Traktarny zavod–Aŭtazavodskaja||Aŭtazavodskaja||7 November 1997|
|Aŭtazavodskaja–Mahilioŭskaja||Aŭtazavodskaja||5 September 2001|
|Puškinskaja–Kamiennaja Horka||Aŭtazavodskaja||7 November 2005|
|Uschod–Uručča||Maskoŭskaja||7 November 2007|
|Instytut Kultury–Piatroŭščyna||Maskoŭskaja||7 November 2012|
|Piatroŭščyna–Malinaŭka||Maskoŭskaja||3 June 2014|
|Jubiliejnaja plošča–Kavaĺskaja Slabada||Zelenalužskaja||6 November 2020|
The city is located on an almost level surface and on very dry soils. As a result, although all of the Minsk Metro stations are under the surface, there are no deep-level stations that are found in most of the ex-Soviet cities. Out of the current 33 stations 19 are pillar-spans and 10 are of vaulted type. Like most of the Soviet metro systems, all of the stations are vividly decorated. Some (notably, Niamiha) exhibit Belarusian national motifs, others focus on more Soviet socialist themes. Although recent years saw more priority on high-tech decorations.
Signs and announcements in the metro system are in Belarusian and English.
Construction of a third line, the Zelenoluzhskaya line (shown in green), began in 2014. When completed, this third line will run from the south to the northeast of the city via the centre, creating two new transfer points with the existing lines.
The first stage of the line was opened on 7 November 2020. This follows a northern contour parallel to Maskowskaya, and relieved the extensive congestion in the city area.
As of November 2020, the Zelenoluzhskaya line consisted of four stations. While this Line 3 is planned to be extended north to the residential area of Zeleny Lug, a southern extension to Slutskiy Gostinets is already under construction (est. 2023).
A planned fourth line is expected to connect southeastern parts of the city with the northwestern residential areas, from Vesnyanka in the northwest to Serebryanka in the south, via Akademiya Nauk and Traktornyiy Zavod on the existing lines.
On 30 May 1999, a sudden thunderstorm caused a large crowd, from a nearby rock concert, to seek shelter at the Nyamiha station. The limited size of the underpass leading into the ticket hall and the wet pavement caused a human crush. Fifty-three people died.
The Kastrychnitskaya station was the site of a terrorist bombing on 11 April 2011. Fifteen people were killed.
Lines and stations
|#||Name (Belarusian Latin/Cyrillic)||Opened||Length||Stations|
|1||Maskowskaya (Маскоўская)||1984||19.1 km||15|
|2||Awtazavodskaya (Аўтазаводская)||1990||18.1 km||14|
|3||Zelenaluzhskaya (Зеленалужская)||2020||3.5 km||4|
- Метро сегодня [Metro today]. Государственное предприятие "Минский Метрополитен" [State Enterprise "Minsk Metro"] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- История развития метрополитена [History of the metro]. Государственное предприятие "Минский Метрополитен" [State Enterprise "Minsk Metro"] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Основные технико-эксплуатационные характеристики метрополитенов за 2013 год [Main technical and operational specifications for subways for year 2013] (PDF) (in Russian). Международная Ассоциация "Метро" [International Association of Metros]. 2013. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2014 – via asmetro.ru.
- "City News in Brief". Railway Gazette International. 11 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "Minsk's Third Metro Line Opens". Railway Gazette International. 7 November 2020. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- "Minsk Metro". Belarus.by. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Hatherley, Owen (17 January 2017). "Minsk: Owen Hatherley on the World's Most Complete, and Most Surprising Soviet City". The Calvert Journal. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
- "4 Stations of 3rd Line of Minsk Metro to Be Opened for Passengers in 2020". tvr.by. 9 April 2019. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Minsk". UrbanRail.net. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- Minsk Metro – official site
- Official City of Minsk Urban Transport site
- The site of the Minsk subway Minsk-Metro.NET (unofficial)
- Minsk at UrbanRail.net
- Site by Andrey Kharchevk
- Popular site
- Another Popular site
- Network map