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Minsk Metro

Coordinates: 53°53′41″N 27°32′53″E / 53.89472°N 27.54806°E / 53.89472; 27.54806
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Minsk Metro
Native name
  • Мінскі метрапалітэн
  • Minski mietrapaliten
  • Минский метрополитен
  • Minskiy metropoliten
OwnerGovernment of the Byelorussian SSR (1984–1991)
Government of the Republic of Belarus (1991–present)
LocaleMinsk, Belarus
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines3 (1 planned)[1]
Number of stations33 (3 under construction)[1]
Daily ridership640 800 (2023)[1]
Annual ridership233.9 million (2023)[1]
Began operationJune 29, 1984[2]
Operator(s)Мінскі метрапалітэн
(Minsk Metro)
Number of vehicles390[1]
System length40.82 km (25.4 mi)[1]
Track gauge1,520 mm (4 ft 11+2732 in)
Electrification825V DC conductor (substation output, in rail 750V on average)
Average speed40.7 km/h (25.3 mph)[1]
Top speed80 km/h
Construction of Minsk metro

The Minsk Metro (Belarusian: Мінскі метрапалітэн; Russian: Минский метрополитен) is a rapid transit system that serves Minsk, the capital of Belarus. Opened 29 June 1984,[2] it presently consists of 3 lines[1] and 33 stations,[1] totaling 40.8 kilometres (25.4 mi).[1] In 2013, the system carried 328.3 million passengers,[3] which averages to a daily ridership of approximately 899,450. In 2023, the system carried 233.9 million passengers,[4] which averages to a daily ridership of approximately 640,800.


During the 1950s–1970s the population of the city grew to over a million and designs for a rapid transit system were initially proposed during the late 1960s. Construction began on 3 May 1977, and the system was opened to the public on 30 June 1984, becoming the ninth metro system in the Soviet Union.[2] The original eight station section has since expanded into a three-line 33 station network with a total of 40.8 kilometres (25.4 mi) of route.[1]

Despite the dissolution of the Soviet Union the construction of the Minsk metro continued uninterrupted throughout the 1990s (as opposed to other ex-Soviet Metros like those of Yerevan and Samara, which were halted due to a complete lack of funding). Some experts attribute it to the slow reform of the Soviet planned economy in Belarus, which turned out to be beneficial for metro expansion. For example, the final phase of the Aŭtazavodskaja Line (Avtazavodskaya Line), originally planned for 2006, was opened in late 2005, and similarly the northern extension of the Maskoŭskaja Line (Moskovskaya Line), originally scheduled for 2008, opened on 7 November 2007.[5] In November 2012 three new stations opened on the southern end of the Maskoŭskaja line (Instytut Kuĺtury - Piatroŭščyna) and in June 2014 the line was expanded in the south part with 1 more new station (Piatroŭščyna - Malinaŭka).

Construction of the 1st phase of the new Line 3 (Zielienalužskaja Line) started in 2014 which consisted of 4 new stations running from Jubiliejnaja Plošča to Kavaĺskaja slabada station. The 1st phase opened on 6 November 2020. The 2nd phase is being constructed since 2018 with an estimated opening in 2023 which contains the extension from Kavaĺskaja slabada to Slucki Hasciniec stations (3 new stations) with 1 depot being built in the new south terminal station of the line.


Segment Line Date opened
Instytut KulturyMaskoŭskaja Maskoŭskaja 30 June 1984
MaskoŭskajaUschod Maskoŭskaja 30 December 1986
Traktarny zavodFrunzienskaja Aŭtazavodskaja 31 December 1990
Pieršamajskaja Aŭtazavodskaja 28 May 1991
FrunzienskajaPuškinskaja Aŭtazavodskaja 3 July 1995
Traktarny zavodAŭtazavodskaja Aŭtazavodskaja 7 November 1997
AŭtazavodskajaMahilioŭskaja Aŭtazavodskaja 5 September 2001
PuškinskajaKamiennaja Horka Aŭtazavodskaja 7 November 2005
UschodUručča Maskoŭskaja 7 November 2007
Instytut KulturyPiatroŭščyna Maskoŭskaja 7 November 2012
PiatroŭščynaMalinaŭka Maskoŭskaja 3 June 2014
Jubiliejnaja ploščaKavaĺskaja Slabada Zelenalužskaja 6 November 2020[6]

Operational characteristics[edit]

The city is located on an almost level surface and on very dry soils. As a result, although all of the Minsk Metro stations are under the surface, there are no deep-level stations that are found in most of the ex-Soviet cities.[7] Out of the current 33 stations[7] 19 are pillar-spans and 10 are of vaulted type. Like most of the Soviet metro systems, all of the stations are vividly decorated. Some (notably, Niamiha) exhibit Belarusian national motifs, while others focus on more Soviet socialist themes, although recent years have seen more priority on high-tech decorations.

Signs and announcements in the metro system are in Belarusian and English.[8]

Expansion plans[edit]

A map of the future system of Minsk Metro with all the proposed and planned extensions

Construction of a third line, the Zielienalužskaja (Zelenaluzhskaya) line (shown in green), began in 2014. When fully completed, this line will run from the south to the northeast of the city via the centre, creating two new transfer points with the existing lines.

The first stage of the line was opened on 7 November 2020 running from Jubiliejnaja Plošča to Kavaĺskaja slabada station.[9] This follows a northern contour parallel to Maskoŭskaja (Moskovskaya) which has since relieved the extensive congestion in the city area with 2 interchange stations at Vakzaĺnaja (Plošča Lienina station of Line 1) and Jubiliejnaja Plošča station (Frunzienskaja station of Line 2).

As of November 2020, the Zielienalužskaja line consists of four stations. While Line 3 is planned to be extended north to the residential area of Zialiony Luh, a southern extension to Slucki Hasciniec with 3 new stations and 1 depot of Line 3 is under construction (estimated opening in 2023).[10]

A planned Fourth (Circle) line is expected to connect south and north parts of the city which are densely populated. This line is planned to have a length of 37 kilometres with 1 new depot serving the line and 17 new stations of which 6 stations are going to be interchange stations. Specifically, Line 4 will interchange at Michalova and Akademija navuk stations of Line 1, Traktarny zavod and Puškinskaja stations of Line 2 and future Plošča Banhalor and Aerodromnaja stations of Line 3.

Two extensions of Line 1 and two of Line 2 (4 in total) with 2 new stations for Line 1 and 2 respectively were mentioned but never went into additional consideration as the construction of Line 3 and the plans for Line 4 keep their priority low. These expansions were specifically mentioned as:

Line 1: Malinaŭka – Ščomyslica and Uručča – Smalienskaja

Line 2: Kamiennaja Horka – Čyrvony Bor and Mahilioŭskaja – Šabany

The official map with all the planned extensions of Minsk Metro not including the Malinauka-Shemislicha extension


1999 stampede[edit]

On 30 May 1999, a sudden thunderstorm caused a large crowd, from a nearby rock concert, to seek shelter at the Niamiha station. The limited size of the underpass leading into the ticket hall and the wet pavement caused a human crush. Fifty-three people died.

2011 bombing[edit]

The Kastryčnickaja station was the site of a terrorist bombing on 11 April 2011. Fifteen people were killed.

Lines and stations[edit]

# Name (Belarusian Latin/Cyrillic) Opened Length Stations
1 Maskoŭskaja (Маскоўская) 1984[2] 19.1 km 15[1]
2 Aŭtazavodskaja (Аўтазаводская) 1990[2] 18.1 km 14[1]
3 Zielienalužskaja (Зеленалужская) 2020[2] 3.5 km 4 (3 under construction)[1]
Total 40.8 km[1] 33[1]




Maskoŭskaja line[edit]

Aŭtazavodskaja line[edit]

Zielienalužskaja line[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Метро сегодня [Metro today]. Государственное предприятие "Минский Метрополитен" [State Enterprise "Minsk Metro"] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f История развития метрополитена [History of the metro]. Государственное предприятие "Минский Метрополитен" [State Enterprise "Minsk Metro"] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  3. ^ Основные технико-эксплуатационные характеристики метрополитенов за 2013 год [Main technical and operational specifications for subways for year 2013] (PDF) (in Russian). Международная Ассоциация "Метро" [International Association of Metros]. 2013. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2014 – via asmetro.ru.
  4. ^ "Минский метрополитен в 2023 году перевез 234 миллиона пассажиров". 15 February 2024.
  5. ^ "City News in Brief". Railway Gazette International. 11 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
  6. ^ "Minsk's Third Metro Line Opens". Railway Gazette International. 7 November 2020. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Minsk Metro". Belarus.by. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  8. ^ Hatherley, Owen (17 January 2017). "Minsk: Owen Hatherley on the World's Most Complete, and Most Surprising Soviet City". The Calvert Journal. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  9. ^ "4 Stations of 3rd Line of Minsk Metro to Be Opened for Passengers in 2020". tvr.by. 9 April 2019. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Minsk". UrbanRail.net. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2012.

External links[edit]

53°53′41″N 27°32′53″E / 53.89472°N 27.54806°E / 53.89472; 27.54806