Musée National d'Art Moderne
|Musée National d'Art Moderne|
Centre Georges-Pompidou from Notre-Dame de Paris, 2011
|Established||9 June 1947|
|Location||Centre Pompidou, place Georges Pompidou, 75004 Paris and Centre Pompidou-Metz, Human Rights square, 57000 Metz.|
Ranking 9th globally (2013)
|Public transit access||Rambuteau, Hôtel de Ville|
The Musée National d'Art Moderne (French pronunciation: [myze nasjɔnal daʁ mɔdɛʁn], National Museum of Modern Art) is the national museum for modern art of France. It is located in Paris and is housed in the Centre Pompidou in the 4th arrondissement of the city. It is among the most visited art museums in the world.
The Musée National d'Art Moderne succeeded in 1937 the Musée du Luxembourg, established in 1818 by king Louis XVIII as the first museum of contemporary art created in Europe devoted to living artists due to join the Louvre 10 years after their death if consecrated by fame. Imagined as early as 1929 by Auguste Perret to replace the old Palais du Trocadero, the construction of a museum of modern art was officially decided in 1934 in the western wing of the Palais de Tokyo. Completed in 1937 for the International Exhibition of Arts and Technology of 1937, it was temporarily used for another purpose, since the exhibition of national and foreign "art indépendant" was then preferably held in the Petit Palais and the Musée du Jeu de Paume. Due to open in 1939 after final works, eventually interrupted by the war, then the nomination of his first Chief Conservator in September 1940, the museum partially opened in 1942 with only a third of the collection brought back from some national collections caches hidden in province. But its real inauguration only took place in 1947 after World War II and the addition of the foreign schools collection of the Musée du Luxembourg, which had been held at the Musée du Jeu de Paume since 1922.
In 1947, then housed in the Palais de Tokyo, its collection was dramatically increased by his first director Jean Cassou thanks to his special relationship with many prominent artists or their families, such as Picasso and Braque. With the creation of the Centre Pompidou, the museum moved to its current location in 1977.
The museum has the second largest collection of modern and contemporary art in the world, after the Museum of Modern Art in New York, with more than 100,000 works of art by 6,400 artists from 90 countries since Fauvism in 1905. These works include painting, sculpture, drawing, print, photography, cinema, new media, architecture and design. A part of collection is every two years alternately on exhibit in an 18,500 square meters space divided between two floors, one for modern art (from 1905 to 1960, on the 5th floor), the other for contemporary art (from 1960, on the 4th floor) and 5 exhibition halls, on a total of 28,000 square meters for the museum. The Atelier Brancusi is located in its own building adjacent to the Centre Pompidou. 17,000 square meters out of a total of 45,000 of the Centre Pompidou are used by the Bibliothèque publique d'information, a generalist library, along with the Kandinsky library, bookshops, children workshops, restaurants.
The works displayed in the museum often change in order to show to the public the variety and depth of the collection. Many major temporary exhibitions of modern and contemporary art have taken place in a separate floor (the 6th) over the years, among them many one-person exhibitions. Since 2010, the museum displays also unique, temporary exhibitions in its provincial branch, the Centre Pompidou-Metz, in a 10,000 square meters space divided between 3 galleries and since 2011 in a small mobile museum touring the province.
Modern art (1905–1960)
Many styles of modern art, including Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, Dada, Abstract art, Surrealism are represented with works by Matisse, André Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, Raoul Dufy, Albert Marquet, Le Douanier Rousseau, Paul Signac, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, August Macke, Alexej von Jawlensky, Emil Nolde, Oskar Kokoschka, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Kurt Schwitters, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, Carlo Carrà, Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, Marc Chagall, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov, Alexander Rodchenko, František Kupka, Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Kasimir Malevich, Jacques Villon, Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, Georges Rouault, Balthus, Max Beckmann, Constantin Brâncuși, Alexander Calder, Chaïm Soutine, Amedeo Modigliani, Kees van Dongen, Jean Arp, Giorgio de Chirico, André Breton, Magritte, Max Ernst, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Alberto Giacometti, René Iché, Nicolas de Staël, André Masson, Yves Tanguy, Jean Tinguely, Simon Hantaï, Yves Klein, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Willem de Kooning, and Francis Bacon.
Contemporary art (art from 1960 on)
Pop Art, Nouveau Réalisme, Conceptual art and other tendencies or groups are represented with works by Andy Warhol, Richard Hamilton, Rauschenberg, Dan Flavin, Eduardo Arroyo, Dan Graham, Daniel Buren, George Brecht, Arman, César, Bill Viola, Anish Kapoor, Wim Delvoye, Yves Klein, Niki de Saint-Phalle, Yaacov Agam, Vasarely, John Cage, Cindy Sherman, Dieter Roth, Beuys, Roy Lichtenstein, Dubuffet, Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, Gilbert & George and Louise Bourgeois.
- Since 2013 : Bernard Blistène
- 2000 – 2013 : Alfred Pacquement
- 1997 – 2000 : Werner Spies
- 1992 – 1997 : Germain Viatte
- 1991 – 1992 : Dominique Bozo
- 1987 – 1991 : Jean-Hubert Martin
- 1986 – 1987 : Bernard Ceysson
- 1981 – 1986 : Dominique Bozo
- 1973 – 1981 : Pontus Hultén
- 1968 – 1973 : Jean Leymarie
- 1965 – 1968 : Bernard Dorival
- 1945 – 1965 : Jean Cassou
- 1941 – 1944 : Pierre Ladoué
- 1940 : Jean Cassou
Henri Matisse, Woman Reading, 1894
Henri Matisse, Auguste Pellerin II, 1916-17
Francis Picabia, Udnie (Young American Girl, The Dance), 1913
Robert Delaunay, Paysage au disque, 1906
Robert Delaunay, La ville no. 2, 1910–11
Georges Braque, Nature morte (Fruit Dish, Ace of Clubs), 1913
Georges Braque, Man With a Guitar, 1914
Wassily Kandinsky, To the Unknown Voice, 1916
Theo van Doesburg, Pure Painting, 1920
- Collection online (use preferably "recherche multicritères")
- Official website of the Museum
- Official website of the Centre Pompidou
- Official website of the Centre Pompidou-Metz provincial branch
Notes and references