Old Firm

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Old Firm derby
Oldfirm.jpg
Fans kept apart at a match between the clubs
Locale Glasgow, Scotland
Teams
First meeting 28 May 1888
Celtic 5–2 Rangers
Friendly
Latest meeting 29 April 2017
Rangers 1–5 Celtic
2016–17 Scottish Premiership
Statistics
Meetings total 408
Most wins Rangers (159)
Largest victory Celtic 7–1 Rangers
(19 October 1957)[1]
Location of the two teams' stadia in Glasgow

The Old Firm is the collective name for the Scottish football clubs Celtic and Rangers, who are both based in Glasgow. The origin of the term is unclear but may derive from the two clubs' initial match in which the commentators referred to the teams as "like two old, firm friends",[2] or alternatively may stem from a satirical cartoon published in a magazine prior to the 1904 Scottish Cup Final between the sides, depicting an elderly man with a sandwich board reading "Patronise The Old Firm: Rangers, Celtic Ltd", highlighting the mutual commercial benefits of their meetings.[3][4] The name may also be a reference to these two teams being among the original 11 members of the Scottish Football League formed in 1890.[5]

The rivalry between the two clubs has become deeply embedded in Scottish culture and has contributed to the political, social and religious division and sectarianism in Scotland and also beyond, especially in neighbouring Northern Ireland. As a result, the fixture was recognised as having enduring appeal.[6]

The two clubs are the most successful in Scotland, between them having won 102 Scottish League championships (Rangers with 54 and Celtic with 48),[7] 70 Scottish Cups[8] and 43 Scottish League Cups.[9] Interruptions to their ascendancy have occurred infrequently, most recently with the challenge of the New Firm of Aberdeen and Dundee United in the first half of the 1980s. Since the 1985–86 season one half of the Old Firm has won the Scottish League consistently and from the 2006–07 season to the 2011–12 season, both clubs finished in the top two places.

Rangers and Celtic have played each other 408 times in major competitions: Rangers have won 159 matches, Celtic 151 matches and 98 ended in a draw.[10]

The clubs have large fan bases around Glasgow but also supporters clubs in most towns throughout Scotland and Northern Ireland and in many cities around the world. The presence of Rangers and Celtic had been estimated to be worth £120 million to the Scottish economy.[11]

Rivalry and sectarianism[edit]

"When I was growing up, I went to a Catholic school, and there wasn’t one Rangers fan in the entire school," said Neil McGarvey, 43, who is involved in the operation of Kerrydale Street, a popular Celtic fan Web site. "It’s much more mixed now — my boy goes to a Catholic school, and there are maybe 5 percent Rangers fans now."

— The New York Times, 2012[12]

The competition between the two clubs had roots in more than just a simple sporting rivalry.[6] It has more to do with Northern Ireland than Scotland and this can be seen in the flags, cultural symbols and emblems of both clubs. It was infused with a series of complex disputes, sometimes centred on religion (Catholic and Protestant), Northern Ireland-related politics (Loyalist and Republican), national identity (British or Irish Scots), and social ideology (Conservatism and Socialism).[13]

Another primary contributor to the intensity of the rivalry in the west of Scotland was that Rangers supporters are historically native Scots and Ulster Scots, and Celtic supporters are historically Irish-Scots. While the confrontation between the two sets of supporters was often labelled as 'Sectarianism', 'Native-Immigrant tension' was an equally accurate catalyst for hostility between the two teams' supports in Scotland. Rangers' traditional support was largely from the Protestant community, and for decades the club had an unwritten rule whereby they would not knowingly sign a player of the Catholic faith.[14] The policy was decried by Graeme Souness when he became manager, and he brought ex-Celtic forward Mo Johnston to the club in a very public move away from the practice, which no longer continues.[15] Celtic's support was largely from those of Irish Roman Catholic backgrounds and while the club practiced no exclusion of Protestants and signed many of them to play for the team, there was a pro-Catholic mindset among some of the employees.[16] One effect is that Scottish flags are rarer than might be expected amongst both sets of supporters; Celtic fans are more likely to wave the Irish tricolour while Rangers fans tend to wave the Union Flag.

Side-by-side comparison of Celtic's and Rangers' final league positions from 1891–2015

Traditionally, Rangers, founded in 1872, attracted the Protestant, Scottish establishment: Celtic, founded later in 1887, represented the Catholic Irish people in Scotland, as Celtic were founded on the promise that the club would deliver much-needed money and resources to a poverty-stricken Catholic population in East Glasgow. Nevertheless, this dividing line seems to be blurred today in Glasgow: "mixed marriages" between Protestants and Catholics have never been higher and the old certainties – the Rangers supporter voting Conservative and the Celtic supporter voting Labour – are lost.[17][18]

The ferocity of the rivalry made it rare for a player to represent both teams during his career. Players who played for both sides of the Old Firm included Alex Bennett, Scott Duncan, Robert Campbell, and George Livingstone, who all played before the intensity of the rivalry had started prior to 1912, as well as later players: Alfie Conn, Maurice Johnston, Kenny Miller, Steven Pressley and Mark Brown (none of whom moved directly between the two clubs).

Opposing fans fought an on-pitch battle in the aftermath of Celtic's 1–0 victory in the 1980 Scottish Cup Final at Hampden. This remains one of the worst invasions onto a football pitch ever reported, and was instrumental in alcohol being banned from football grounds in Scotland.[19]

There was serious fan disorder during an Old Firm match played on a Sunday evening in May 1999 at Celtic Park, with the usual tensions heightened by the fact that Rangers could clinch the league title with victory (and it became clear that they would do so from the early stages of the match). Several objects were thrown by Celtic fans, one of which struck referee Hugh Dallas forcing the game to be stopped while he received medical treatment.[20] With many of those in attendance having spent a full weekend drinking alcohol prior to the event, at least four Celtic fans invaded the field of play to confront Dallas during the game,[20] and more missiles were thrown at players on the pitch after the game.[20] Since the events of that day, Old Firm league matches have normally been played in the early afternoon and the possibility of an Old Firm title decider has been deliberately avoided.[21][22]

In 2005 both Celtic and Rangers joined a project to tackle bigotry and sectarianism in sport,[23] but there was little change in the behaviour and subsequent prosecution of the fans.

The majority of Rangers and Celtic supporters do not get involved in sectarianism, but serious incidents do occur with a tendency for the actions of a minority to dominate the headlines.[23] The Old Firm rivalry fuelled many assaults on Derby days, and some deaths in the past have been directly related to the aftermath of Old Firm matches.[24] An activist group that monitors sectarian activity in Glasgow has reported that on Old Firm weekends, violent attacks increase ninefold over normal levels.[25] An increase in domestic abuse can also be attributed to Old Firm fixtures.[26] A freedom of information request found that Strathclyde Police incurred costs of £2.4 million for the seven derbies played during the 2010–11 season, with the clubs only contributing £0.3 million towards that.[27] Other high-profile games involving Rangers and Celtic incurred much lower costs.[27] The reason for the disparity in costs and the contribution made is that Strathclyde Police had to increase its activity elsewhere in Glasgow and beyond, while the clubs were only responsible for costs incurred in the vicinity of their stadium.[27]

Glasgow-based brewers Tennent's were the primary commercial sponsor of both teams for several years;[28][29] any local business that only sponsored one would likely lose half its customers.[12] Previously, glazing company CR Smith (who later had a deal with Celtic alone),[30][31] communications firm NTL[32] and English brewers Carling[33] had also sponsored both clubs.

In 2015, former Rangers player Brian Laudrup said that the Old Firm topped all of the rivalries he had played in, which included the Milan derby and the Fiorentina-Juventus meetings[34] in Italy.[35]

From 1 March 2012, the police were given more powers to act against Sectarian acts at football matches through the new Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications Act. The law was designed specifically to target the Old Firm rivalry by reducing the religious hatred between the two opposing sides. The Act created two new offences, one covering behaviour in and around football matches and the other related to posts sent by either electronic or postal methods. People convicted under the act could face up to five years imprisonment. This is a much higher sentence than was previously in place. It will now make it much easier to prosecute this misbehaviour, which has proved difficult in the past.[36]

In March 2013 a protest by a number of Celtic fans took place to protest against the new laws and the subsequent match bans that a number of fans had received for breaking the Act. The protesters, known as the "Green Brigade," had marched without police authority and the event was therefore cracked down on by local authorities resulting in thirteen arrests. The protestors claim that the police instigated the trouble that occurred at this march.[37] Following the march, media coverage reported that the fans were growing further apart from the police than ever before. They claimed that the trust the fans hold with the police to work in cooperation with them is falling dramatically. The march that took place resulted in a number of complaints from both the Celtic and the Rangers fans that they were harassed by the police. Investigations are still underway to discover the legitimacy of these claims.[38]

Head-to-head record[edit]

An Old Firm clash in 2008
Competition Played Rangers Celtic Draw
Scottish League 309 119 104 86
Scottish Cup 50 16 24 10
League Cup 49 24 23 2
Totals 408 159 151 98

Note: League championship statistics include play-off match for the 1904–05 title which Celtic won 2–1.

1888–1999 statistics obtained from RSSSF; Remaining stats obtained from Soccerbase

There are a number of matches between the two clubs that are not recognised in the official records, such as during the Second World War when the Scottish Football League and Scottish Cup were suspended and in their place unofficial regional league competitions were set up. One of these games was a New Year's Day derby in 1943 which Rangers won 8–1.[39][40]

Biggest wins[edit]

* Four or more goals difference between the teams.

Celtic[edit]

6-goal margin[edit]

5-goal margin[edit]

4-goal margin[edit]

Rangers[edit]

5-goal margin[edit]

4-goal margin[edit]

Players who played for both teams[edit]

Pre-war[edit]

Post-war[edit]

Players who played for opposite clubs during their youth and senior careers[edit]

  • John Dowie (youth career Rangers, senior career Celtic)[46]
  • Gordon Marshall (youth career Rangers, senior career Celtic)[47]
  • Craig Beattie (youth career with both Rangers and Celtic, senior career Celtic)
  • Sean Fitzharris (youth career with both Rangers and Celtic, senior career Celtic)
  • Greig Spence (youth career Rangers, senior career Celtic)
  • Joe Thomson (youth career with both Rangers and Celtic, senior career Celtic)
  • Dylan McGeouch (youth career with both Celtic and Rangers, senior career Celtic)[48][49]
  • Gregg Wylde (youth career with both Celtic and Rangers, senior career Rangers)
  • Barry Robson (youth career Rangers, senior career Celtic)
  • Michael O'Halloran (youth career Celtic, senior career Rangers)
  • Liam Burt (youth career with both Celtic and Rangers, senior career Rangers)

Individual records[edit]

Most Appearances[edit]

As of end of season 2016–17. Any current players in bold.

Highest goalscorers[edit]

As of end of season 2016–17. Any current players in bold.

Managerial statistics[edit]

As of end of season 2016–17. Minimum 10 Old Firm games as manager (Brendan Rodgers not yet eligible).

Name Team Years Overall Record[55][56][57][58] League Record[59][60]
Games Wins Win % Games Wins Win %
Martin O'Neill Northern Ireland Celtic 2000-2005 27 16 59% 20 13 65%
Bill Struth Rangers 1920-1954 116[61] 66[62] 57% 54 29 54%
David White Rangers 1968-1969 10 4 40% 4 3 75%
Graeme Souness Rangers 1986-1991 27 14 52% 20 10 50%
Walter Smith Rangers 1991-98, 2006-11 56 28 50% 46 22 48%
Jock Stein Celtic 1965-1978 58 29 50% 28 12 43%
Neil Lennon Northern Ireland Celtic 2010-2014 12 6 50% 9 5 55%
Scot Symon Rangers 1954-1967 61 29 48% 27 17 63%
Billy McNeill Celtic 1978-83, 1987-91 46 22 48% 36 16 44%
Gordon Strachan Celtic 2005-2009 18 8 44% 16 6 37%
Jock Wallace Rangers 1972-78, 1984-86 38 15 39% 28 9 32%
Dick Advocaat Netherlands Rangers 1998-2001 16 6 37% 14 5 36%
Alex McLeish Rangers 2002-2006 25 8 32% 18 4 22%
William Wilton Rangers 1899-1920 96 30 31% 42 11 26%
Davie Hay Celtic 1983-1987 21 6 29% 16 6 37%
Willie Maley Celtic 1897-1940 146[63] 43 29% 84 22 26%
John Greig Rangers 1978-1983 27 7 26% 21 4 19%
Jimmy McGrory Celtic 1945-1965 80 18 22% 38 6 16%
Tommy Burns Celtic 1994-1997 15 3 20% 12 2 17%
Jimmy McStay Celtic 1940-1945 21[64] 4[65] 19% 0 0 0%
Liam Brady Republic of Ireland Celtic 1991-1993 11 2 18% 9 2 22%
Willie Waddell Rangers 1970-1972 12 1 8% 5 0 0%

Dominance of Scottish football[edit]

The intensity of the rivalry is fuelled by the clubs' historical duopoly in Scottish football, with most meetings between them being pivotal in deciding the destiny of a championship or cup, and anything but a title-winning season seen as a major disappointment particularly as it usually means the 'enemy' has won the trophy.

League[edit]

Statistics show that Rangers and Celtic have been by far the most successful clubs involved in the Scottish Football League since its formation in 1890. The pair were the only participants in every edition of the competition until 2012, when Rangers were removed from the top tier for economic reasons; they returned for the 2016–17 season. Of the 120 championships played, 102 (85%) have been won by one of the Old Firm with Rangers ahead on 54 titles to Celtic's 48, and 19 between ten other clubs (including a shared title between Rangers and Dumbarton).

Although there have been brief periods when silverware went elsewhere, there have also been long spells of domination by each Old Firm club, the longest run of 9-in-a-row being first set by Celtic between 1966 and 1974, matched by Rangers between 1989 and 1997.

On just five occasions since 1891 have neither of the Glasgow giants been the league winner nor the runner-up. This includes 1964–65, the only season in which both Rangers and Celtic failed to finish in the top three places. The Old Firm have finished 1st and 2nd 48 times overall. After the resurgence of Celtic in the mid-1990s and before the liquidation of Rangers, '1-2' finishes were recorded in all but one of 17 SPL-era seasons.

The longest sequence without an Old Firm title is 3 years between 1983 and 1985, while the longest unbroken run of championships between the two clubs began immediately afterwards and is ongoing: 32 seasons and counting since 1986 (overtaking a previous sequence of 27 years between 1905 and 1931).

As of end of season 2016–17. Runners-up in (parentheses)

Outcome[7] Celtic Rangers Combined %
One club 1st, other 2nd 24 (24) 24 (24) 48 40%
One club 1st, other not top 2 24 30 54 45%
Title wins by Old Firm club 48 54 102 85%
One club 2nd, other not top 2 N/A (7) N/A (6) 13 11%
Neither club in top 2 N/A N/A 5 4%
Title wins by another club N/A N/A 18* 15%
Totals 48 (31) 54 (30) 120 100%
  • For the purpose of the calculation, the shared 1891 title is attributed to Rangers only here to prevent it being counted twice.

Scottish Cup[edit]

Although the initial Scottish Cup was played in 1874, 15 years before Celtic were formed, they have still won the competition more than any other club - 37 times, plus 18 runners-up - with Rangers not far behind on 33 (also 18 runners-up).

There have been 14 Old Firm finals, while there have been just 39 finals involving neither Rangers or Celtic, 17 of which were in the 1800s.

The longest run of Old Firm wins is 11 between 1971 and 1981.

As of end of season 2016–17. Runners-up in (parentheses)

Outcome[8] Celtic Rangers Combined %
Old Firm final 7 (7) 7 (7) 14 11%
One winner, other not involved 30 26 56 43%
Cup wins by an Old Firm club 37 33 70 54%
One runner-up, other not involved N/A (11) N/A (11) 22 17%
neither club involved N/A N/A 39 29%
Cup wins by another club N/A N/A 61 46%
Totals 37 (18) 33 (18) 131 100%

League Cup[edit]

The Scottish League Cup has been contested 71 times since 1946-47. Rangers are dominant in terms of wins with 27 from 34 finals, with Celtic some way behind on 16 wins although they too have made it to 34 finals. 13 other clubs share 28 wins between them. 14 of its finals have been Old Firm occasions, while 20 featured neither of them.

The longest run of Old Firm wins is 8 between 1964 and 1971.

As of end of season 2016–17. Runners-up in (parentheses)

Outcome[9] Celtic Rangers Combined %
Old Firm final 5 (9) 9 (5) 14 19%
One winner, other not involved 11 18 29 40%
Cup wins by an Old Firm club 16 27 43 60%
One runner-up, other not involved N/A (6) N/A (2) 8 11%
neither club involved N/A N/A 20 30%
Cup wins by another club N/A N/A 28 40%
Totals 16 (15) 27 (7) 71 100%

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Scottish League Cup final: Celtic 7 Rangers 1, Saturday, October 19, 1957". Daily Record. Trinity Mirror. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  2. ^ Murray, William J. (1984) The Old Firm: sectarianism, sport, and society in Scotland; Edinburgh: J. Donald Publishers; Atlantic Highlands, N.J. ISBN 0-85976-121-5
  3. ^ "Six classic matches: the birth of the Old Firm and the day Hampden burned". The Herald. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  4. ^ "The Old Firm story: When fans joined forces to riot". The Scotsman. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  5. ^ Walker, Graham and Alan Bairner. (2005) Popular Culture in Scotland and Ireland, 1800-2000: Sport, Politics, and Religion. Ireland and Scotland: Culture and Society, 1700-2000: Four Courts Press; Dublin. ISBN 978-1851828753
  6. ^ a b "Rivalries: Celtic vs Rangers. Old Firm's enduring appeal". FIFA. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "Scotland - List of Champions - Summary". RSSSF. Retrieved 14 March 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Scotland - List of Cup Finals - Summary". RSSSF. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  9. ^ a b "Scotland - List of League Cup Finals - Summary". RSSSF. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  10. ^ "History: Old Firm". Rangers FC. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "Old Firm on the ball for economy". BBC. BBC News. 29 June 2005. Retrieved 29 June 2005. 
  12. ^ a b Borden, Sam (9 August 2012). "Dissolving Scotland's Old Firm". New York Times. pp. B18. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  13. ^ Richard Wilson, "Inside the Divide" (Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 2012), p. 87: "What is being asserted is two identities: Rangers and Celtic. There are other boundaries: Protestant and Catholic / Unionist and Republican / Conservative and Socialist...."
  14. ^ "Fran Sandaza interview opens up old wounds of Sectarianism at Rangers". Scotzine. 2012-12-30. Retrieved 2017-06-01. 
  15. ^ Ewan Murray. "Why Mo Johnston still stirs emotions across Glasgow". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-06-01. 
  16. ^ Smith, Andrew (4 March 2017). "Tommy Gemmell: The Celtic full-back who took role to the future". The Scotsman. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  17. ^ McKenna, Kevin (8 January 2012). "Inside the Divide: One City, Two Teams… The Old Firm by Richard Wilson – review". The Observer. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  18. ^ Wilson, Richard (9 March 2011). "Rangers and Celtic: Disunited they stand". The Independent. Independent News & Media. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  19. ^ McCarra, Kevin (18 May 2009). "Firm enemies – Rangers and Celtic, 1909–2009". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 28 January 2010. 
  20. ^ a b c "Rangers make history out of chaos". BBC News. BBC. 3 May 1999. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  21. ^ MacKay, Ronnie (10 April 2010). "Old Firm date is set to avoid title trouble". The Scottish Sun. News International. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  22. ^ Drysdale, Neil (14 April 2010). "Old Firm derby reduced to a mere sideshow? Only in Scotland". STV Sport. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "A rivalry tied up in religion". BBC News. BBC. 26 August 2006. 
  24. ^ Foer, Franklin (2010). How Soccer Explains the World: An Unlikely Theory of Globalization (Reprint ed.). Harper Perennial. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-0061978050. 
  25. ^ France, Stephanie (9 March 2001). "CAMPAIGNS: Public Awareness - Nil by Mouth fights bigots in Scotland". PR Week. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  26. ^ "Drop in domestic abuse incidents on Old Firm match days". BBC News. BBC. 9 March 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  27. ^ a b c Cook, James (22 July 2011). "Cost of policing Old Firm fixtures was almost £2.4m". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  28. ^ "Celtic & Rangers sign sponsorship deal with Tennent's". BBC Sport. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  29. ^ "Celtic and Rangers confirm end of joint sponsorship deals after 14 years". STV Sport. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  30. ^ "Old Firm pair to share sponsor". The Guardian. 25 February 1999. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  31. ^ "Magners shirt cash for Celtic ends Old Firm double deals". The Scotsman. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  32. ^ Robertson, Rob (20 March 1999). "Old Firm are united in £13m shirt deal". Times & Herald Group. The Herald. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  33. ^ "Carling to sponsor Old Firm". thegrocer.co.uk. 3 January 2003. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  34. ^ "Quell'antica ruggine tra Juve e Fiorentina" (in Italian). La Gazzetta dello Sport. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2017. 
  35. ^ "Tom English interviews former Rangers forward Brian Laudrup". BBC Sport. BBC. 17 September 2015. 
  36. ^ "New sectarian law hailed a success by Lord Advocate". BBC News. BBC. 5 November 2012. 
  37. ^ "Arrests made as Green Brigade protest is broken up". BBC News. BBC. 16 March 2013. 
  38. ^ "Old Firm fans in danger of 'losing trust in police', say MSPs". BBC News. BBC. 19 March 2013. 
  39. ^ Culley, Jon (31 December 2013). "Flashback: Rangers trounce Celtic in New Year's Day Old Firm in wartime fixture that time forgot". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  40. ^ "Southern Football League 1940-1946". Scottish-football-historical-archive.com. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Players who played for both Celtic and Rangers in their career". Scottishleague.net. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  42. ^ "John Cunningham - Profile". MUFC Info. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  43. ^ "Kenny Miller". Soccerbase. Retrieved 17 March 2016. 
  44. ^ "Steven Pressley". Soccerbase. Retrieved 17 March 2016. 
  45. ^ "Mark Brown". Soccerbase. Retrieved 17 March 2016. 
  46. ^ "John Dowie: 1955-2016". Fulham FC. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016. 
  47. ^ "Gordon Marshall joins Aberdeen as goalkeeping coach". The Scotsman. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2016. 
  48. ^ "Celtic lure too big for youngster Dylan McGeouch". BBC Sport. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  49. ^ "Celtic 5 St Mirren 0: A new kid in town". The Herald. 27 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  50. ^ a b "Celtic Player Records (Filter:Vs Rangers)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  51. ^ a b "Rangers Player Records (Filter:Vs Celtic)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  52. ^ a b "Rangers Player Records (Filter:Vs Celtic, Scottish League)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  53. ^ a b "Celtic Player Records (Filter:Vs Rangers, Scottish League)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  54. ^ Miller has 9 league goals for Rangers, 1 for Celtic
  55. ^ "Rangers Managers Timeline". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  56. ^ "Rangers Manager Records (Filter: Vs Celtic)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  57. ^ "Celtic Managers Timeline". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  58. ^ "Celtic Manager Records (Filter: Vs Rangers)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  59. ^ "Rangers Manager Records (Filter: Vs Celtic, Scottish League)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  60. ^ "Celtic Manager Records (Filter: Vs Rangers, Scottish League)". FitbaStats.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  61. ^ Includes 27 unofficial wartime games
  62. ^ Includes 19 unofficial wartime games
  63. ^ Includes 1 unofficial wartime game
  64. ^ All are unofficial wartime games
  65. ^ All are unofficial wartime games

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]