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Treble (association football)

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Barcelona are the first European men's football team to win a continental treble twice, in 2008–09 and in 2014–15 (pictured). Bayern Munich are currently the only other European club that has won two continental trebles.

A treble in association football is achieved when a club team wins three trophies in a single season.[1] A continental treble involves winning the club's top-level domestic league competition, main domestic cup competition, and main continental trophy.[1][2][3] Although winning a second-tier continental trophy (e.g. Europa League) has also been described as a continental treble, it is not as widely accepted.[1] A domestic treble involves winning three national competitions—including the league title, the primary cup competition, and one secondary competition, such as a secondary cup.[4][5][6]

Competitions which consist of a single match or a two-leg match are not normally counted as part of a treble (e.g., the FA Community Shield, Supercopa de España, Supercoppa Italiana, Trophée des Champions, DFL-Supercup, UEFA Super Cup, Recopa Sudamericana, FIFA Club World Cup, Intercontinental Cup and others).[1][7]

Continental trebles[edit]

This list includes clubs who have won their country's top-tier league and the primary cup competition (the double), in addition to the major continental tournament, all within a single season. Tokyo Verdy of Japan and Barcelona of Spain are the only clubs to win continental trebles for both their men's and women's sections, completing the feat in 2019 and 2021, respectively.[8][9] Barcelona is the only club to win multiple trebles with both their men's and women's team, completing the feat in 2024.

Men[edit]

22 men's clubs have achieved the feat with 30 occurring in total, the first being Celtic of Scotland in May 1967, and then TP Mazembe (then known as FC Englebert) of what was then the Republic of the Congo in November 1967.[10][11] European teams have won the most continental trebles with ten, by eight clubs.[3] The only countries to have more than one team win a continental treble are Mexico, New Zealand, England and the Netherlands, with two teams winning trebles each.[3]

No South American team has achieved the feat with the above stipulations, making it the only continent to never have a continental treble winner.[3] Multiple Brazilian teams have won some combination of the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, their state championship, the Copa do Brasil, and the now-defunct Taça Brasil, plus the Copa Libertadores, but never by winning the Série A, Copa do Brasil, and Copa Libertadores.[a]

Five men's clubs have won the continental treble two or more times: Al Ahly of Egypt, Auckland City of New Zealand, Barcelona of Spain, Bayern Munich of Germany and Cruz Azul of Mexico.[12][13][14][10][15] with Cruz Azul being the first team to achieve it in 1997.[15] Al Ahly and Auckland City are the only teams with more than two continental trebles, with both having won four.[12][13] Auckland City completed this achievement first, winning their third treble in 2015 and fourth in 2022.[13] Al Ahly and Auckland City are also the only men's clubs to win trebles in back-to-back seasons, though Al Ahly were the first to do this after winning in both 2006 and 2007.[12]

Confederation Club Country Number
won
Season Titles won Refs.
AFC Yomiuri (currently Tokyo Verdy)  Japan 1 1987 Japanese First Division, Emperor's Cup, Asian Club Championship [16][3]
Al Hilal  Saudi Arabia 1 2019‍–‍20 Saudi Professional League, King's Cup, AFC Champions League [17][3]
CAF Al Ahly  Egypt 4 2005‍–‍06, 2006‍–‍07, 2019‍–‍20, 2022‍–‍23 Egyptian Premier League, Egypt Cup, CAF Champions League [18][3][19]
[20][12][21]
Englebert (currently TP Mazembe)  DR Congo 1 1967 Linafoot, Coupe du Congo, African Cup of Champions [11][3]
Vita Club  Zaire 1 1973 Linafoot, Coupe du Congo, African Cup of Champions [22][3]
MC Alger  Algeria 1 1976 Algerian Championnat National, Algerian Cup, African Cup of Champions [23][3]
Hearts of Oak  Ghana 1 2000 Ghana Premier League, Ghanaian FA Cup, CAF Champions League [24][3]
Espérance Tunis  Tunisia 1 2011 Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1, Tunisian Cup, CAF Champions League [25][3]
CONCACAF Cruz Azul  Mexico 2 1969, 1997 Mexican Primera División, Copa México, CONCACAF Champions' Cup [15][3]
Defence Force  Trinidad and Tobago 1 1985 National League, Trinidad and Tobago Cup, CONCACAF Champions Cup [26][3]
Monterrey  Mexico 1 2019‍–‍20 Liga MX, Copa MX, CONCACAF Champions League [27][28][29]
OFC Auckland City  New Zealand 4 2005‍–‍06, 2013‍–‍14, 2014‍–‍15 NZFC Minor Premiership, NZFC Grand Final, OFC Champions League [13]
2022 New Zealand National League, Chatham Cup, OFC Champions League [13][30][31]
Waitakere United  New Zealand 1 2007‍–‍08 NZFC Minor Premiership, NZFC Grand Final, OFC Champions League [32][3]
Hienghène Sport  New Caledonia 1 2019 New Caledonia Super Ligue, New Caledonia Cup, OFC Champions League [33][3]
UEFA Barcelona  Spain 2 2008‍–‍09, 2014‍–‍15 La Liga, Copa del Rey, UEFA Champions League [10][3]
Bayern Munich  Germany 2 2012‍–‍13, 2019‍–‍20 Bundesliga, DFB-Pokal, UEFA Champions League [10][3]
Celtic  Scotland 1 1966‍–‍67 Scottish Football League, Scottish Cup, European Cup [10][3]
Ajax  Netherlands 1 1971‍–‍72 Eredivisie, KNVB Cup, European Cup [10][3]
PSV Eindhoven  Netherlands 1 1987‍–‍88 Eredivisie, KNVB Cup, European Cup [10][3]
Manchester United  England 1 1998‍–‍99 Premier League, FA Cup, UEFA Champions League [10][3]
Inter Milan  Italy 1 2009‍–‍10 Serie A, Coppa Italia, UEFA Champions League [10][3]
Manchester City  England 1 2022‍–‍23 Premier League, FA Cup, UEFA Champions League [10][34]

Women[edit]

Nine women's clubs have won a continental treble with these stipulations, five of which are European clubs, one Asian, one African, one South American and one Oceanian club, with a total of 15 trebles across all the clubs. The first to do so was 1. FFC Frankfurt in 2002, who won the treble again in 2008.[35] The only other women's club to achieve it more than once are Lyon, who has done so five times (a record for both men's and women's clubs) and FC Barcelona who have achieved it twice. Lyon are also the only women's club to win trebles in back to back years, and have completed this feat on two occasions.[36]

The lack of women's continental trebles compared to men's can largely be attributed to the absence of continental competitions for women until recently. The UEFA Women's Champions League did not begin until 2001,[37] the Copa Libertadores Femenina did not begin until 2009,[38] the AFC Women's Club Championship did not begin until 2019,[39] the CAF Women's Champions League did not begin until 2021,[40] the OFC Women's Champions League did not begin until 2023,[41] and the CONCACAF W Champions Cup is set to have its inaugural edition to begin in August 2024.[42][43] Additionally, many nations do not have a top level cup competition for women, and some do not even have a national women's football league.

Confederation Club Country Number
won
Seasons Titles won Refs.
AFC Tokyo Verdy Beleza  Japan 1 2019 Nadeshiko League, Empress's Cup, AFC Women's Club Championship [44][8]
CAF AS FAR  Morocco 1 2022‍–‍23 Moroccan Women's Championship, Moroccan Women Throne Cup, CAF Women's Champions League [45]
CONMEBOL Corinthians  Brazil 1 2023 Campeonato Brasileiro Feminino Série A1, Supercopa do Brasil Feminino, Copa Libertadores Femenina [46]
OFC AS Academy  New Caledonia 1 2023 New Caledonia Division 1 Féminine, New Caledonia Cup, OFC Women's Champions League [47][48]
UEFA Lyon  France 5 2011‍–‍12, 2015‍–‍16, 2016‍–‍17, 2018‍–‍19, 2019‍–‍20 Division 1 Féminine, Coupe de France féminine, UEFA Women's Champions League [36]
1. FFC Frankfurt (currently Eintracht Frankfurt)  Germany 2 2001‍–‍02, 2007‍–‍08 Frauen-Bundesliga, DFB-Pokal Frauen, UEFA Women's Cup [35][49]
Barcelona  Spain 2 2020‍–‍21, 2023‍–‍24 Primera División, Copa de la Reina, UEFA Women's Champions League [9][50][51]
Arsenal  England 1 2006‍–‍07 FA Women's Premier League, FA Women's Cup, UEFA Women's Cup [52][53][54]
VfL Wolfsburg  Germany 1 2012‍–‍13 Frauen-Bundesliga, DFB-Pokal Frauen, UEFA Women's Champions League [55]

Domestic trebles[edit]

Domestic treble is usually made up of the league, main domestic cup and the most prestigious secondary domestic cup (usually being a league cup, like the Scottish League Cup or the Thai League Cup).[7] Usually super cups or regional titles, like the Brazilian states championships, Biscay Championship and Glasgow Cup, aren't included in the treble,[56] so domestic trebles are only possible in some countries, as most federations hold only one league and one cup competition,[57] thus clubs from countries like Spain, Germany and France, who used to hold a secondary national cup but were discontinued, currently cannot achieve the domestic treble in the most accepted form. Domestic trebles that might include super cups, or regional titles, are considered to have an "asterisk" attached to it for not being perceived as a "genuine" achievements.[58]

Men[edit]

76 men's clubs have won a domestic treble, 27 of whom have done it more than once, with 131 trebles occurring overall. The first team to win a domestic treble was Ireland's Shamrock Rovers in 1924–25. Scottish side Celtic has won the most domestic trebles, with eight.[7] Celtic, Manchester City and Bayern Munich are the only men's sides to have won both a domestic treble and a continental treble, but Celtic are the only one to win both in the same season. Celtic also hold the record for the most consecutive men's domestic trebles, with four.

Club Country Number
won
Season(s) won Titles won Refs.
Celtic  Scotland 8 1966‍–‍67, 1968‍–‍69, 2000‍–‍01, 2016‍–‍17, 2017‍–‍18, 2018–19, 2019‍–‍20, 2022‍–‍23 Scottish League, Scottish Cup, Scottish League Cup [7]
Rangers  Scotland 7 1948‍–‍49, 1963‍–‍64, 1975‍–‍76, 1977‍–‍78, 1992‍–‍93, 1998‍–‍99, 2002‍–‍03 Scottish League, Scottish Cup, Scottish League Cup [7]
Buriram United  Thailand 5 2011, 2013, 2015, 2021‍–‍22, 2022‍–‍23 Thai League 1, Thai FA Cup, Thai League Cup [59][7]
Club Franciscain  Martinique 4 1998‍–‍99, 2001‍–‍02, 2002‍–‍03, 2004‍–‍05 Martinique Championnat National, Coupe de la Martinique, Trophée du Conseil Général [7]
Istiklol  Tajikistan 4 2014, 2015, 2018, 2019 Tajikistan Higher League, Tajikistan Cup, TFF Cup [7]
Paris Saint-Germain  France 4 2014‍–‍15, 2015‍–‍16, 2017‍–‍18, 2019‍–‍20 Ligue 1, Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue[b] [60][61][62]
Kitchee  Hong Kong 4 2011‍–‍12, 2014‍–‍15 Hong Kong First Division League, Hong Kong FA Cup, HKFA League Cup[b] [63][64][65][66]
2016‍–‍17, 2022‍–‍23 Hong Kong First Division League, Hong Kong FA Cup, Hong Kong Senior Challenge Shield [7][67]
Shamrock Rovers  Republic of Ireland 3 1924–25, 1931–32, 1963–64 League of Ireland, FAI Cup, League of Ireland Shield[b] [68]
Somerset Trojans  Bermuda 3 1967‍–‍68, 1968‍–‍69, 1969‍–‍70 Bermudian Premier Division, Bermuda FA Cup, Friendship Trophy [7]
Saint-Pierroise  Réunion 3 1971, 1989, 2019 Réunion Premier League, Coupe de la Réunion, Coupe Régionale de France [7][69]
Ba  Fiji 3 1979, 2006, 2013 Fiji Premier League, Battle of the Giants, Inter-District Championship [70]
South China  Hong Kong 3 1987‍–‍88, 1990‍–‍91, 2006‍–‍07 Hong Kong First Division League, Hong Kong Senior Challenge Shield, Hong Kong FA Cup [7][71]
Linfield  Northern Ireland 3 1993‍–‍94, 2005‍–‍06, 2007‍–‍08 Irish League, Irish Cup, Irish League Cup [7][72][73][74]
North Village Rams  Bermuda 2 1977‍–‍78, 2005‍–‍06 Bermudian Premier Division, Bermuda FA Cup, Friendship Trophy [7]
Seiko  Hong Kong 2 1979‍–‍80, 1980‍–‍81 Hong Kong First Division League, Hong Kong Senior Challenge Shield, Hong Kong FA Cup [7]
Nissan Motor  Japan 2 1988‍–‍89, 1989‍–‍90 Japan Soccer League, Emperor's Cup, JSL Cup[b] [7]
Nkana  Zambia 2 1989, 1993 Zambian Premier League, Zambian Cup, Chibuku Cup [7]
Eastern  Hong Kong 2 1992‍–‍93, 1993‍–‍94 Hong Kong First Division League, Hong Kong Senior Challenge Shield, Hong Kong FA Cup [7]
Sunrise Flacq United  Mauritius 2 1992, 1996 Mauritian League, Mauritian Cup, Mauritian Republic Cup [7]
Valletta  Malta 2 1996‍–‍97, 2000‍–‍01 Maltese Premier League, Maltese Cup, Löwenbräu Cup [75]
Kedah  Malaysia 2 2007, 2008 Malaysian Super League, Malaysia Cup, Malaysian FA Cup [76]
St Michel United  Seychelles 2 2008, 2011 Seychelles League, Seychelles FA Cup, Seychelles League Cup [7]
Al-Wehdat  Jordan 2 2008‍–‍09, 2010‍–‍11 Jordan League, Jordan FA Cup, Jordan FA Shield [7]
Melbourne Victory  Australia 2 2008‍–‍09 A-League Pre-Season Challenge Cup, A-League Premiership, A-League Grand Final [77]
2015 A-League Premiership, A-League Grand Final, FFA Cup [78]
The New Saints  Wales[c] 2 2014‍–‍15, 2015‍–‍16 Welsh Premier League, Welsh Cup, Welsh League Cup [79]
Albirex Niigata (S)  Singapore 2 2016, 2017 Singapore Premier League, Singapore Cup, Singapore League Cup [7]
Kuwait SC  Kuwait 2 2016‍–‍17, 2018‍–‍19 Kuwait Premier League, Kuwait Emir Cup, Kuwait Crown Prince Cup [7]
Mamelodi Sundowns  South Africa 2 2019‍–‍20 Premier Soccer League, Nedbank Cup, Telkom Knockout [7]
2021‍–‍22 Premier Soccer League, Nedbank Cup, MTN 8 [80]
Johor Darul Ta'zim  Malaysia 2 2022, 2023 Malaysia Super League, Malaysia FA Cup, Malaysia Cup [81][82]
Bohemians  Republic of Ireland 1 1927‍–‍28 League of Ireland, FAI Cup, League of Ireland Shield[b] [83]
Fall River  United States 1 1930 American Soccer League,[b] National Challenge Cup, Lewis Cup[b] [84]
Mufulira Wanderers  Zambia 1 1965 Zambian Premier League, Zambian Cup, Chibuku Cup [7]
Assaut  Martinique 1 1966 Martinique Championnat National, Coupe de la Martinique, Coupe de la France [7][85]
PHC Zebras  Bermuda 1 1970‍–‍71 Bermudian Premier Division, Bermuda FA Cup, Friendship Trophy [7]
Kabwe Warriors  Zambia 1 1972 Zambian Premier League, Zambian Cup, Chibuku Cup [7]
Saprissa  Cayman Islands 1 1972‍–‍73 Cayman Islands League, Cayman Islands FA Cup, Cayman Islands League Cup[b] [7]
Arcadia Shepherds  South Africa 1 1974 NFL Championship, NFL Cup, NFL UTC Bowl Cup [7]
Mitsubishi  Japan 1 1978 Japan Soccer League, Emperor's Cup, JSL Cup[b] [7]
Servette  Switzerland 1 1978‍–‍79 Nationalliga A, Swiss Cup, Swiss League Cup[b] [7]
Cygne Noir  Guadeloupe 1 1982‍–‍83 Guadeloupe Division of Honour, Coupe de Guadeloupe, Coupe de France (Zone Guadeloupe) [7][86]
Levski Sofia  Bulgaria 1 1984 Bulgarian A Professional Football Group, Bulgarian Cup, Cup of the Soviet Army [87]
Kaizer Chiefs  South Africa 1 1984 NPSL First Division, Nedbank Cup, Telkom Knockout [7]
Nadroga  Fiji 1 1989 Fiji Premier League, Battle of the Giants, Inter-District Championship [7]
CSKA Sofia  Bulgaria 1 1989 Bulgarian A Professional Football Group, Bulgarian Cup, Cup of the Soviet Army [87]
Derry City  Republic of Ireland[d] 1 1988‍–‍89 League of Ireland, FAI Cup, League of Ireland Cup[b] [88]
Melbourne Knights  Australia 1 1994‍–‍95 NSL Cup, NSL Minor Premiership, NSL Grand Final [89]
ASFA Yennenga  Burkina Faso 1 1995 Burkinabé Premier League, Coupe du Faso, Coupe des Leaders [7]
ÍA  Iceland 1 1996 Úrvalsdeild karla, Icelandic Cup, Icelandic League Cup [7]
Barry Town United  Wales 1 1996‍–‍97 Welsh Premier League, Welsh Cup, Welsh League Cup [7]
Al-Ittihad  Saudi Arabia 1 1996–97 Saudi Premier League, Crown Prince Cup,[b] Saudi Federation Cup[b] [90]
Singapore Armed Forces  Singapore 1 1997 S. League, Singapore FA Cup, Singapore League Cup [7]
Bayern Munich  Germany 1 1999–2000 Bundesliga, DFB-Pokal, DFL-Ligapokal[b] [91]
Kashima Antlers  Japan 1 2000 J. League, Emperor's Cup, J. League Cup [92]
Saint-Louisienne  Réunion 1 2002 Réunion Premier League, Coupe de la Réunion, Coupe Régionale de France [7][69]
US Stade Tamponnaise  Réunion 1 2003 Réunion Premier League, Coupe de la Réunion, Coupe Régionale de France [7][69]
Rhyl  Wales 1 2003‍–‍04 Welsh Premier League, Welsh Cup, Welsh League Cup [93]
Qadsia  Kuwait 1 2003–04 Kuwait Premier League, Kuwait Emir Cup, Kuwait Crown Prince Cup [7]
CAPS United  Zimbabwe 1 2004 Zimbabwe Premier Soccer League, ZIFA Cup, Buddie Challenge Cup [7]
Sun Hei  Hong Kong 1 2004‍–‍05 Hong Kong League, Hong Kong Senior Shield, Hong Kong FA Cup [71]
Port-Louis 2000  Mauritius 1 2005 Mauritian League, Mauritian Cup, Mauritian Republic Cup [7]
Curepipe Starlight  Mauritius 1 2008 Mauritian League, Mauritian Cup, Mauritian Republic Cup [7]
Joe Public  Trinidad and Tobago 1 2009 TT Pro League, FA Trophy, Pro Bowl [7]
Al-Muharraq  Bahrain 1 2009 Bahraini Premier League, Bahraini King's Cup, Bahraini FA Cup [7][94][95]
Debrecen  Hungary 1 2009‍–‍10 Nemzeti Bajnokság I, Magyar Kupa, Ligakupa [7]
Al-Faisaly  Jordan 1 2011‍–‍12 Jordan League, Jordan FA Cup, Jordan FA Shield [7]
Kelantan  Malaysia 1 2012 Malaysian Super League, Malaysia Cup, Malaysian FA Cup [96]
Moulien  Guadeloupe 1 2012‍–‍13 Guadeloupe Division of Honour, Coupe de Guadeloupe, Coupe de France (Zone Guadeloupe) [7][86]
Sheikh Russel  Bangladesh 1 2012‍–‍13 Bangladesh Premier League, Federation Cup, Independence Cup [7][97]
Mbabane Swallows  Eswatini 1 2012‍–‍13 Swazi Premier League, Swazi FA Cup, Castle Premier Challenge [7][98]
Devonshire Cougars  Bermuda 1 2012‍–‍13 Bermudian Premier Division, Bermuda FA Cup, Friendship Trophy [7]
Benfica  Portugal 1 2013–14 Primeira Liga, Taça de Portugal, Taça da Liga [99]
W Connection  Trinidad and Tobago 1 2013‍–‍14 TT Pro League, FA Trophy, Pro Bowl [7][100]
Gamba Osaka  Japan 1 2014 J. League, Emperor's Cup, J. League Cup [92]
Steaua București  Romania 1 2014‍–‍15 Liga I, Cupa României, Cupa Ligii[b] [7]
Maccabi Tel Aviv  Israel 1 2014‍–‍15 Israeli Premier League, Israel State Cup, Toto Cup [101]
Toronto FC  Canada[e] 1 2017 Supporters' Shield, MLS Cup, Canadian Championship [102]
Sydney FC  Australia 1 2017 A-League Premiership, A-League Grand Final, FFA Cup [103]
Al-Duhail  Qatar 1 2018 Qatar Stars League, Emir of Qatar Cup, Qatar Cup [104]
Manchester City  England 1 2018–19 Premier League, FA Cup, EFL Cup [105]
Pakhtakor Tashkent  Uzbekistan 1 2019 Uzbekistan Super League, Uzbekistan Cup, Uzbekistan League Cup [7]
Ahal  Turkmenistan 1 2022 Turkmenistan Higher League, Turkmenistan Cup, Turkmenistan Federation Cup [7]
Weymouth Wales  Barbados 1 2023 Barbados Premier Division, Barbados FA Cup, Republic Cup [7]
Bashundhara Kings  Bangladesh 1 2023‍–‍24 Bangladesh Premier League, Federation Cup, Independence Cup [106]

Women[edit]

Eight women's clubs have won domestic trebles, and three of those teams have won their domestic treble more than once, for a total of 16 trebles overall. Scotland's Glasgow City has won the most domestic trebles, with five. Glasgow City also have the most consecutive women's domestic trebles, with four. Arsenal of England became the first women's club to win a domestic treble when they won it in 1992–93. Them, along with Tokyo Verdy Beleza of Japan and Corinthians of Brazil are the only women's clubs to win both a continental treble and a domestic treble, and each team won the domestic treble in the same season they won the continental treble (2007 for Arsenal, 2019 for Tokyo Verdy and 2023 for Corinthians).

Club Country Number
won
Season(s) won Titles won Refs.
Glasgow City  Scotland 5 2008‍–‍09, 2011‍–‍12, 2012‍–‍13, 2013‍–‍14, 2014‍–‍15 Scottish Women's Premier League, Scottish Women's Cup, SWPL Cup [107][108][109]
Arsenal  England 3 1992‍–‍93, 2000‍–‍01, 2006‍–‍07 FA Women's Premier League, FA Women's Cup, FA Women's Premier League Cup [110][111][112]
[52][53][54]
Tokyo Verdy Beleza  Japan 3 2010, 2018, 2019 Nadeshiko League, Empress's Cup, Nadeshiko League Cup [44][8]
Jiangsu Suning  China 1 2019 Chinese Women's Super League, Chinese Women's National Championship, Chinese Women's FA Cup [113][114]
Chelsea  England 1 2020‍–‍21 FA Women's Super League, Women's FA Cup, FA Women's League Cup [115]
Wuhan Jianghan University  China 1 2023 Chinese Women's Super League, Chinese Women's National Championship, Chinese Women's FA Cup [116]
Benfica  Portugal 1 2023‍–‍24 Campeonato Nacional Feminino, Taça de Portugal Feminina, Taça da Liga Feminina [117]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1962, Santos won the Copa Libertadores, the Taça Brasil, and the Campeonato Paulista (São Paulo state championship).[118][119] In 2019, Flamengo achieved a similar feat by capturing the Copa Libertadores, Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, and Campeonato Carioca (Rio de Janeiro state championship).[120] In 2020, Palmeiras won the Copa Libertadores and the Copa do Brasil, along with the Campeonato Paulista.[121]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Defunct competition
  3. ^ The club is situated in Oswestry, England, but competes in the competitions of neighbouring association, the Football Association of Wales.
  4. ^ The club is situated in Northern Ireland, but competes in the competitions of neighbouring association, the Football Association of Ireland.
  5. ^ The club is situated in Canada and competes in the Canadian Championship, but otherwise competes in the competitions of neighbouring association, United States Soccer Federation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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