2014 Commonwealth Games
Logo of 2014 Commonwealth Games
|Host city||Glasgow, Scotland|
|Motto||“People, Place, Passion”|
|Nations participating||71 Commonwealth Teams|
|Events||261 in 18 sports|
|Opening ceremony||23 July 2014|
|Closing ceremony||3 August 2014|
|Officially opened by||Elizabeth II|
|Queen's Baton Final Runner||Sir Chris Hoy|
|Main venue||Celtic Park (opening ceremony)
Hampden Park (closing ceremony)
2014 Commonwealth Games
It was the largest multi-sport event ever held in Scotland with around 4,950 athletes from 71 different nations and territories competing in 18 different sports, outranking the 1970 and 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. Over the last 10 years, however, Glasgow and Scotland had staged World, Commonwealth, European, or British events in all sports proposed for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, including the World Badminton Championships in 1997.
The Games received acclaim for their organisation, attendance, and the public enthusiasm of the people of Scotland, with Commonwealth Games Federation chief executive Mike Hooper hailing them as "the standout games in the history of the movement". Held in Scotland for the third time, the Games were notable for the successes of the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, with England, Wales and hosts Scotland achieving their largest ever gold medal hauls and overall medal hauls at a Commonwealth Games. England finished top of the medal table for the first time since the 1986 Commonwealth Games, also held in Scotland. Kiribati also won its first ever medal at a Commonwealth Games, a gold in the 105 kg men's weightlifting competition.
- 1 Bidding Process
- 2 Development and preparation
- 3 Participating nations
- 4 Calendar
- 5 Sports
- 6 Marketing
- 7 Controversies
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Scotland was the first country to consider hosting the 2014 Commonwealth Games in 2004, with Scottish cities being invited by the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland to consider making a bid. In September 2004, Glasgow was announced as the Scottish candidate city over Edinburgh (which hosted the Games in 1970 and 1986, and the inaugural Commonwealth Youth Games in 2000) following a cost-benefit analysis by the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland. The Scottish Executive under then First Minister of Scotland, Jack McConnell, with the support of the United Kingdom government and all main parties in the Scottish Parliament, formally announced Glasgow's intention to host the games on 16 August 2005.
In March 2006, the bidding process began, with the Glasgow Bidding team presenting their case to the Commonwealth Games Federation at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, along with the other confirmed candidate cities; the Nigerian capital, Abuja and Halifax in Canada. In October 2006, the first voting delegates arrived in Glasgow, to inspect the city's existing and proposed amenities and facilities. Glasgow announced on 16 January 2007, the 17 sports to be included should its bid be successful. Halifax later withdrew its bid on 8 March 2007, following the withdrawal of funding from the municipal government.
That left Abuja and Glasgow as the remaining bidders, with Abuja seen as a likely favourite due to the basis of its campaign that an African nation has never before hosted the Commonwealth Games. The deadline for formal submission of bids to the Commonwealth Games Federation, in the form of a Candidate City File, was set for May 2007. Both bids were highly recommended, though Glasgow's bid team had made use of extensive benchmarking against the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester and the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne and as a result, its bid was deemed technically superior according to the CGF Evaluation Report that was released in September 2007. The Commonwealth Games Evaluation Commission concluded that: "Glasgow has shown it has the ability to stage the 2014 Commonwealth Games to a standard which would continue to enhance the image and prestige of the Games." This put Glasgow ahead in terms of the technical comprehensiveness of its bid.
The final decision on the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 9 November 2007 at the Commonwealth Games Federation General Assembly, attended by all 71 Commonwealth Games member associations. Each bid city made a presentation to the General Assembly, the order of which was determined by drawing lots. Glasgow's delegation was led by Louise Martin, chair of the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland, First Minister Alex Salmond, athlete Jamie Quarry and Leader of Glasgow City Council Steven Purcell. The presentation also included a promotional film narrated by Sean Connery. Abuja's delegation was led by General Yakubu Gowon, head of the Abuja 2014 Commonwealth Games bid team.
The CGF members later voted for their preferred candidate in a secret ballot. As there were only two bids, the winner was announced by the CGF President, Mike Fennel, after the first round of voting, with the winner only requiring a simple majority. The results of the bidding process were as follows:
|2014 Commonwealth Games bidding results|
Development and preparation
The Scottish Government was responsible for most of the policies (including those relating to sport) necessary for hosting the Commonwealth Games in Scotland. It provided 80 per cent of the public funding for the Games, ensured delivery of major national infrastructure projects in areas such as transport, and introduced legislation to the Scottish Parliament to ensure compliance with all aspects of the requirements set out by the CGF.
Glasgow City Council provided the remaining 20 per cent of public funding for the Games and is responsible for delivering a legacy for the city of Glasgow that will ensure long-term economic, social and environmental benefits for residents.
Commonwealth Games Scotland (CGS) was the host Commonwealth Games Association (CGA) for the Games and a key partner on the bid team. It is the national sporting organisation responsible for selecting, entering and preparing a Scottish team for the Commonwealth Games and Commonwealth Youth Games. CGS partnered Glasgow 2014 in delivering the domestic leg of the Queen’s Baton Relay around all 32 Local Authority areas, and with a strong knowledge of multi-sport Games requirements, contributed to the planning of the sport programme, ceremonies, village facilities and marketing.
The Commonwealth Arena and Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome precinct is situated at Parkhead in the East End of the city, the velodrome itself is opposite Celtic Park, which will be used for the opening ceremony. These venues hosted the Badminton as well as Track cycling. The Road cycling and Cycling Time-trial events started and finished at Glasgow Green. Glasgow Green was also the venue for Field hockey and saw the construction of a new Glasgow Green Hockey Centre. Tollcross International Swimming Centre, was the venue for Swimming events. It already has one Olympic standard 50 metre swimming pool, which was extensively upgraded, and a second 50-metre pool was also to added for the Games as a warm-up facility. The existing permanent seating capacity was also increased by 1,000. Combined with additional temporary seating there was over 5,000 seats for the Games.
Ibrox Stadium, in the South Side, was the venue for the Rugby Sevens tournament. Mountain biking was held on the Cathkin Braes in Rutherglen, the Royal Burgh neighbouring the City. The Marathon also began and ended at Hampden Park in the South Side, which hosted all the track and field events as well as the closing ceremony.
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, located in the West End of the city, hosted the Wrestling, Judo and Boxing, as well as the Main Press Center and the International Broadcast Centre, benefiting from its strategic position adjacent to the headquarters of BBC Scotland and STV at Pacific Quay. The Clyde Auditorium hosted Weightlifting, whilst the new SSE Hydro was used for the Gymnastics andNetball events. Kelvingrove Park, also in the city's West End, was the venue for Bowls and has five bowling greens installed for competitive use. A comprehensive upgrade and refurbishment of the park is completed ahead of the Games. Scotstoun Leisure Centre hosted Table tennisand Squash.
The Shooting competitions took place at the Ministry of Defence full-bore rifle and clay target ranges at Barry Buddon, near Dundee, which were also used in the 1986 Commonwealth Games. There were temporary ranges built for the small-bore rifle and pistol events. Diving was held at the Royal Commonwealth Pool in Edinburgh, located 45 miles (72 km) to the east, which also held the annual Edinburgh Festival at the same time as the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Strathclyde Country Park, beside Hamilton and Motherwell, hosted the Triathlon event.
The budget was set at around £575 million including security costs, with £372 million coming from public funds and the rest from sponsorship, merchandise and ticket sales and broadcasting rights. It included contingency of £66.1 million, with £42.3 million of general contingency and a special reserve of £23.8 million. The final cost of hosting the Commonwealth Games was £25 million below the total set aside for the event, organisers have said. Alex Salmond, First minister of Scotland said the remaining funds would be invested in the NHS.
The Athletes Village for the 2014 Commonwealth Games was situated on a 35 hectare site, in the east end of Glasgow. The whole project has been designed by the Paul Stallan Studio @ RMJM. Primarily the site was used as accommodation for the athletes competing in the games as well as team officials from every competing nation for the duration of the games. As well as accommodation the athletes' village also provided an exclusive retail area for the athletes as well as a dining hall and medical facilities. This is to ensure the athletes and officials have a comfortable stay and have everything they need near by.
Throughout the Games period, transport played a crucial role for those enjoying the Games, those working at the Games, and those competing at the Games. Glasgow hosted 4,500 athletes who required transportation between the Athletes' Village, training venues and competition venues. Athletes traveled in minibuses or coaches, which used, where necessary, dedicated lanes – known as the Games Route Network – to ensure they are given priority over other traffic in a similar way buses are in bus lanes. These lanes formed part of a larger dedicated Games Route Network that was also be used by the people working on the Games.
A staggering 50,811 people from the UK and beyond applied to be a volunteer in the biggest-ever Commonwealth Games recruitment drive – which drew more applications than Manchester 2002 and Melbourne 2006 combined. Applications came from people of all backgrounds and ages, with six per cent coming from Scotland, and 38 per cent from young people aged 16–25. The Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games was the first to welcome volunteers as young as 16 years of age on application. Approximately 12,500 volunteers participated in the Games. A £500,000 Legacy 2014 Volunteering Pot, provided in partnership with the Big Lottery Fund and Scottish Government, helped volunteers overcome practical and financial barriers to help provide valuable new skills and experience.
The Ticketing team was responsible for the operation behind the ticketing programme. This covered ticketing for the public; for contractual clients such as CGAs, sponsors, rights-holding broadcasters, Games Partners and internal Functional Areas; for Prime Event Access sessions for relevant client groups; and for athletes spectating at different sports, team staff, and athletes’ friends and family. Ticket prices started at just £15, and half price concessions for under-16s and over-60s, from £7.50, were available for the first time in Commonwealth Games history. Accessible seating was also available, with the option to request an accompanying personal assistant ticket. Ticket applications could be made online, by phone or by post using a standard form, and a range of payment options was available. A record-breaking 1.3 million tickets were sold – approximately 96 per cent of those available for sale. With capacity crowds watching events such as Rugby Sevens, Athletics, Swimming, Track Cycling, Gymnastics and the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, the Functional Area exceeded its budgeted revenue target.
Glasgow 2014 was billed as ‘the public transport Games’ and the Organising Committee formed a strategic planning group with transport authorities and operators to focus on three objectives: ensuring safe, secure, reliable and accessible transport for the Games Family; providing fast, frequent, friendly and accessible transport for spectators and Games workforce; and keeping Glasgow and Scotland moving during the Games. Temporary enhancements were made across the existing network, from increased capacity at busy times on trains, buses and the Subway to additional staff and signage. People were encouraged to use public transport and active travel options, with the intention that this would influence a change in travel habits and a greater propensity to use these modes after the Games.
Glasgow 2014 worked with Strathclyde Partnerships for Transport to ensure that earlier morning and later evening Subway services Operational Planning would run over Games weekends, while Transport Scotland made arrangements with ScotRail to allocate extra train carriages to those rail services expected to be most in demand, and to run additional services on key routes. Glasgow 2014 contracted First Bus to deploy 109 new vehicles in a 380-strong fleet used to shuttle athletes, media and spectators from venue to venue.
An extensive network of Park & Ride sites and services was secured by Glasgow 2014 to ensure that the objectives of the Games Transport Strategic Plan were delivered and that, except limited provisions for wheelchair users and Blue Badge holders, no spectator parking was possible at or adjacent to venues. This was reinforced by comprehensive measures to manage traffic and parking in the vicinity of each venue.
Although not put in place specifically for the Games, the completion of a number of major infrastructure projects were guaranteed within the original bid, and ultimately benefited the event. These included the M74 Extension, the £11 million refurbishment of Dalmarnock Station, phases 1 and 2 of Clyde Gateway and refurbishment of Cathedral Street Bridge and Bell’s Bridge.
Security for the Games was reviewed following London 2012, with Glasgow 2014’s Security Committee recommending that the Scottish Government take overall responsibility, and that this be delegated to the Chief Constable of what would become Police Scotland. The review had advised enhancing planned security measures, and highlighted the delivery risk comprised in the provision of private security by a single company. The private security tender for the Games was ultimately split into multiple contracts of a size that would encourage a positive response from the sector. The Scottish Government‘s proposed leading role in security was favourably received by the Scottish Parliament, which understood that the safety of people attending the Games was of paramount importance. Upon the recommendation of the Chief Constable, the budget was adjusted from £27.2 million to £90 million, with £25.1 million coming from the Organising Committee’s contingency fund. Police Scotland would manage this overall budget. An integrated security team – involving Police Scotland, Glasgow 2014’s Security team and private sector partners – was developed to manage the security and stewarding requirements for the Games. More than 17,000 individuals were involved in this operation, which required a huge staffing commitment from Police Scotland and 17 private sector companies, as well as 2,400 members of the armed forces.
The cultural programme ran from the One Year to Go milestone in July 2013 until the end of August 2014 to showcase the best of Scottish culture, alongside creative work and entertainment from across the Commonwealth, in more than 800 events. A collaboration between Glasgow 2014, Glasgow Life and Creative Scotland, it evoked warm local memories of the city’s Garden Festival in 1988 and was a chance for every community in Glasgow and every corner of Scotland to get involved in the Games, on any scale.
Performances took place at venues as diverse as community centres, art galleries, riverbanks, squash courts and even on bicycles. A Glasgow 2014 Cultural Programme Open Fund set up to award grants of £20,000 to £300,000 to individual artists, community groups and arts organisations attracted 508 applications and funded 150 projects. Internationally acclaimed Glasgow artist Jim Lambie designed the brand mark for the programme, inspired by the starburst frontage of his home city’s legendary Barrowland Ballroom music venue. Over the course of Games Time, the Festival 2014 venues received more than 750,000 visits.
The programme, which included about 2,000 performers, featured Karen Dunbar, John Barrowman, Amy Macdonald, Rod Stewart, Susan Boyle, Nicola Benedetti, Julie Fowlis, Eric Whitacre and Pumeza Matshikiza, as well as a message from the International Space Station. The ceremony began with a countdown and a recorded video message from Scottish actor Ewan McGregor, explaining the partnership between the Games and UNICEF. Following the arrival of the Queen there was a flypast by the Red Arrows display team. The venue featured the largest LED video screen in Europe, supplied by Sports Technology. Scotland's then First Minister Alex Salmond welcomed the participants and spectators, and introduced a moment of silence in memory of the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 disaster. The final part of the Queen's Baton Relay was run by 32 Scottish volunteers nominated for giving their time to developing the nations youth through sport. The baton was then passed to Sir Chris Hoy, who delivered it to President of the Commonwealth Games Federation HRH Prince Imran and the Queen. The display of the message concealed within the baton was delayed by a difficulty in opening the device. The Games were launched in partnership with UNICEF, to save and change children’s lives. The unique partnership aimed "to use the power of sport to reach every child in Scotland and benefit children in every Commonwealth nation and territory." In the culmination of a groundbreaking partnership with UNICEF, the ceremony inspired millions to text donations to our shared ‘Put Children First’ campaign, which raised £3.5 million on the night and more than £5 million to date.
The closing ceremony took a visual theme of a music festival, with performers, tents and flags within the stadium. The ceremony began with Scottish singer Lulu welcoming the athletes of the games. Scottish band Deacon Blue performed their signature song "Dignity". During this the workers of Glasgow were recognised as they paraded along the front of the main stand at Hampden, some on foot, others in their work vehicles. Local band Prides performed their hit song "Messiah". Speeches followed, with Prince Imran telling the crowd that the games were "pure dead brilliant", a local Glaswegian term. The games were officially closed and handed over to the Gold Coast for 2018, who began their own performance with Australian singer Jessica Mauboy. Kylie Minogue then performed a seven song set list, while the volunteer cast told the story of "a typical Glasgow night out". Her costume was designed by Jean Paul Gaultier and headpiece designed by millinery designer Lara Jensen. The show ended with Dougie MacLean performing Caledonia with the other performers, and a performance of "Auld Lang Syne".
There were 71 participating nations at the 2014 Commonwealth Games with approximately 4,950 competing athletes, making it one of the largest Commonwealth Games staged to date. On 7 October 2013, The Gambia, having withdrawn from the Commonwealth five days earlier, confirmed that it would not be taking part in the games.
In this table the number of athletes sent is shown in parenthesis.
The following table shows a summary of the competition schedule.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Event finals||CC||Closing ceremony|
A total of 18 sports and 261 medal events were contested at the 2014 Commonwealth Games. A record 22 para-sport events were contested in five different sports (athletics, cycling, lawn bowls, swimming and weightlifting) and para track cycling was held for the very first time. Archery and tennis from the 2010 games were replaced on the sports programme with triathlon (for the first time since 2006) and judo (first time since 2002). Among sport disciplines removed from 2010 include the walking events in athletics, synchronised swimming and Greco-Roman wrestling, while mountain biking was contested for the first time since 2006. Shooting medal events also dropped from 44 in 2010 to 19. Among new disciplines on the Commonwealth Games programme for the first time were the triathlon mixed relay event, more shooting medal chances for women and the addition of women's boxing to the programme.
Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sport.
Only the top ten successful nations are displayed here.
The ranking in this table is consistent with International Olympic Committee convention in its published medal tables. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won (in this context, a "nation" is an entity represented by a Commonwealth Games Association). The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by their three letter country code.
Two bronze medals were awarded in boxing, judo and wrestling, except for Women's freestyle 75 kg as only five competitors were entered in the event. Additionally, two bronze medals were awarded in the men's 100 m backstroke and women's pole vault as a result of a tie between two athletes. No bronze medal was awarded in the men's synchronized 10 metre platform as only four teams competed in the event. Therefore, the total number of bronze medals is greater than the total number of gold or silver medals.
|6||New Zealand (NZL)||14||14||17||45|
|7||South Africa (RSA)||13||10||17||40|
Bid and interim logo
The interim logo for the Games was first used during Glasgow's bid, with the "Candidate City" section removed following 9 November 2007, when the bid was approved. The logo depicts two sprinters woven into a tartan motif, representing Scotland. The logo also vaguely resembles the Clyde Auditorium, one of Glasgow's most recognisable landmarks. The pattern, forming the Roman numerals XX, also represents 20th edition of the Commonwealth Games. The text is more specifically Glaswegian, with its stylised Mackintosh font. A flag featuring the logo was used extensively during the bid process. The flag was flown above Merchant House in George Square daily.
Glasgow 2014 was fortunate to have a strong group of sponsors, which shared its ambitions and was committed to making the Games a success through the provision of crucial equipment, services and funding. The sponsor programme exceeded targets and contributed significantly towards Glasgow 2014’s overall commercial income of more than £110 million.
|Official Games Partners||Longines, SSE, Virgin Media, British Petroleum, Emirates and Ford|
|Official Games Supporters||Harper MacLeod LLP, Search, EY, Atos, Dell, Toshiba, Barr, NVT Group, Cisco, Selex CS, Aggreko, ScotRail and First|
|Official Games Providers||RGS, Trespass, Riedel, Ticketmaster, Sports Technology, ICON, Boston Networks, Gymnova, DB Schenker, Malcolm construction, Arena Group, Field & Lawn, John Lewis, Rapiscan systems, Yonex, Heineken, Technogym, The Famous Grouse, Mondo, Leith Group, Arnold Clark, Kellogg's, Toshiba, Bauer Media Group, Genius, Speedo and Gatorade|
The Games brand identity
The full Games brand identity was developed by Glasgow design studio Tangent Graphic, the lead creative agency between 2010 and 2014. Tangent's first major project was the official sport Pictograms, launched on 23 July 2011, and they continued to deliver and influence every aspect of the Glasgow 2014 identity. Tangent inherited the official logo which was designed by Marque Creative. The logo was unveiled on Commonwealth Day, 8 March 2010. It was inspired by three factors, time, data and measurement. Its rings are proportioned to represent the 20th Commonwealth Games, across 17 sports, over 11 days in 1 city. An animated version of the logo has also been produced.
- "Bòrd na Gàidhlig welcomes the Gaelic version of the logo for the Glaschu 2014 Commonwealth Games and we have been happy to work with the Glaschu 2014 team in helping them develop their identity. Given the unique importance of Gaelic to Scotland and the many Scots in the diaspora throughout the Commonwealth, we believe it should be seen, heard and spoken as widely as possible."
- "Given the worldwide interest there will be in the Games when they take place in Glasgow, a city with a large number of Gaelic speakers, we believe they offer an exciting opportunity for Gaelic to be seen and, we hope, heard and appreciated in an international setting. We hope this is just the start; we wish the Games well and look forward to working further with Glaschu 2014 to enhance the status of Gaelic within this hugely significant event."
The official website was built in phases, delivered by Dog Digital and Blonde.
Clyde, an anthropomorphic thistle named after the river which flows through the centre of Glasgow, was the official mascot of the 2014 Commonwealth Games. The mascot was designed by Beth Gilmour, who won a competition run by Glasgow 2014 for children to design the Mascot. Beth's drawing was then brought to life by digital agency Nerv, who turned it into a commercial character, created a full backstory, gave it a name – Clyde – and created a website for him. Clyde was finally revealed in a seven-minute animated film created by Nerv at a ceremony at BBC Scotland's headquarters in Glasgow. The organiser, Glasgow 2014, said the mascot's design was chosen because of its "Scottish symbolism and Glaswegian charm and likeability".
25 life-size Clyde statues were erected at places of public interest across the city including the Glasgow Botanic Gardens, the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and at George Square. However following vandalism at a statue in the Govan area of the city, the statues were taken down. They are expected to be re-erected in secure areas. By the final day of the Games, over 50,000 Clyde mascot cuddly toys had been sold.
Due to popularity in the city, the Clyde mascots are currently proposed official mascots of the City of Glasgow.
Drug doping and testing
Nigeria's Chika Amalaha failed a doping test and was stripped of a gold medal in the women's 53 kg weightlifting. In the women's 400 metres final, Botswana's Amantle Montsho placed fourth; she was subsequently provisionally suspended pending the results of a B sample after failing a doping test. Montsho's B sample was reported as positive on 14 August 2014.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2014 Commonwealth Games.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games.|
- Official website
- Glasgow 2014 Candidate City File
- CWG 2014 Schedule
- 2014 Commonwealth Games Evaluation Report
- Commonwealth Games information – Clyde Waterfront
- SECC National Arena – Clyde Waterfront project details
- Clyde Mascot Website
- Commonwealth Games 2014 Medal Tally
- Mascot's website
XX Commonwealth Games
Gold Coast 2018