|Historical region of North India
|State established:||1690 CE|
|Dynasties||Panchalas (Mahabharata era)
|Historical capitals||Bareilly, Badayun|
|Separated sube||Bareilly, Rampur, Rudrapur, Pilibhit, Khutar, Shahjahanpur Budaun Kakrala|
Rohilkhand (Urdu: روہیل کھنڈ, Hindi: रोहिलखंड) is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India, named after the Rohilla Afghan tribes. The region was known as Madhyadesh in the Hindu epic Mahabharata.
Rohilkhand lies on the upper Ganges alluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km²/10,000 square miles (in and around the City of Bareilly). It is bounded by the Ganges River on the south and the west by Uttarakhand and Nepal on the north, and by the Awadh region to the east. It includes cities of Bareilly, Moradabad, Rampur, Bijnore, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur, Budaun, Amroha
The area was made famous by the previous settlement of Rohillas, who were Afghan highlanders of the Yusufzai and other tribes who were awarded the Katehr region in northern India by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir to suppress Rajput uprisings. Later it gained fame as Rohilkhand due to large settlements of Rohilla Pathans in the City of Bareilly and Rampur. Roh means mountains and in Pashto and Rohilla means mountaineer. Today, the Afghan proper refer to themselves as Ban-i-Afghan or Ban-i-Isrial to differentiate themselves from the Indian Pathan. Rohilkhand was invaded by the Marathas after Panipat war.
The first invasion of Maratha on Rohillakhand took place on 1751–1752, The Marathas were requested by Safdarjung, the Nawab of Oudh, in 1752, to help him defeat Afghani Rohilla. The Maratha forces and Awadh forces besieged Rohillas, who had sought refuge in Kumaon but had to retreat when Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India .
In 1772, Marathas, led by Mahadji Sindhia defeated Zabita Khan, whose possessions lay west to Rohilkhand and they also destroyed Najib-ul-Daula's grave, scattering the bones all around. After plundering Rohillakhand Maratha proceed towards Oudh. Sensing the same fate as Rohilla, Nawab made frantic calls to British troops in Bengal. British company knew that Nawab of Oudh didn't possess any danger for British company, whereas Maratha will try to invade Bengal and Bihar after overrunning Oudh. British company dispatched 20,000 British troops on the order of then Viceroy of British India. British wanted to free Rohillakhand from Maratha and give it to Nawab. The two armies came face to face in Ram Ghat, but the sudden demise of then Peshwa and the civil war in Poona to choose the next Peshwa forced Maratha to retreat. Rohilla decided not to pay because there was no war between the two states. Further, British made Oudh a buffer state in order to protect it from Maratha, and from there on, British troops start protecting Oudh. The subsidy of one British brigade to provide protection to Nawab and Oudh from Maratha was decided to be Rs 2,10,000.
In 1737, the country around Farrukhabad was in the hands of an Afghan jagirdar, Kaiam Khan Bangash. The province, known now as Rohilkhand and then as Kuttahir, was in the occupation of a band of Afghan mercenary soldiers known as Rohels or Rohillas, from "Roh", the Pushtu or Afghan word for mountain. About 1673, two brothers, Shah Alam and Hussein Khan, left their native hills and obtained some petty office under the Mughals. Shah Alam's grandson, Ali Mahomed, a man of resource and courage and quite devoid of scruple, was eventually appointed governor of Sirhind. Taking advantage of the invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali, he added in 1748 to the lands already acquired by him those formerly owned by officers absent on field service. In this way, he acquired the whole of Kuttahir and changed its name to Rohilkhand.
Rohilkhand was under the rule of Rohillas with their capital in City of Bareilly until the Rohilla War of 1774–75. The Rohillas were defeated and driven from their former capital of Bareilly by the Nawab of Oudh with the assistance of the East India Company's troops. The state of Rampur was then established under the Nawab of Oudh.
|Name||Reign Began||Reign Ended|
|Ali Mohammed Khan||1719||15 September 1748|
|Faizullah Khan||15 September 1748||24 July 1793|
|Hafiz Rahmat Khan – Regent||15 September 1748||23 April 1774|
|Muhammad Ali Khan Bahadur||24 July 1793||11 August 1793|
|Ghulam Muhammad Khan Bahadur||11 August 1793||24 October 1794|
|Ahmad Ali Khan Bahadur||24 October 1794||5 July 1840|
|Nasrullah Khan – Regent||24 October 1794||1811|
|Muhammad Said Khan Bahadur||5 July 1840||1 April 1855|
|Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur||1 April 1855||21 April 1865|
|Kalb Ali Khan Bahadur||21 April 1865||23 March 1887|
|Muhammad Mushtaq Ali Khan Bahadur||23 March 1887||25 February 1889|
|Hamid Ali Khan Bahadur||25 February 1889||20 June 1930|
|Muhammad Said Khan Bahadur||5 July 1840||1 April 1855|
|Regent||25 February 1889||4 April 1894|
|Raza Ali Khan Bahadur||20 June 1930||6 March 1966|
|Murtaza Ali Khan Bahadur – Nawabat abolished in 1971||6 March 1966||8 February 1982|
- Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Rohilkhand
- Rohilla This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press..
- "Pathan". Isa-Masih in Lucknow. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
- Agrawal, Ashvini. Studies In Mughal History.
- Playne, Somerset; Solomon, R. V.; Bond, J. W.; Wright, Arnold. Indian States: A Biographical, Historical, and Administrative Survey.
- Rathod, N. G. The Great Maratha: Mahadaji Scindia.
- Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (1947). History of Modern India: 1707 A.D. to Upto 2000 A.D.