Shoegazing

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Shoegazing (also known as shoegaze) is a subgenre of indie rock,[1] alternative rock,[2] and neo-psychedelia[2] that emerged in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and reached peak popularity in the early 1990s. The style is typified by the blurring of component musical parts—typically significant guitar distortion, feedback, and obscured vocals—into indistinguishable mixture of sound.[1]

The term "shoegazing" was coined by the British music press to ridicule the stage presence of a wave of groups who stood still during live performances in a detached, introspective, non-confrontational state, often with their heads down;[1][7] the heavy use of effects pedals meant the performers were often looking down at their feet during concerts. The term was often used contemporaneously with "dream pop."[2][3][8]

A loose label given to the shoegazing scene and other affiliated bands in London in the early 1990s was The Scene That Celebrates Itself. In the early 1990s, shoegazing groups were pushed aside by the American grunge movement and early Britpop acts such as Suede, forcing the relatively unknown bands to break up or reinvent their style altogether.[1] In the 2000s, there was renewed interest in the genre among "nu gaze" bands.

Characteristics[edit]

Shoegaze combines ethereal, swirling vocals with layers of distorted, bent, flanged guitars,[9] creating a wash of sound where no instrument was distinguishable from another.[1] Most bands drew from the music of My Bloody Valentine as a template for the genre,[1] although co-founder Kevin Shields stated that the band had never used any chorus, flanger or delay effects pedals.[10][11]

Etymology[edit]

See also: Dream pop

"Shoegazing" was coined to describe dream pop bands.[3] It originated in a concert review in Sounds for the newly formed band Moose in which singer Russell Yates read lyrics taped to the floor throughout the gig.[12] The term was picked up by the NME, who used it as a reference to the tendency of the bands' guitarists to stare at their feet—or their effects pedals—while playing, seemingly deep in concentration. Melody Maker preferred the more staid term The Scene That Celebrates Itself, referring to the habit that the bands had of attending gigs of other shoegazing bands, often in Camden, and often moonlighting in each other's bands.[citation needed] According to AllMusic: "The shatteringly loud, droning neo-psychedelia the band performed was dubbed shoegazing by the British press because the bandmembers stared at the stage while they performed."[1]

The term was considered pejorative, especially by the English weekly music press who considered the movement as ineffectual, and it was disliked by many of the groups it purported to describe. As Miki Berenyi explains: "Shoegazing was originally a slag-off term. My partner [K.J. "Moose" McKillop], who was the guitarist in Moose, claims that it was originally levelled at his band. Apparently the journo was referring to the bank of effects pedals he had strewn across the stage that he had to keep staring at in order to operate. And then it just became a generic term for all those bands that had a big, sweeping, effects-laden sound, but all stood resolutely still on stage."[9] Ride's singer Mark Gardener had another take on his group's static presentation: "We didn't want to use the stage as a platform for ego, like the big bands of the time did, like U2 and Simple Minds. We presented ourselves as normal people, as a band who wanted their fans to think they could do that, too."[7]

History[edit]

Precursors[edit]

My Bloody Valentine
My Bloody Valentine performing live in 2008

The most commonly cited precursors to shoegazing are the Cocteau Twins, the Jesus and Mary Chain, and My Bloody Valentine, whose music bridged the styles of garage rock, 1960s psychedelia, and American indie bands like Sonic Youth and Dinosaur Jr..[9] Other artists that have been identified as influences on shoegazing include The Velvet Underground, Sonic Youth, Hüsker Dü, The Cure,[13] Bauhaus,[10] Galaxie 500,[14] and The Smiths.[9] My Bloody Valentine emerged in the wake of that band's 1988 breakthrough (with the "You Made Me Realise" single and album Isn't Anything).[15] The Trouser Press Guide to '90s Rock mentions that "A.R. Kane, the London duo ... (who dubbed their music "dreampop") exerted a profound sonic influence on the legion of trippy shoegazer guitar bands that would emerge a few years later in the UK."[16] Michael Azerrad's book Our Band Could Be Your Life cites an early 1990s Dinosaur Jr. tour of the United Kingdom as a key influence.[17]

The Scene That Celebrates Itself[edit]

A general description given to shoegazing and other affiliated bands in London in the early 1990s was The Scene That Celebrates Itself. The first stirrings of recognition came when indie writer Steve Lamacq referred to Ride in an NME review as "The House of Love with chainsaws". The shoegazing genre label was quite often misapplied. As key bands such as Slowdive, Chapterhouse and Ride emerged from the Thames Valley, Swervedriver found themselves labelled shoegazers on account of their own Thames Valley origins, despite their more pronounced Hüsker Dü-meets-Stooges stylings.[18]

Decline[edit]

The coining of the term "The Scene That Celebrates Itself" was in many ways the beginning of the end for the first wave of shoegazers. The bands became perceived by critics as over-privileged, self-indulgent and middle-class.[9] This perception was in sharp contrast with both the bands who formed the wave of newly commercialised grunge music which was making its way across the Atlantic, as well as those bands who formed the foundation of Britpop, such as Pulp, Oasis, Blur and Suede.[7] Britpop also offered intelligible lyrics, often about the trials and tribulations of working-class life; this was a stark contrast to the "vocals as an instrument" approach of the shoegazers, which often prized the melodic contribution of vocals over their lyrical depth. Lush's final album was an abrupt shift from shoegazing to Britpop, which alienated many fans; the 1996 suicide of their drummer signalled Lush's dissolution. Following a long gap from My Bloody Valentine since Loveless, aside from their 2008 reunion tour, the band released MBV in February 2013. Frontman Kevin Shields explained their silence by noting, "I never could be bothered to make another record unless I was really excited by it."[19]

Post-movement directions[edit]

See also: Nu-gaze and Blackgaze

Slowdive eventually morphed into the country-infused Mojave 3 and the dream pop Monster Movie, while other shoegazing bands either split or moved in other directions. The use of electronic dance and ambient elements by bands such as Slowdive and Seefeel paved the way for later developments in post-rock and electronica.[9] Several former members of shoegazing bands later moved towards post-rock and the more electronica-based trip hop.[7] Adam Franklin of Swervedriver released lo-fi albums under the moniker Toshack Highway.[20]

A resurgence of the genre began in the late 1990s (particularly in the United States) and the early 2000s, that helped usher in what is now referred to as the "nu gaze" era.[7] Also various heavy metal acts were inspired by shoegazing, which contributed to the emergence of "post-metal" and "metalgaze" styles.[21][22] Particularly in the mid-2000s, French black metal acts Alcest and Amesoeurs began incorporating shoegazing elements into their sound, pioneering the blackgaze genre.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Explore: Shoegaze | AllMusic". Web.archive.org. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2016-08-09. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Reynolds, Simon (1 December 1991). "Pop View; 'Dream-Pop' Bands Define the Times in Britain". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c Nathaniel Wice / Steven Daly: "The dream pop bands were lionized by the capricious British music press, which later took to dismissing them as "shoegazers" for their affectless stage presence.", Alt. Culture: An A-To-Z Guide to the '90s-Underground, Online, and Over-The-Counter, p.73, HarperCollins Publishers 1995, ISBN 0-0627-3383-4
  4. ^ a b Heller, Jason. "Where to start with the enigmatic music known as shoegaze". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2016-08-09. 
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "The 80 Best Albums of the 1980s : Music : Lists : Page 1 : Paste". Pastemagazine.com. Retrieved 2016-08-09. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Rogers, Jude (27 July 2007). "Diamond gazers". guardian.co.uk. London: Guardian. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  8. ^ Pete Prown / Harvey P. Newquist: "One faction came to be known as dream-pop or "shoegazers" (for their habit of looking at the ground while playing the guitars on stage). They were musicians who played trancelike, ethereal music that was composed of numerous guitars playing heavy droning chords wrapped in echo effects and phase shifters.", Hal Leonard 1997, ISBN 0-7935-4042-9
  9. ^ a b c d e f Patrick Sisson, "Vapour Trails: Revisiting Shoegaze Archived October 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.", XLR8R no. 123, December 2008
  10. ^ a b "Shoegazing – A Brief Overview". The Muso. Archived from the original on 2009-03-07. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  11. ^ Tom Murphy: Interview with My Bloody Valentine Archived December 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Denver Westword Music, April 23, 2009
  12. ^ Larkin, Colin (1992). The Guinness Who's Who of Indie and New Wave Music. Square One. p. 188. ISBN 0-85112-579-4. 
  13. ^ Exclaim! Sound of Confusion article on Shoegaze Archived January 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
  14. ^ All Music: Portable Galaxie 500. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
  15. ^ Strong, Martin C. (1999). The Great Alternative & Indie Discography. Canongate. p. 427. ISBN 0-86241-913-1. The full extent of their pioneering guitar manipulation – responsible for a whole scene of "shoegazing" musical admirers, stand up Ride, Moose, Lush etc., etc., ... 
  16. ^ Simon & Schuster: The Trouser Press Guide to '90s Rock, p.49, Fireside, March 1997, ISBN 0684814374
  17. ^ Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life. Back Bay. pp. 366. ISBN 978-0-316-78753-6.
  18. ^ Lester, Paul (1992-09-12). "Whatever Happened to Shoegazing?" Melody Maker, p.6. Retrieved 12 April 2007 from Proquest Research Library.
  19. ^ "Kevin Shields: MBV Will "100%" Make Another Album". Pitchforkmedia.com. Retrieved 16 January 2007. 
  20. ^ Stevens, Andrew (2007-07-11). "Leave Them All Behind: The 3:AM Guide to ‘Shoegazing’ and British Indie Music in the 1990s" 3:AM Magazine. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  21. ^ Jacobs, Koen (4 September 2008). "Metal Gaze – From My Bloody Valentine To Nadja via SunnO)))". The Quietus. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ...the recent trend for combining metal’s sense of threat with the immersive idyll of shoegaze is undeniable, and only one aspect of the ongoing cross-pollination taking place in extreme music. For his part, r views the ‘metalgaze’ movement as less entropic than cyclical. 
  22. ^ Burgin, Leah (5 December 2015). "Metalgaze gets confused with monotony on Pelican's latest disc". The Michigan Daily. University of Michigan. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  23. ^ Zina, Natalie (2014-02-26). "The Translator Blackgaze". Exclaim.ca. Retrieved 2016-08-09. 

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