|Cultural origins||Early to mid-1980s, |
Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Common traits include fast tempos, a shrieking vocal style, heavily distorted guitars played with tremolo picking, raw (lo-fi) recording, unconventional song structures, and an emphasis on atmosphere. Artists often appear in corpse paint and adopt pseudonyms.
During the 1980s, several thrash metal and death metal bands formed a prototype for black metal. This so-called first wave included bands such as Venom, Bathory, Mercyful Fate, Hellhammer and Celtic Frost. A second wave arose in the early 1990s, spearheaded by Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Darkthrone, Burzum, Immortal, Emperor, Satyricon and Gorgoroth. The early Norwegian black metal scene developed the style of their forebears into a distinct genre. Norwegian-inspired black metal scenes emerged throughout Europe and North America, although some other scenes developed their own styles independently. Some prominent Swedish bands spawned during this second wave, the second generation in Sweden being led by Dissection, Abruptum, Marduk, and Nifelheim.
Initially a synonym for "Satanic metal", black metal has often sparked controversy, due to the actions and ideologies associated with the genre. Many artists express extreme anti-Christian and misanthropic views, advocating various forms of Satanism or ethnic paganism. In the 1990s, members of the scene were responsible for a spate of church burnings and murders. There is also a small neo-Nazi movement within black metal, although it has been shunned by many prominent artists. Generally, black metal strives to remain an underground phenomenon.
Although contemporary black metal typically refers to the Norwegian style with shrieking vocals and raw production, the term has traditionally been applied to bands with widely differing sounds, such as Death SS, Mercyful Fate, Mayhem, Blasphemy, and the Greek and Finnish bands that emerged around the same time as the Norwegian scene.
Instrumentation and song structure
Norwegian-inspired black metal guitarists usually favor high-pitched or trebly guitar tones and heavy distortion. The guitar is usually played with fast, un-muted tremolo picking and power chords. Guitarists often use dissonance—along with specific scales, intervals and chord progressions—to create a sense of dread. The tritone, or flat-fifth, is often used. Guitar solos and low guitar tunings are rare in black metal. The bass guitar is seldom used to play stand-alone melodies. It is not uncommon for the bass to be muted against the guitar, or for it to homophonically follow the low-pitched riffs of the guitar. While electronic keyboards are not a standard instrument, some bands, like Dimmu Borgir, use keyboards "in the background" or as "proper instruments" for creating atmosphere. Some newer black metal bands began raising their production quality and introducing additional instruments such as synthesizers and even orchestras.
The drumming is usually fast and relies on double-bass and blast beats to maintain tempos that can sometimes approach 300 beats per minute. These fast tempos require great skill and physical stamina, typified by black metal drummers Frost (Kjetil-Vidar Haraldstad) and Hellhammer (Jan Axel Blomberg). Even still, authenticity is still prioritized over technique. "This professionalism has to go," insists well-respected drummer and metal historian Fenriz (Gylve Fenris Nagell) of Darkthrone. "I want to de-learn playing drums, I want to play primitive and simple, I don't want to play like a drum solo all the time and make these complicated riffs".
Black metal songs often stray from conventional song structure and often lack clear verse-chorus sections. Instead, many black metal songs contain lengthy and repetitive instrumental sections. The Greek style—established by Rotting Christ, Necromantia and Varathron—has more traditional heavy metal and death metal traits than Norwegian black metal.
Vocals and lyrics
Traditional black metal bands tend to favor raspy, high-pitched vocals which include techniques such as shrieking, screaming, and snarling, a vocal style influenced by Quorthon of Bathory. Death growls, common in the death metal genre, are sometimes used, but less frequently than the characteristic black metal shriek.
Black metal lyrics typically attack Christianity and the other institutional religions, often using apocalyptic language. Satanic lyrics are common, and many see them as essential to black metal. For Satanist black metal artists, "Black metal songs are meant to be like Calvinist sermons; deadly serious attempts to unite the true believers". Misanthropy, global catastrophe, war, death, destruction and rebirth are also common themes. Another topic often found in black metal lyrics is that of the wild and extreme aspects and phenomena of the natural world, particularly the wilderness, forests, mountains, winter, storms, and blizzards. Black metal also has a fascination with the distant past. Many bands write about the mythology and folklore of their homelands and promote a revival of pre-Christian, pagan traditions. A significant number of bands write lyrics only in their native language and a few (e.g. Arckanum and early Ulver) have lyrics in archaic languages. Some doom metal-influenced artists' lyrics focus on depression, nihilism, introspection, self-harm and suicide.
Imagery and performances
Many bands choose not to play live. Many of those who do play live maintain that their performances "are not for entertainment or spectacle. Sincerity, authenticity and extremity are valued above all else". Some bands consider their concerts to be rituals and often make use of stage props and theatrics. Bands such as Mayhem, Gorgoroth, and Watain are noted for their controversial shows, which have featured impaled animal heads, mock crucifixions, medieval weaponry and band members doused in animal blood. A few vocalists, such as Dead, Maniac and Kvarforth, are known for cutting themselves while singing onstage.
Black metal artists often appear dressed in black with combat boots, bullet belts, spiked wristbands and inverted crosses and inverted pentagrams to reinforce their anti-Christian or anti-religious stance. However, the most stand-out trait is their use of corpse paint—black and white face paint sometimes mixed with real or fake blood, which is used to create a corpse-like or demonic appearance.
The imagery of black metal reflects its lyrics and ideology. In the early 1990s, most pioneering black metal artists had minimalist album covers featuring xeroxed black-and-white pictures and/or writing. This was partly a reaction against death metal bands, who at that time had begun to use brightly colored album artwork. Many purist black metal artists have continued this style. Black metal album covers are typically dark and tend to be atmospheric or provocative; some feature natural or fantasy landscapes (for example Burzum's Filosofem and Emperor's In the Nightside Eclipse) while others are violent, sexually transgressive, sacrilegious, or iconoclastic (for example Marduk's Fuck Me Jesus and Dimmu Borgir's In Sorte Diaboli).
The earliest black metal artists had very limited resources, which meant that recordings would often be done in homes or basements, giving their recordings a distinctive "lo-fi" quality. However, even when success allowed access to professional studios, many artists instead chose to continue making lo-fi recordings. Artists believed that by doing so, they would both stay true to the genre's underground roots as well as make the music sound more "raw" or "cold". A well-known example of this approach is on the album Transilvanian Hunger by Darkthrone, a band who Johnathan Selzer of Terrorizer magazine says "represent the DIY aspect of black metal." In addition, lo-fi production was used to keep black metal inaccessible or unappealing to mainstream music fans and those who are not committed. Many have claimed that black metal was originally intended only for those who were part of the scene and not for a wider audience. Vocalist Gaahl said that during its early years, "Black metal was never meant to reach an audience, it was purely for our own satisfaction".
The conventional history of black metal is that pioneers like Venom, Bathory and Hellhammer were part of a "first wave", and that a "second wave" was begun by the early Norwegian scene, especially by Mayhem vocalist Dead; Mayhem's leader, Euronymous, who founded the Norwegian scene after Dead's suicide; and Darkthrone's album A Blaze in the Northern Sky. There are also some who argue that albums like Sarcófago's I.N.R.I. or Samael's Worship Him began the second wave.
In the late 1970s, the form of rough and aggressive heavy metal played by the British band Motörhead gained popularity. Many first wave black metal bands would cite Motörhead as an influence. Also popular in the late 1970s, punk rock came to influence the birth of black metal. Tom G. Warrior of Hellhammer and Celtic Frost credited English punk group Discharge as "a revolution, much like Venom", saying, "When I heard the first two Discharge records, I was blown away. I was just starting to play an instrument and I had no idea you could go so far."
The first wave of black metal refers to bands during the 1980s who influenced the black metal sound and formed a prototype for the genre. By today's musical standards, their sound is closer to speed metal or thrash metal.
The term "black metal" was coined by the English band Venom with their second album Black Metal (1982). Although deemed speed metal or thrash metal rather than black metal by today's standards, the album's lyrics and imagery focused more on anti-Christian and Satanic themes than any before it. Their music was fast, unpolished in production and with raspy or grunted vocals. Venom's members also adopted pseudonyms, a practice that would become widespread among black metal musicians.
Another major influence on black metal was the Swedish band Bathory. The band, led by Thomas Forsberg (a.k.a. Quorthon), created "the blueprint for Scandinavian black metal". Not only was Bathory's music dark, fast, heavily distorted, lo-fi and with anti-Christian themes, Quorthon was also the first to use the shrieked vocals that later became a common trait. The band played in this style on their first four albums: Bathory (1984), The Return…… (1985), Under the Sign of the Black Mark (1987) and Blood Fire Death (1988). With Blood Fire Death and the two following albums, Bathory pioneered the style that would become known as Viking metal.
Hellhammer, from Switzerland, "made truly raw and brutal music" with Satanic lyrics, and became an important influence on later black metal; "Their simple yet effective riffs and fast guitar sound were groundbreaking, anticipating the later trademark sound of early Swedish death metal". In 1984, members of Hellhammer formed Celtic Frost, whose music "explored more orchestral and experimental territories. The lyrics also became more personal, with topics about inner feelings and majestic stories. But for a couple of years, Celtic Frost was one of the world's most extreme and original metal bands, with a huge impact on the mid-1990s black metal scene".
The Danish band Mercyful Fate influenced the Norwegian scene with their imagery and lyrics. Frontman King Diamond, who wore ghoulish black-and-white facepaint on stage, may be one of the inspirators of what became known as 'corpse paint'. Other acts which adopted a similar appearance on stage were the horror punk band Misfits, Celtic Frost and the Brazilian extreme metal band Sarcófago. Other artists usually considered part of this movement include Kreator, Sodom and Destruction (from Germany), Bulldozer and Death SS (from Italy), whose vocalist Steve Sylvester was a member of the Ordo Templi Orientis.
In 1987, in the fifth issue of his Slayer fanzine, Jon 'Metalion' Kristiansen wrote that "the latest fad of black/Satanic bands seems to be over", the tradition being continued by a few bands like Incubus and Morbid Angel (from the United States), Sabbat (from Great Britain), Tormentor (from Hungary), Sarcófago (from Brazil), Grotesque, Treblinka and early Tiamat (from Sweden). Other early black metal bands include Sabbat (formed 1983 in Japan), Parabellum (formed 1983 in Colombia), Salem (formed 1985 in Israel) and Mortuary Drape (formed 1986 in Italy). Japanese band Sigh formed in 1990 and was in regular contact with key members of the Norwegian scene. Their debut album, Scorn Defeat, became "a cult classic in the black metal world". In the years before the Norwegian black metal scene arose, important recordings were released by Root and Master's Hammer (from Czechoslovakia), Von (from the United States), Rotting Christ (from Greece), Samael (from Switzerland) and Blasphemy (from Canada), whose debut album Fallen Angel of Doom (1990) is considered one of the most influential records for the war metal style. Fenriz of the Norwegian band Darkthrone called Master's Hammer's debut album Ritual "the first Norwegian black metal album, even though they are from Czechoslovakia".
In 1990 and 1991, Northern European metal acts began to release music influenced by these bands or the older ones from the first wave. In Sweden, this included Marduk, Dissection, Nifelheim and Abruptum. In Finland, there emerged a scene that mixed the first wave black metal style with elements of death metal and grindcore; this included Beherit, Archgoat and Impaled Nazarene, whose debut album Tol Cormpt Norz Norz Norz Rock Hard journalist Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann considers a part of war metal's roots. Bands such as Demoncy and Profanatica emerged during this time in the United States, when death metal was more popular among extreme metal fans. The Norwegian band Mayhem's concert in Leipzig with Eminenz and Manos in 1990, later released as Live in Leipzig, was said to have had a strong influence on the East German scene and is even called the unofficial beginning of German black metal.
The second wave of black metal began in the early 1990s and was spearheaded by the Norwegian black metal scene. During 1990–1993, a number of Norwegian artists began performing and releasing a new kind of black metal music; this included Mayhem, Darkthrone, Burzum, Immortal, Emperor, Satyricon, Enslaved, Thorns, Carpathian Forest and Gorgoroth. They developed the style of their 1980s forebears into a distinct genre. This was partly thanks to a new kind of guitar playing developed by Snorre 'Blackthorn' Ruch of Stigma Diabolicum/Thorns and Øystein 'Euronymous' Aarseth of Mayhem. Fenriz of Darkthrone described it as being "derived from Bathory" and noted that "those kinds of riffs became the new order for a lot of bands in the '90s".
The wearing of corpse paint became standard, and was a way for many black metal artists to distinguish themselves from other metal bands of the era. The scene also had an ideology and ethos. Artists were bitterly opposed to Christianity and presented themselves as misanthropic Devil worshippers who wanted to spread terror, hatred and evil. They professed to be serious in their views and vowed to act on them. Ihsahn of Emperor said that they sought to "create fear among people" and "be in opposition to society". The scene was exclusive and created boundaries around itself, incorporating only those who were "true" and attempting to expel all "poseurs". Some members of the scene were responsible for a spate of church burnings and murder, which eventually drew attention to it and led to a number of artists being imprisoned.
On 8 April 1991, Mayhem vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin (who called himself "Dead") died by suicide while alone in a house shared by the band. Fellow musicians described Dead as odd, introverted and depressed. Before going onstage he went to great lengths to make himself look like a corpse and would cut his arms while singing. Mayhem's drummer, Hellhammer, said that Dead was the first to wear the distinctive corpse paint that became widespread in the scene. He was found with slit wrists and a shotgun wound to the head. Dead's suicide note began with "Excuse all the blood", and apologized for firing the weapon indoors. Before calling the police, Euronymous got a disposable camera and photographed the body, after re-arranging some items. One of these photographs was later used as the cover of a bootleg live album, Dawn of the Black Hearts.
Euronymous made necklaces with bits of Dead's skull and gave some to musicians he deemed worthy. Rumors also spread that he had made a stew with bits of his brain. Euronymous used Dead's suicide to foster Mayhem's evil image and claimed Dead had killed himself because extreme metal had become trendy and commercialized. Mayhem bassist Jørn 'Necrobutcher' Stubberud noted that "people became more aware of the black metal scene after Dead had shot himself ... I think it was Dead's suicide that really changed the scene".
Two other members of the early Norwegian scene would later die by suicide: Erik 'Grim' Brødreskift (of Immortal, Borknagar, Gorgoroth) in 1999 and Espen 'Storm' Andersen (of Strid) in 2001.
Helvete and Deathlike Silence
During May–June 1991, Euronymous of Mayhem opened an independent record shop named "Helvete" (Norwegian for "Hell") at Schweigaards gate 56 in Oslo. It quickly became the focal point of Norway's emerging black metal scene and a meeting place for many of its musicians; especially the members of Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor and Thorns. Jon 'Metalion' Kristiansen, writer of the fanzine Slayer, said that the opening of Helvete was "the creation of the whole Norwegian black metal scene". In its basement, Euronymous founded an independent record label named Deathlike Silence Productions. With the rising popularity of his band and others like it, the underground success of Euronymous's label is often credited for encouraging other record labels, who had previously shunned black metal acts, to then reconsider and release their material.
In 1992, members of the Norwegian black metal scene began a wave of arson attacks on Christian churches. By 1996, there had been at least 50 such attacks in Norway. Some of the buildings were hundreds of years old and seen as important historical landmarks. The first to be burnt down was Norway's Fantoft stave church. Police believe Varg Vikernes of Burzum was responsible. The cover of Burzum's EP Aske ("ashes") is a photograph of the destroyed church. In May 1994, Vikernes was found guilty for burning down Holmenkollen Chapel, Skjold Church and Åsane Church. To coincide with the release of Mayhem's De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas, Vikernes and Euronymous had also allegedly plotted to bomb Nidaros Cathedral, which appears on the album cover. The musicians Faust, Samoth, (both of Emperor) and Jørn Inge Tunsberg (of Hades Almighty) were also convicted for church arsons. Members of the Swedish scene started to burn churches in 1993.
Those convicted for church burnings showed no remorse and described their actions as a symbolic "retaliation" against Christianity in Norway. Mayhem drummer Hellhammer said he had called for attacks on mosques and Hindu temples, on the basis that they were more foreign. Today, opinions on the church burnings differ within the black metal community. Many, such as Infernus and Gaahl of Gorgoroth, continue to praise the church burnings, with the latter saying "there should have been more of them, and there will be more of them". Others, such as Necrobutcher and Kjetil Manheim of Mayhem and Abbath of Immortal, see the church burnings as having been futile. Manheim claimed that many arsons were "just people trying to gain acceptance" within the black metal scene. Watain vocalist Erik Danielsson respected the attacks, but said of those responsible: "the only Christianity they defeated was the last piece of Christianity within themselves. Which is a very good beginning, of course".
Murder of Euronymous
In early 1993, animosity arose between Euronymous and Vikernes. On the night of 10 August 1993, Varg Vikernes (of Burzum) and Snorre 'Blackthorn' Ruch (of Thorns) drove from Bergen to Euronymous's apartment in Oslo. When they arrived a confrontation began and Vikernes stabbed Euronymous to death. His body was found outside the apartment with 23 cut wounds—two to the head, five to the neck, and sixteen to the back.
It has been speculated that the murder was the result of either a power struggle, a financial dispute over Burzum records or an attempt at outdoing a stabbing in Lillehammer the year before by Faust. Vikernes denies all of these, claiming that he attacked Euronymous in self-defense. He says that Euronymous had plotted to stun him with an electroshock weapon, tie him up and torture him to death while videotaping the event. He said Euronymous planned to use a meeting about an unsigned contract to ambush him. Vikernes claims he intended to hand Euronymous the signed contract that night and "tell him to fuck off", but that Euronymous panicked and attacked him first. He also claims that most of the cuts were from broken glass Euronymous had fallen on during the struggle. The self-defense story is doubted by Faust, while Necrobutcher confirmed that Vikernes killed Euronymous in self-defense due to the death threats he received from him.
Vikernes was arrested on 19 August 1993, in Bergen. Many other members of the scene were taken in for questioning around the same time. Some of them confessed to their crimes and implicated others. In May 1994, Vikernes was sentenced to 21 years in prison (Norway's maximum penalty) for the murder of Euronymous, the arson of four churches, and for possession of 150 kg of explosives. However, he only confessed to the latter. Two churches were burnt the day he was sentenced, "presumably as a statement of symbolic support". Vikernes smiled when his verdict was read and the picture was widely reprinted in the news media. Blackthorn was sentenced to eight years in prison for being an accomplice to the murder. That month saw the release of Mayhem's album De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas, which featured Euronymous on guitar and Vikernes on bass guitar. Euronymous's family had asked Mayhem's drummer, Hellhammer, to remove the bass tracks recorded by Vikernes, but Hellhammer said: "I thought it was appropriate that the murderer and victim were on the same record. I put word out that I was re-recording the bass parts. But I never did". In 2003, Vikernes failed to return to Tønsberg prison after being given a short leave. He was re-arrested shortly after while driving a stolen car with various weapons. Vikernes was released on parole in 2009.
Black metal scenes also emerged on the European mainland during the early 1990s, inspired by the Norwegian scene or the older bands, or both. In Poland, a scene was spearheaded by Graveland and Behemoth. In France, a close-knit group of musicians known as Les Légions Noires emerged; this included artists such as Mütiilation, Vlad Tepes, Belketre and Torgeist. In Belgium, there were acts such as Ancient Rites and Enthroned. Bands such as Black Funeral, Grand Belial's Key and Judas Iscariot emerged during this time in the United States. Black Funeral, from Houston, formed in 1993, was associated with black magic and Satanism.
A notable black metal group in England was Cradle of Filth, who released three demos in a black/death metal style with symphonic flourishes, followed by the album The Principle of Evil Made Flesh, which featured a then-unusual hybrid style of black and gothic metal. The band then abandoned black metal for gothic metal, becoming one of the most successful extreme metal bands to date. John Serba of AllMusic commented that their first album "made waves in the early black metal scene, putting Cradle of Filth on the tips of metalheads' tongues, whether in praise of the band's brazen attempts to break the black metal mold or in derision for its 'commercialization' of an underground phenomenon that was proud of its grimy heritage". Some black metal fans did not consider Cradle of Filth to be black metal. When asked if he considers Cradle of Filth a black metal band, vocalist Dani Filth said he considers them black metal in terms of philosophy and atmosphere, but not in other ways. Another English band called Necropolis never released any music, but "began a desecratory assault against churches and cemeteries in their area" and "almost caused Black Metal to be banned in Britain as a result". Dayal Patterson says successful acts like Cradle of Filth "provoked an even greater extremity [of negative opinion] from the underground" scene due to concerns about "selling out".
The controversy surrounding the Thuringian band Absurd drew attention to the German black metal scene. In 1993, the members murdered a boy from their school, Sandro Beyer. A photo of Beyer's gravestone is on the cover of one of their demos, Thuringian Pagan Madness, along with pro-Nazi statements. It was recorded in prison and released in Poland by Graveland drummer Capricornus. The band's early music was more influenced by Oi! and Rock Against Communism (RAC) than by black metal, and described as being "more akin to '60s garage punk than some of the […] Black Metal of their contemporaries". Alexander von Meilenwald from German band Nagelfar considers Ungod's 1993 debut Circle of the Seven Infernal Pacts, Desaster's 1994 demo Lost in the Ages, Tha-Norr's 1995 album Wolfenzeitalter, Lunar Aurora's 1996 debut Weltengänger and Katharsis's 2000 debut 666 to be the most important recordings for the German scene. He said they were "not necessarily the best German releases, but they all kicked off something".
After the second wave
In the beginning of the second wave, the different scenes developed their own styles; as Alan 'Nemtheanga' Averill says, "you had the Greek sound and the Finnish sound, and the Norwegian sound, and there was German bands and Swiss bands and that kind of thing." By the mid-1990s, the style of the Norwegian scene was being adopted by bands worldwide, and in 1998, Kerrang! journalist Malcolm Dome said that "black metal as we know it in 1998 owes more to Norway and to Scandinavia than any other particular country". Newer black metal bands also began raising their production quality and introducing additional instruments such as synthesizers and even full-symphony orchestras. By the late 1990s, the underground concluded that several of the Norwegian pioneers—like Emperor, Immortal, Dimmu Borgir, Ancient, Covenant/The Kovenant, and Satyricon—had commercialized or sold out to the mainstream and "big bastard labels." Dayal Patterson states that successful acts like Dimmu Borgir "provoked and even greater extremity [of negative opinion] from the underground" regarding the view that these bands had "sold out."
After Euronymous's death, "some bands went more towards the Viking metal and epic style, while some bands went deeper into the abyss." Since 1993, the Swedish scene had carried out church burnings, grave desecration, and other violent acts. In 1995, Jon Nödtveidt of Dissection joined the Misanthropic Luciferian Order (MLO). In 1997, he and another MLO member were arrested and charged with shooting dead a 37-year-old man. It was said he was killed "out of anger" because he had "harassed" the two men. Nödtveidt received a 10-year sentence. As the victim was a homosexual immigrant, Dissection was accused of being a Nazi band, but Nödtveidt denied this and dismissed racism and nationalism.
The Swedish band Shining, founded in 1996, began writing music almost exclusively about depression and suicide, musically inspired by Strid and by Burzum's albums Hvis lyset tar oss and Filosofem. Vocalist Niklas Kvarforth wanted to "force-feed" his listeners "with self-destructive and suicidal imagery and lyrics." In the beginning, he used the term "suicidal black metal" for his music. However, he stopped using the term in 2001 because it had begun to be used by a slew of other bands, whom he felt had misinterpreted his vision and were using the music as a kind of therapy rather than a weapon against the listener as Kvarforth intended. He said that he "wouldn't call Shining a black metal band" and called the "suicidal black metal" term a "foolish idea."
According to Erik Danielsson, when his band Watain formed in 1998, there were very few bands who took black metal as seriously as the early Norwegian scene had. A newer generation of Swedish Satanic bands like Watain and Ondskapt, supposedly inspired by Ofermod, the new band of Nefandus member Belfagor, put this scene "into a new light." Kvarforth said, "It seems like people actually [got] afraid again." "The current Swedish black metal scene has a particularly ambitious and articulate understanding of mysticism and its validity to black metal. Many Swedish black metal bands, most notably Watain and Dissection, are [or were] affiliated with the Temple of the Black Light, or Misanthropic Luciferian Order […] a Theistic, Gnostic, Satanic organization based in Sweden". Upon his release in 2004, Jon Nödtveidt restarted Dissection with new members whom he felt were able to "stand behind and live up to the demands of Dissection's Satanic concept." He started calling Dissection "the sonic propaganda unit of the MLO" and released a third full-length album, Reinkaos. The lyrics contain magical formulae from the Liber Azerate and are based on the organization's teachings. After the album's release and a few concerts, Nödtveidt said that he had "reached the limitations of music as a tool for expressing what I want to express, for myself and the handful of others that I care about" and disbanded Dissection before dying by suicide.
A part of the underground scene adopted a Jungian interpretation of the church burnings and other acts of the early scene as the re-emergence of ancient archetypes, which Kadmon of Allerseelen and the authors of Lords of Chaos had implied in their writings. They mixed this interpretation with Paganism and Nationalism. Varg Vikernes was seen as "an ideological messiah" by some, although Vikernes had disassociated himself from black metal and his neo-Nazism had nothing to do with that subculture. This led to the rise of National Socialist black metal (NSBM), which Hendrik Möbus of Absurd calls "the logical conclusion" of the Norwegian black metal "movement". Other parts of the scene oppose NSBM as it is "indelibly linked with Asá Trŭ and opposed to Satanism", or look upon Nazism "with vague skepticism and indifference". Members of the NSBM scene, among others, see the Norwegian bands as poseurs whose "ideology is cheap", although they still respect Vikernes and Burzum, whom Grand Belial's Key vocalist Richard Mills called "the only Norwegian band that remains unapologetic and literally convicted of his beliefs."
In France, besides Les Légions Noires (The Black Legions), an NSBM scene arose. Members of French band Funeral desecrated a grave in Toulon in June 1996, and a 19-year-old black metal fan stabbed a priest to death in Mulhouse on Christmas Eve 1996. According to MkM of Antaeus and Aosoth, the early French scene "was quite easy to divide: either you were NSBM, and you had the support from zine and the audience, or you were part of the black legions, and you had that 'cult' aura", whereas his band Antaeus, not belonging to either of these sub-scenes, "did not fit anywhere." Many French bands, like Deathspell Omega and Aosoth, have an avantgarde approach and a disharmonic sound that is representative of that scene.
The early American black metal bands remained underground. Some of them—like Grand Belial's Key and Judas Iscariot—joined an international NSBM organization called the Pagan Front, although Judas Iscariot's sole member Akhenaten left the organization. Other bands like Averse Sefira never had any link with Nazism. The US bands have no common style. Many were musically inspired by Burzum but did not necessarily adopt Vikernes's ideas. Profanatica's music is close to death metal, while Demoncy were accused of ripping off Gorgoroth riffs. There also emerged bands like Xasthur and Leviathan (whose music is inspired by Burzum and whose lyrics focus on topics such as depression and suicide), Nachtmystium, Krallice, Wolves in the Throne Room (a band linked to the crust punk scene and the environmental movement), and Liturgy (the style of whom frontwoman Hunter Hunt-Hendrix describes as 'trancendental black metal'). These bands eschew black metal's traditional lyrical content for "something more Whitman-esque" and have been rejected by some traditional black-metallers for their ideologies and the post-rock and shoegazing influences some of them have adopted. Also, some bands like Agalloch started to incorporate "doom and folk elements into the traditional blast-beat and tremolo-picking of the Scandinavian incarnation", a style that would later become known as Cascadian black metal, in reference to the region where it emerged.
In Australia, a scene led by bands like Deströyer 666, Vomitor, Hobbs' Angel of Death, Nocturnal Graves and Gospel of the Horns arose. This scene's typical style is a mixture of old school black metal and raw thrash metal influenced by old Celtic Frost, Bathory, Venom, and Sodom but also with its own elements.
Melechesh was formed in Jerusalem in 1993, "the first overtly anti-Christian band to exist in one of the holiest cities in the world". Melechesh began as a straightforward black metal act with their first foray into folk metal occurring on their 1996 EP The Siege of Lachish. Their subsequent albums straddled black, death, and thrash metal. Another band, Arallu, was formed in the late 1990s and has relationships with Melechesh and Salem. Melechesh and Arallu perform a style they call "Mesopotamian Black Metal", a blend of black metal and Mesopotamian folk music.
Since the 2000s, a number of anti-Islamic and anti-religious black metal bands—whose members come from Muslim backgrounds—have emerged in the Middle East. Janaza, believed to be Iraq's first female black metal artist, released the demo Burning Quran Ceremony in 2010. Its frontwoman, Anahita, claimed her parents and brother were killed by a suicide bomb during the Iraq War. Another Iraqi band, Seeds of Iblis, also fronted by Anahita, released their debut EP Jihad Against Islam in 2011 through French label Legion of Death. Metal news website Metalluminati suggests that their claims of being based in Iraq are a hoax. These bands, along with Tadnees (from Saudi Arabia), Halla (from Iran), False Allah (from Bahrain), and Mosque of Satan (from Lebanon), style themselves as the "Arabic Anti-Islamic Legion." Another Lebanese band, Ayat, drew much attention with their debut album Six Years of Dormant Hatred, released through North American label Moribund Records in 2008. Some European bands have also begun expressing anti-Islamic views, most notably the Norwegian band Taake.
Regarding the sound of black metal, there are two conflicting groups within the genre: "those that stay true to the genre's roots, and those that introduce progressive elements". The former believe that the music should always be minimalist—performed only with the standard guitar-bass-drums setup and recorded in a low fidelity style. One supporter of this train of thought is Blake Judd of Nachtmystium, who has rejected labeling his band black metal for its departure from the genre's typical sound. Snorre Ruch of Thorns, on the other hand, has said that modern black metal is "too narrow" and believes that this was "not the idea at the beginning".
Since the 1990s, different styles of black metal have emerged and some have melded Norwegian-style black metal with other genres:
Ambient black metal
Ambient black metal is a style of black metal which relies on heavy incorporation of atmospheric, sometimes dreamy textures, and is therefore less aggressive. It often features synthesizers or classical instrumentation, typically for melody or ethereal "shimmering" over the wall of sound provided by the guitars. The music is usually slow to mid paced with rare blast beat usage, without any abrupt changes and generally features slowly developing, sometimes repetitive melodies and riffs, which separate it from other black metal styles. Subject matter usually concerns nature, folklore, mythology, and personal introspection. Artists include Agalloch and Wolves in the Throne Room.
Black-doom, also known as blackened doom, is a style that combines the slowness and thicker, bassier sound of doom metal with the shrieking vocals and heavily distorted guitar sound of black metal. Black-doom bands maintain the Satanic ideology associated with black metal, while melding it with moodier themes more related to doom metal, like depression, nihilism and nature. They also use the slower pace of doom metal in order to emphasize the harsh atmosphere present in black metal. Examples of black-doom bands include Barathrum, Forgotten Tomb, Woods of Ypres, Deinonychus, Shining, Nortt, Bethlehem, early Katatonia. Tiamat, Dolorian, and October Tide.
Depressive suicidal black metal
Pioneered by black-doom bands like Ophthalamia, Katatonia, Bethlehem, Forgotten Tomb and Shining, depressive suicidal black metal, also known as suicidal black metal, depressive black metal or DSBM, is a style that melds the second wave-style of black metal with doom metal, with lyrics revolving around themes such as depression, self-harm, misanthropy, suicide and death. DSBM bands draws the lo-fi recording and highly distorted guitars of black metal, while employing the usage of acoustic instruments and non-distorted electric guitar's timbres present in doom metal, interchanging the slower, doom-like, sections with faster tremolo picking. Vocals are usually high-pitched like in black metal, but lacking of energy, simulating feelings like hopelessness, desperation and plea. The presence of one-man bands is more prominent in this genre compared to others. Examples of bands include Xasthur, Leviathan, Strid, Silencer, Make a Change… Kill Yourself, and I Shalt Become.
Black 'n' roll
Black 'n' roll is a style of black metal that incorporates elements from 1970s hard rock and rock and roll music. Examples of black 'n' roll bands include Midnight, Kvelertak, Vreid, and Khold. Bands such as Satyricon, Darkthrone, Nachtmystium, Nidingr, Craft, and Sarke also experimented with the genre.
Crust punk groups, such as Antisect, Sacrilege and Anti System took some influence from early black metal bands like Venom, Hellhammer, and Celtic Frost, while Amebix's lead vocalist and guitarist sent his band's early demo tape to Cronos of Venom, who replied by saying "We'll rip you off." Similarly, Bathory was initially inspired by crust punk as well as heavy metal. Crust punk was affected by a second wave of black metal in the 1990s, with some bands emphasizing these black metal elements. Iskra are probably the most obvious example of second wave black metal-influenced crust punk; Iskra coined their own phrase "blackened crust" to describe their new style. The Japanese group Gallhammer also fused crust punk with black metal while the English band Fukpig has been said to have elements of crust punk, black metal, and grindcore. North Carolina's Young and in the Way have been playing blackened crust since their formation in 2009. In addition, Norwegian band Darkthrone have incorporated crust punk traits in their more recent material. As Daniel Ekeroth wrote in 2008,
In a very ironic paradox, black metal and crust punk have recently started to embrace one another. Members of Darkthrone and Satyricon have lately claimed that they love punk, while among crusties, black metal is the latest fashion. In fact, the latest album by crust punk band Skitsystem sounds very black metal—while the latest black metal opus by Darkthrone sounds very punk! This would have been unimaginable in the early 90s.— 
Red and anarchist black metal
Red and anarchist black metal (also known as RABM or anarchist black metal) is a subgenre that melds black metal with anarchist crust punk, promoting ideologies such as anarchism, environmentalism, or Marxism. Artists labelled RABM include Iskra, Panopticon, Skagos, Storm of Sedition, Not A Cost, Black Kronstadt, and Vidargangr.
Blackened death-doom is a genre that combines the slow tempos and monolithic drumming of doom metal, the complex and loud riffage of death metal and the shrieking vocals of black metal. Examples of blackened death-doom bands include Morast, Faustcoven, The Ruins of Beverast, Bölzer, Necros Christos, Harvest Gulgaltha, Dragged Into Sunlight, Hands of Thieves, and Soulburn.
Blackened death metal
Blackened death metal is commonly death metal that incorporates musical, lyrical or ideological elements of black metal, such as an increased use of tremolo picking, anti-Christian or Satanic lyrical themes and chord progressions similar to those used in black metal. Blackened death metal bands are also more likely to wear corpse paint and suits of armour, than bands from other styles of death metal. Lower range guitar tunings, death growls and abrupt tempo changes are common in the genre. Examples of blackened death metal bands are Belphegor, Behemoth, Akercocke, and Sacramentum.
Melodic black-death (also known as blackened melodic death metal or melodic blackened death metal) is a genre of extreme metal that describes the style created when melodic death metal bands began being inspired by black metal and European romanticism. However, unlike most other black metal, this take on the genre would incorporate an increased sense of melody and narrative. Some bands who have played this style include Dissection, Sacramentum, Embraced, Naglfar, Satariel, Throes of Dawn, Obscurity, Dawn, Cries of the Past-era Underoath, Catamenia, Midvinter, Twin Obscenity, Nokturnal Mortum Unanimated, Epoch of Unlight, This Ending, Suidakra, Oathean, Thulcandra, Skeletonwitch, and Cardinal Sin.
War metal (also known as war black metal or bestial black metal) is an aggressive, cacophonous, and chaotic subgenre of blackened death metal, described by Rock Hard journalist Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann as "rabid" and "hammering". Important influences include early black and death metal bands, such as Sodom, Possessed, Autopsy, Sarcófago, and the first two Sepultura releases, as well as seminal grindcore acts like Repulsion. War metal bands include Blasphemy, Archgoat, Impiety, Beherit, Crimson Thorn, and Bestial Warlust.
Blackened grindcore is a fusion genre that combines elements of black metal and grindcore. Notable bands include Vomit Fist, Dendritic Arbor, Sunlight's Bane, Scumpulse, Malevich, Absvrdist, and early Rotting Christ.
Blackened thrash metal
Blackened thrash metal, also known as black-thrash, is a fusion genre that combines elements of black metal and thrash metal. Being considered as one of the first fusions of extreme metal, it was inspired by bands such as Venom, Sodom, and Sarcófago. Notable bands include Aura Noir, Witchery, Black Fast, Sathanas, and Deströyer 666.
Folk black metal, pagan metal, and Viking metal
Folk black metal, pagan metal and Viking metal are styles that incorporates elements of folk music, with pagan metal bands focusing on pagan lyrics and imagery, and Viking metal bands giving thematic focus on Norse mythology, Norse paganism, and the Viking Age, more influenced by Nordic folk music. While not focused on Satanism, the bands' use of ancient folklore and mythologies still express anti-Christian views, with folk black metal doing it as part of a "rebellion to the status quo", that developed concurrently along with the rise of folk metal in Europe in the 1990s, Notable artist include Negură Bunget, Windir, Primordial, In the Woods..., Cruachan, and Bathory, to whose albums Blood Fire Death (1988) and Hammerheart (1990) the origin of Viking metal can be traced.
Industrial black metal
Industrial black metal is a style of black metal that incorporates elements of industrial music. Mysticum, formed in 1991, was the first of these groups. DHG (Dødheimsgard), Thorns from Norway and Blut Aus Nord, N.K.V.D. and Blacklodge from France, have been acclaimed for their incorporation of industrial elements. Other industrial black metal musicians include Samael, The Axis of Perdition, Aborym, and ...And Oceans. In addition, The Kovenant, Mortiis and Ulver emerged from the Norwegian black metal scene, but later chose to experiment with industrial music.
Post-black metal is an umbrella term for genres that experiment beyond black metal's conventions and broaden their sounds, evolving past the genre's limits. Notable bands include Myrkur, Alcest, Bosse-de-Nage, and Wildernessking.
Blackgaze incorporates common black metal and post-black metal elements such as blast beat drumming and high-pitched screamed vocals with the melodic and heavily distorted guitar styles typically associated with shoegazing. It is associated with bands such as Deafheaven, Alcest, Vaura, Amesoeurs, Bosse-de-Nage, Oathbreaker, and Fen.
National Socialist black metal
National Socialist black metal (also known as NSBM) is a subgenre that promotes neo-Nazi or similar beliefs through its lyrics and imagery. Artists typically meld neo-Nazi ideology with ethnic European paganism, but a few meld these beliefs with Satanism or occultism. Some commentators see this ideology as a natural development of the black metal worldview. Members of the early Norwegian scene flirted with Nazi themes, but this was largely an attempt to provoke. Varg Vikernes—who now refers to his ideology as 'Odalism'—is credited with popularizing such views within the scene. NSBM emerged in the mid-1990s and was spearheaded by artists such as Absurd (from Germany), Graveland, Infernum, and Veles (from Poland), and Grand Belial's Key (from the US). It is particularly strong in the former Eastern Bloc.
Psychedelic black metal
Psychedelic black metal is a subgenre of black metal which employs the usage of psychedelic elements. Notable acts include Oranssi Pazuzu, Nachtmystium, Deafheaven, Woe, Amesoeurs, and In the Woods....
Symphonic black metal
Symphonic black metal is a style of black metal that incorporates symphonic and orchestral elements. This may include the usage of instruments found in symphony orchestras (piano, violin, cello, flute and keyboards), "clean" or operatic vocals and guitars with less distortion.
Unblack metal (or Christian black metal) is a subgenre that promotes Christianity through its lyrics and imagery. The first unblack metal record, Hellig Usvart (1994) by Australian artist Horde, was a provocative parody of Norwegian black metal. It sparked controversy, and death threats were issued against Horde. Norwegian unblack metal band Antestor was originally formed as a death/doom band bearing a different name, Crush Evil.
Unlike other metal genres, black metal is associated with an ideology and ethos. It is fiercely opposed to Christianity and the other main institutional religions, Islam and Judaism. Many black metal bands are Satanists and see Satanism as a key part of black metal. Others advocate ethnic Paganism, "often coupled with nationalism", although the early Pagan bands did not call themselves 'black metal'.
Black metal tends to be misanthropic and hostile to modern society. It is "a reaction against the mundanity, insincerity and emotional emptiness that participants feel is intrinsic to modern secular culture". The black metal scene tends to oppose political correctness, humanitarianism, consumerism, globalization and homogeneity. Aaron Weaver from Wolves in the Throne Room said: "I think that black metal is an artistic movement that is critiquing modernity on a fundamental level, saying that the modern world view is missing something". As part of this, some parts of the scene glorify nature and have a fascination with the distant past. Black metal has been likened to Romanticism and there is an undercurrent of romantic nationalism in the genre. Sam Dunn noted that "unlike any other heavy metal scene, the culture and the place is incorporated into the music and imagery". Individualism is also an important part of black metal, with Fenriz of Darkthrone describing black metal as "individualism above all". Unlike other kinds of metal, black metal has numerous one-man bands. However, it is argued that followers of Euronymous were anti-individualistic, and that "Black Metal is characterized by a conflict between radical individualism and group identity and by an attempt to accept both polarities simultaneously".
In his master's thesis, Benjamin Hedge Olson wrote that some artists can be seen as transcendentalists. Dissatisfied with a "world that they feel is devoid of spiritual and cultural significance", they try to leave or "transcend" their "mundane physical forms" and become one with the divine. This is done through their concerts, which he describes as "musical rituals" that involve self-mortification and taking on an alternative, "spiritual persona" (for example by the wearing of costume and face paint).
Black metal was originally a term for extreme metal bands with Satanic lyrics and imagery. However, most of the 'first wave' bands (including Venom, who coined the term 'black metal') were not Satanists and rather used Satanic themes to provoke controversy or gain attention. One of the few exceptions was Mercyful Fate singer and Church of Satan member King Diamond, whom Michael Moynihan calls "one of the only performers of the '80s Satanic metal who was more than just a poseur using a devilish image for shock value".
In the early 1990s, many Norwegian black-metallers presented themselves as genuine Devil worshippers. Mayhem's Euronymous was the key figure behind this. They attacked the Church of Satan for its "freedom and life-loving" views; the theistic Satanism they espoused was an inversion of Christianity. Benjamin Hedge Olson wrote that they "transform[ed] Venom's quasi-Satanic stage theatrics into a form of cultural expression unique from other forms of metal or Satanism" and "abandoned the mundane identities and ambitions of other forms of metal in favor of religious and ideological fanaticism". Some prominent scene members—such as Euronymous and Faust—stated that only bands who are Satanists can be called 'black metal'. Bands with a Norwegian style, but without Satanic lyrics, tended to use other names for their music. This view is still held by many artists—such as Infernus, Arioch, Nornagest and Erik Danielsson. Some bands, like the reformed Dissection and Watain, insist that all members must be of the same Satanic belief, whereas Michael Ford of Black Funeral and MkM of Antaeus believe black metal must be Satanic but not all band members need to be Satanists. Others—such as Jan Axel Blomberg, Sigurd Wongraven and Eric Horner—believe that black metal does not need to be Satanic. An article in Metalion's Slayer fanzine attacked musicians that "care more about their guitars than the actual essence onto which the whole concept was and is based upon", and insisted that "the music itself doesn't come as the first priority". Bands with a similar style but with Pagan lyrics tend to be referred to as 'Pagan Metal' by many 'purist' black-metallers.
Others shun Satanism, seeing it as Christian or "Judeo-Christian" in origin, and regard Satanists as perpetuating the "Judeo-Christian" worldview. Quorthon of Bathory said he used 'Satan' to provoke and attack Christianity. However, with his third and fourth albums, Under the Sign of the Black Mark and Blood Fire Death, he began "attacking Christianity from a different angle", realizing that Satanism is a "Christian product". Nevertheless, some artists use Satan as a symbol or metaphor for their beliefs, such as LaVeyan Satanists (who are atheist). Vocalist Gaahl, who considers himself a Norse Shaman, said: "We use the word 'Satanist' because it is Christian world and we have to speak their language ... When I use the word 'Satan', it means the natural order, the will of a man, the will to grow, the will to become the superman". Varg Vikernes called himself a Satanist in early interviews but "now downplays his former interest in Satanism", saying he was using Satan as a symbol for Odin as the 'adversary' of the Christian God. He saw Satanism as "an introduction to more indigenous heathen beliefs". Some bands such as Carach Angren, Immortal and Enslaved do not have Satanic lyrics.
Many black-metallers see "Christian black metal" as an oxymoron and believe black metal cannot be Christian. In fact, the early unblack metal groups Horde and Antestor refused to call their music "black metal" because they did not share its ethos. Horde called its music "holy unblack metal" and Antestor called theirs "sorrow metal". Horde's Jayson Sherlock later said "I will never understand why Christians think they can play Black Metal. I really don't think they understand what true Black Metal is". However, current unblack metal bands such as Crimson Moonlight feel that black metal has changed from an ideological movement to a purely musical genre, and thus call their music 'black metal'.
A wide range of political views are found in the black metal scene. The vast majority of black metal bands are not openly political, although there is said to be an undercurrent of romantic and ethnic nationalism in black metal.
Albeit still being a small minority within the genre, Neo-Nazi artists gained some notoriety throughout the years. While some black metal fans boycott Neo-Nazi artists, many are indifferent or appreciate the music without supporting the musicians, but overall Neo-Nazism has been criticized by some prominent and influential black metal artists—including Jon Nödtveidt, Gorgoroth, Dark Funeral, Richard Lederer, Michael Ford, and Arkhon Infaustus. Some liken Nazism to Christianity by arguing that both are authoritarian, collectivist, and a "herd mentality". Olson writes that the shunning of Nazism by some black-metallers "has nothing to do with notions of a 'universal humanity' or a rejection of hate" but that Nazism is shunned "because its hatred is too specific and exclusive".
Some time later, a movement promoting marxist and anarchist ideas was born in the genre, mostly as a reaction to neo-Nazi movements. Others with similar outlook, such as Wolves in the Throne Room, are not overtly political and do not endorse the label.
Documentaries on black metal
- 666 – At Calling Death (1993) was a documentary released by Nuclear Blast, which provides an abundance of interviews and perspectives on the meaning of both death and black metal genres from musicians who perform these styles, in light of the Norwegian scene church burnings and murders, which had been occurring around that time. The latter half of the documentary focuses on black metal.
- Det svarte alvor (1994)
- Satan Rides the Media (1998)
- Black Metal (1998), a Belgian documentary by Marilyn Watelet.
- Norsk Black Metal (2003) was aired on Norwegian TV by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK).
- Metal: A Headbanger's Journey (2005) touches on black metal in the early 1990s, and includes an extensive 25-minute feature on the DVD release.
- True Norwegian Black Metal (2007) is a five-part feature from VICE. It explores some of the aspects of the lifestyle, beliefs and controversies surrounding former Gorgoroth vocalist Gaahl.
- Black Metal: A Documentary (2007), produced by Bill Zebub, explores the world of black metal from the point of view of the artists. There is no narrator and no one outside of black metal takes part in any interview or storytelling.
- Pure Fucking Mayhem (2009) tells the story of the black metal band Mayhem and the tragedies surrounding them.
- Murder Music: A History of Black Metal (2007)
- Once Upon a Time in Norway (2008)
- Black Metal Satanica (2008)
- Until the Light Takes Us (2009) explores black metal's origins and subculture, featuring exclusive interviews and including rare footage from the Black Circle's early days.
- Loputon Gehennan Liekki (Eternal Flame of Gehenna)(2011) Finnish black metal documentary
- Out of the Black – A Black Metal Documentary (2012), an examination of the musical and social origins of black metal while exploring the full spectrum of the religious ideology within the scene. Also examines black metal in America and the multiple differences between the American and the Scandinavian scene.
- One Man Metal (2012) explores the lifestyle and thoughts of the members of the three one-man bands Xasthur, Leviathan and Striborg.
- Attention! Black Metal (2012)
References in media
- A black metal mockumentary Legalize Murder was released in 2006.
- The cartoon show Metalocalypse is about an extreme metal band called Dethklok, with many references to leading black metal artists on the names of various businesses, such as Fintroll's convenience store, Dimmu Burger, Gorgoroth's electric wheelchair store, Carpathian Forest High School, Marduk's Putt & Stuff, Burzum's hot-dogs and Behemoth studios (the man who owns Behemoth studios is also named Mr. Grishnackh). In the episode "Dethdad", Dethklok travels to Norway to both visit Toki's dying father and the original black metal record store, much to the dismay of the band members when they find out the store does not sell any of their music, described by the owner as being "too digital".
- A Norwegian commercial for a laundry detergent once depicted black metal musicians as part of the advertisement.
- Black metal bands such as 1349, Emperor, Behemoth, Dimmu Borgir, Enslaved and Satyricon have had their videos make appearances on MTV's Headbangers Ball.
- Comedian Brian Posehn made a visual reference to Norwegian black metal bands in the music video for his comedy song "Metal by Numbers".
- A KFC commercial screened in Canada (2008) and Australia (2010) featuring a fictional black metal band called Hellvetica. Onstage, the band's singer does a fire-eating trick. Once backstage, he takes a bite of the spicy KFC chicken and declares, "Oh man, that is hot".
- The twenty-first episode of the fourth season of Bones, "Mayhem on a Cross", featured the discovery of a human skeleton at a black metal concert in Norway.
- There are many references to black/extreme metal bands (Bathory, Marduk, Cradle of Filth and Dimmu Borgir) in Åke Edwardson's 1999 crime novel Sun and Shadow (Sol och skugga). The plot involves the music of a fictional Canadian black metal band called Sacrament. As part of the inquiry, Inspector Winter tries to distinguish between black and death metal artists.
- In the UK show The Inbetweeners during some scenes in the sixth form common room, a Mayhem poster for the album Ordo ad Chao can be seen.
- A recurring theme in The IT Crowd (seasons 1 and 2) is the conversion of a character (Richmond) from executive to pariah through his exposure to Cradle of Filth.
- A black metal act is used to advertise "ZYX Sitruuna" a Finnish remedy for throat pain.
- Jonas Åkerlund's 2018 horror-thriller film, Lords of Chaos, based on the 1998 non-fiction book of the same name, centres around a series of crimes that occurred in Oslo, Norway in the early 1990s surrounding the black metal bands Mayhem and Burzum.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Black metal.|
- Bowar, Chad. "Black Metal 101". About.com.
- Lee, Cosmo; Voegtlin, Stewart. "Into the void: Stylus Magazine's Beginner's Guide to Metal". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- Weisbard, Eric, ed. (2012). Pop When the World Falls Apart: Music in the Shadow of Doubt. Duke University Press. p. 279. ISBN 978-0822351085.
- Phillips, William & Cogan, Brian (2009). Encyclopedia of heavy metal music. Greenwood Press. pp. 109, 234. ISBN 978-0313348006.
- Debub, Bill (2007). Black Metal: A Documentary (motion picture). Bill Zebub Productions.
- The End of a Legend? Isten smokes Holocaust Vengeance out of BEHERIT. In: Isten, no. 6, 1995, pp. 44f.
- "The Oath of the Goat's Black Blood". Sinister Flame. 1: 28–32. 2003.
- Chad Bowar: Retro Recommendation: Rotting Christ – Thy Mighty Contract Archived 13 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 24 June 2011, accessed on 13 December 2012.
- Stefan Glas: Rotting Christ. Passage to Arcturo. In: Metal Hammer, March 1992, pp. 70f.
- "Vattnet Viskar's Settler Has Nearly Arrived Home". MetalSucks. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- Dick, Jonathan K. (18 June 2015). "False – Untitled". Pitchfork. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- O'Hagar, Sammy (8 November 2012). "Von's Satanic Blood: Black Black Black Black No. 1". MetalSucks. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "( I.N.R.I. > Overview )". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
- Freeman, Channing (18 January 2013). "Album Review – Darkthrone: A Blaze in the Northern Sky". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Dunn, Sam (2005). Metal: A Headbanger's Journey (motion picture). Seville Pictures.
- Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House. p. 342. ISBN 9781936239764. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2009). Swedish Death Metal. Bazillion Points Books. p. 255. ISBN 9780979616310. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2009). Swedish Death Metal. Bazillion Points Books. p. 225. ISBN 9780979616310. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2009). Swedish Death Metal. Bazillion Points Books. p. 253. ISBN 9780979616310. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
- McIver, Joel (2009). Justice for All – The Truth About Metallica (updated ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 9780857120090. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Škot, Mladen. "Interview with Jotunspor". maelstrom.nu. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Blabbermouth.net – Gorgoroth Guitarist Infernus: 'I Personally Am Against Racism in Both Thought and Practice'". Blabbermouth.net. 15 March 2008. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Olson 2008, p. 30, 42.
- Emperor. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points Books 2011, p. 274.
- Kahn-Harris 2007, p. 4.
- Campion, Chris (20 February 2005). "In the Face of Death". guardian.co.uk. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Kalis, Quentin (31 August 2004). "CoC : Rant : Black Metal: A Brief Guide". Chronicles of Chaos. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Patterson, Dayal. Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House, 2013. p. 301.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry: Rockdetector A-Z of Black Metal; 2001, Cherry Red Books, London, UK; p. i.
- Patterson, Dayal: Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult; 2013, Feral House, Port Townsend, Washington; p. 197.
- J. Campbell: Varathron "Genesis of the Unaltered Evil" DLP/Triple LP and TS Out Now, 30 January 2012, accessed on 13 December 2012.
- "Bio/Manifesto". Gorgoroth official website. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007.
Gorgoroth was founded by Infernus in 1992 as a strategy to perpetrate sonic and spiritual violence upon the world in order to bring forth change in peoples perception of being therein. Thus, through metal music, Satans minister on earth summoned an avatara of the forces of darkness and did let it manifestate through a variety of attempts on creating what was perceived as ultimate black metal taking form on stage as well as in a variety of studio recordings. [...] With the devoted presence of the new full time members Gaahl and King, as well as a not a day too early achieved social and mental fundament for future work, a deal was inked with the german label Nuclear Blast and the band to a bigger extent adopted the position as a live performance act taking upon them several tours worldwide bringing its sinister presence and the word of Satan to new territories...
- Olson 2008, p. 18f.
- Bennett, Andy; Waksman, Steve (19 January 2015). The SAGE Handbook of Popular Music. SAGE. p. 458. ISBN 9781473914407.
- Buchanan, Ian; Swiboda, Marcel (1 January 2004). Deleuze and Music. Edinburgh University Press. p. 107. ISBN 9780748618699.
- Dome, Michael (2007). Murder Music: Black Metal (motion picture). Rockworld TV. Event occurs at[time needed].
- Olson 2008, p. 25.
- Marone, V. (2014). "A Winterhorde in a Ravenrealm: Immortal's lyrics as an expression of Northeroic Gothic" (PDF). Aeternum: The Journal of Contemporary Gothic Studies. 1 (2): 40–60.
- Hagen, Ross (2011). Musical Style, Ideology, and Mythology in Norwegian Black Metal (Book chapter in: Metal Rules the Globe: Heavy Metal Music Around the World). Durham, NC, USA: Duke University Press. pp. 180–199.
- Ebner, Arne (25 July 2010). Ästhetik des Doom (PDF) (Bachelor) (in German). Macromedia University of Applied Sciences for Media and Communication – Cologne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Sil, Janet (2013). Ishmael, Amelia; Price, Zareen; Stephanou, Aspasia; Woodward, Ben (eds.). "Open a Vein: Suicidal Black Metal and Enlightenment". Helvete: A Journal of Black Metal Theory. Brooklyn: Punctum Books (1): 5–19. ISBN 9780615758282. ISSN 2326-683X.
- Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Port Townsend: Feral House. p. 351. ISBN 9781936239757.
- Marc Spermeth: Besessen von der Dunkelheit und dem Bösen. In: Ablaze, no. 5, May/June 1995, p. 12.
- Ben Ratliff: Thank You, Professor, That Was Putrid. In: The New York Times, 14 December 2009.
- Olson 2008, p. 47.
- Tisdall, Jonathan (4 February 2004). "Aftenposten Norway, Norwegian news in English". aftenposten.no. Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Enrico Ahlig: Marduk-Gitarrist besitzt Leichenteile von Dead, 5 June 2012, accessed on 9 January 2013.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 39.
- Hendrik Möbus: National Socialist Black Metal, accessed on 2 January 2013.
- Jon "Metalion" Kristiansen: The Saga of True Norwegian Black Metal, accessed on 2 January 2013.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: Darkthrone. A Blaze in the Northern Sky. In: Rock Hard, no. 269, October 2009, p. 97.
- Mersus: 5 Klassiker. In: Rock Hard, no. 269, October 2009, p. 84.
- sG: 5 Klassiker. In: Rock Hard, no. 269, October 2009, p. 79.
- Patterson, Dayal. Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House, 2013. pp. 1–5.
- J. Bennett, "Procreation of the Wicked", Precious Metal: Decibel Presents the Stories Behind 25 Extreme Metal Masterpieces, Albert Mudrian, ed., Da Capo Press, pp. 34f.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. Metal: The Definitive Guide. p. 208.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 21.
- Daniel Ekeroth: Swedish Death Metal. Second edition. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points 2009, p. 244, accessed on 24 January 2013.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 10.
- Biography, accessed on 24 January 2013.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 1998, p. 14-16.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 1998, p. 36.
- Lahdenpera, Esa (1995). "Northern Black Metal Legends". Kill Yourself!!! Magazine (4). Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Death SS. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points Books 2011, p. 474.
- Incubus. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points Books 2011, p. 88.
- Tiamat. In: Slayer, no. 8, 1991, p. 6.
- Daniel Ekeroth: Swedish Death Metal. Second edition. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points 2009, p. 249, accessed on 8 October 2012.
- Daniel Ekeroth: Swedish Death Metal. Second edition. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points 2009, p. 81, accessed on 24 September 2012.
- Daniel Ekeroth: Swedish Death Metal. Second edition. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points 2009, p. 162f., accessed on 24 September 2012.
- Ronald Ziegler: Merchandise whorery, accessed on 23 June 2013.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Parabellum biography". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Götz Kühnemund: Mortuary Drape. Tolling 13 Knell (DLP). In: Rock Hard, no. 174, accessed on 14 June 2013.
- Biography, accessed on 23 June 2013.
- Robert Müller: Wollt Ihr den ewigen Krieg?. Der tote Winkel. In: Metal Hammer, November 2011.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: War Black Metal: Die Extremsten der Extremen. Was bleibt, ist Schutt und Asche. In: Rock Hard, no. 279, pp. 71–73.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: SARCOFAGO. I.N.R.I. In: Rock Hard, Nr. 304, September 2012, p. 73.
- Fenriz: Darkthrone Biography and Video Clips. 21 November 2009, accessed on 24 September 2012.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: Impaled Nazarene. Tol Cormpt Norz Norz Norz. In: Rock Hard, no. 307, December 2012, p. 77.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: Die Könige vom Westwall. Die legendären Protagonisten von damals im exklusiven Interview. In: Rock Hard, no. 269, October 2009, p. 92.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: Deutschland, deine Schwarzmetall-Bands. In: Rock Hard, no. 269, October 2009, p. 89.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Immortal". About.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010.
- Until the Light Takes Us (motion picture). Variance Films. 2009.
- Kory Grow: WEB-EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: DARKTHRONE'S FENRIZ, PART 2! HIS THOUGHTS ON 'TRANSILVANIAN HUNGER' AND HIP.
- Olson 2008, p. 27, 33, 41.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 222.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 218f.
- Once Upon a Time in Norway (motion picture). Another World Entertainment. 2007.
- Pure Fucking Mayhem (motion picture). Index Verlag. 2008.
- Basik, Dmitri (June 1998). "Interview with Hellhammer conducted by Dmitry Basik June 1998". thetruemayhem.com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 62.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 49.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 59-60.
- Bromley, Adrian "The Energizer". "Mayhem: To Hell and Back". Unrestrained (15). Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "MusicMight :: Artists :: Immortal". rockdetector.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "w w w . i m m o r t a l . n u". immortal.nu. Archived from the original on 20 August 2001. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- Ravn: Strid. In: Slayer, No. 20, Blood Fire Death, 2010, p. 78.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 66.
- Satan Rides the Media. 1998.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 93.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 94f.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 141.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 269f.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 89.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 105.
- Black Metal Satanica, 2008.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 117.
- Steinke, Darcey. "Satan's Cheerleaders". SPIN. February 1996.
- Huey, Steve (10 August 1993). "Mayhem Mayhem Biography on Yahoo! Music". yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- Vikernes, Varg: A Burzum Story: Part II – Euronymous. Burzum.org.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 123.
- Campion, Chris (20 February 2005). "In the face of death". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
'Øystein was always sending death threats to people,' says Necro Butcher. 'It was his reaction to everything. But he didn't put so much into it. And then when he met you, he was like, "OK. You're cool!". Then you were best friends. So when eventually he got to be unfriendly with Varg, he threatened him like he did everyone else. Øystein told him, "I'm going to send some people to torture you. Until you die." But Varg Vikernes saw this as a real threat. He probably thought, "better him than me. I'll just go down and do him".'
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 120.
- Berglund, Nina (27 October 2003). "Police Nab 'The Count' After He Fled Jail". Aftenposten. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Varg Vikernes ute på prøve". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Oslo, Norway. NTB. 10 March 2009. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Ute av fengsel". dagbladet.no (in Norwegian). 22 May 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- Black Funeral. Embrace The Sounds Of Grim Medieval Vampiric Black Metal... Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. In: Kill Yourself!!! Magazine, no. 3, 1995, p. 36, accessed on 21 November 2012.
- Baddeley, Gavin; Filth, Dani (March 2010). The Gospel of Filth. FAB Press. pp. 48–50.
- Serba, John. "The Principle of Evil Made Flesh – Cradle of Filth". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Partridge & Christianson 2014, p. 42.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 316-318.
- Patterson, Dayal. Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House, 2013. First page of Ch. 29.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 272.
- Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke: Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. NYU Press, 2003. p. 206.
- Absurd: Thuringian Pagan Madness, Capricornus Prod. 1995.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 1998, p. 250f.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 295.
- Alexander von Meilenwald: 5 Klassiker. In: Rock Hard, no. 269, October 2009, p. 82.
- "Dimmu Borgir". AllMusic.
- Tornado: Up Against the Wall Motherfucker!!!!. A Worst Case Scenario Written by Tornado!. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points Books 2011, pp. 406f.
- Andrea Biagi: Biography Part One. "The First Era", accessed on 25 October 2012.
- Andrea Biagi: THE KILLING, accessed on 25 October 2012.
- Dissection. Fear the Return!. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Brooklyn, NY: Bazillion Points Books 2011, p. 568-570.
- "Metal Centre Webzine: News, Gallery, Reviews, Interviews, etc. – 09/03/2012". metalcentre.com. June 2003. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Sabine Langner: Shining. Verzweiflung, mein Erbe Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. In: Legacy, no. 73, accessed on 27 September 2012.
- Shining (25.04.07) Archived 1 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Nathan T. Birk: OFERMOD.
- Stahlschrulle: Ofermod – Tiamtü.
- Olson 2008, p. 126.
- FAUST LEAVES DISSECTION BECAUSE OF THE SATANIC CONCEPT, accessed on 25 October 2012.
- Dissection: Live Legacy, Nuclear Blast 2003.
- INTERVIEW FOR THE FANS BY THE FANS. - Final Interview with Jon Nödtveidt -, accessed on 25 October 2012.
- REINKAΩS, accessed on 25 October 2012.
- Official Statement about Jon's Death, 2006, accessed on 25 October 2012.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 176f.
- J. Bennett: NSBM Special Report.
- Olson 2008, p. 102.
- Olson 2008, p. 99.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 312-315.
- Ankit: Interview with MKM from Antaeus and Aosoth (French Black Metal), 23 August 2011, accessed on 31 December 2012.
- Jan Jaedike: Merrimack. Appetite for Destruction. In: Rock Hard, no. 302, July 2012, p. 62.
- Tobias Gerber, Sebastian Kessler: Video-Special zum deutschen Black Metal, 11 April 2011, accessed on 31 December 2012.
- Gunnar Sauermann: Special: Black Metal in den USA. Schwarzes Amerika. In: Metal Hammer, August 2007, pp. 88f.
- Gunnar Sauermann: Verfeindete Brüder. Tod gegen Schwarz – Death oder Black Metal?. In: Metal Hammer, August 2007, p. 90.
- Gunnar Sauermann: Special: Black Metal in den USA. Schwarzes Amerika. In: Metal Hammer, August 2007, p. 91.
- Janne: I don't consider myself a poet, by any means.
- Roberto Martinelli: Interview with XASTHUR Archived 6 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. In: Maelstrom, no. 11.
- Heiko Behr: Black Metal: Da kreischt die Avantgarde. In: Die Zeit, 9 December 2011.
- Olson 2008, p. 114.
- Davis, Erik (13 November 2007). "Deep Eco-Metal". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Jon Caramanica: If You Celebrate Nihilism, Is It Somethingism?. In: The New York Times, 5 June 2011.
- Watain. Black Metal Militia. In: Slayer, no. 20, Blood Fire Death, 2010, p. 9.
- "Agalloch Reluctant Kings". exclaim.ca.
- Götz Kühnemund: Gospel of the Horns. Schluss mit dem schöngeistigen Quatsch!. In: Rock Hard, no. 306, November 2012, p. 43.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Melechesh". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- McKay, Aaron. "Interview with Moloch of Melechesh". Chronicles of Chaos. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Serba, John. "Djinn Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Arallu". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Puhl, Carl. "Interview with Butchered and Yonatan of Arallu". Lords of Metal. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Kelly, Kim. "When Black Metal's Anti-Religious Message Gets Turned on Islam". The Atlantic, 11 July 2012.
- "Anti-Islamic female black metal band from Iraq a hoax?". The Metalluminati. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- Kelly, Kim. "When Black Metal's Anti-Religious Message Gets Turned on Islam". The Atlantic, 11 July 2012.
- "Anti-Islam lyrics no barrier to Norway music prize". The Local. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Pizek, Jeff (20 June 2008). "Daily Herald | Nachtmystium shines black light on black metal". dailyherald.com. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Thorns". voicesfromthedarkside.de. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Raymer, Miles (22 May 2008). "Beautiful Brutality". Chicago Reader. Wrapports. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- Walschots, Natalie (23 May 2014). "Agalloch Reluctant Kings". Exclaim!. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- Newshound, Terrorizer. "ITALIAN BLACKENED DOOMSTERS FORGOTTEN TOMB PLAN RELEASE". Terrorizer Online. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Ordo Obsidium – Orbis Tertius Review". About.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Zahn, Thorsten; Schurer, Petra (1 June 2003). "Emotionen in Zeitlupe". Rolling Stone (in German). Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "REVIEWS". Archived from the original on 28 January 1999. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- Newshound, Terrorizer. "WOODS OF YPRES RELEASE DISCUSS THE GREEN ALBUM". Terrorizer Online. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
- "DEINONYCHUS: 'You Will Get A Pure Black/Doom Metal Album'". Blabbermouth. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House. ISBN 978-1936239757. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- Obstkrieg, Dan. "Nortt – Endeligt Review". Last Rites. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "BETHLEHEM REPLACE LIFELOVER ON BILL FOR KINGS OF BLACK METAL FESTIVAL". Brave Words. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "Katatonia: 'Brave Murder Day'". Decibel Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Yavuz, Mehmet Selim (September 2015). Dead is dead: Perspectives on the Meaning of Death in Depressive Suicidal Black Metal Music through Musical Representations (MMus). University of London. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Luedtke, Christopher (2 February 2016). "Essential Black Metal Listening: XASTHUR Nocturnal Poisoning". Metal Injection. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Whelan, Kez (17 September 2013). "Incubate Preview: Khold". Terrorizer. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Athenar of Midnight Does Not Give a Fuck". Invisible Oranges.
- Buchanan, John D. "Kvelertak". Allmusic. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Vreid: 'The Reap' Video Released". Blabbermouth.net. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Kelly, Kim (14 August 2014). "Hell Awaits: Disemballerina, Khold, Heavydeath and more". Pitchfork. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Begrand, Adrien (2 February 2009). "Satyricon – The Age of Nero". Popmatters. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Walschots, Natalie Zina (16 September 2013). "Satyricon – Satyricon". Exclaim!. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Darkthrone – Soulside Journey Review". About.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Stosuy, Brandon (9 July 2009). "Nachtmystium – Assassins: Black Meddle, Pt. 1". Pitchfork. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Raymer, Miles (5 December 2012). "Nidingr – Greatest of Deceivers". Pitchfork. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Nelson, Michael (30 December 2013). "The Black Market: The Month In Metal – December 2013". Stereogum. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Von Havoc, Felix (1 January 1984). "Rise of Crust". Profane Existence. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- Dunlap, Xander. "Directionless people are malleable—easily pointed in the wrong directions". Thrasher. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Ekeroth, p. 27.
- Iskra Interviews Archived 15 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Hard of Hearing", Terrorizer no. 171, June 2008, p. 56.
- "Fukpig". Terrorizer.
- "C: Do you think that FUKPIG has founded a style of his own? Misery: Nah its just d-beat crust, with added horror C: and then What difference to FUKPIG from the rest of the bands? Misery: We add more black metal / horror influences, but are still inspired by the same things C: Is Necro-Punk your style? Misery: Yeah, necro in the black metal style playing crust punk, so yeah Necro Punk." Interview: Fukpig Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Zorgdrager, Bradley. "Young and in the Way When Life Comes to Death". Exclaim!. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Ekeroth, p. 258.
- "Canadian Crust Punks Storm of Sedition Go Off the Grid on Their Furious New 'Decivilize' LP | NOISEY". NOISEY. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Skagos: Anarchic Album Review | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- Berto. "Review Vidargangr – A World That has To Be Opposed". Lords of Metal. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "De Zwaarste Metalgids: 66 metalgenres in één zin uitgelegd". Studio Brussel (in German). Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- Gevorgyan, Elen. "Music, Ideology and How They Interact: A Journey from Sacred Music to Black Metal" (PDF). American University of Armenia. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- Nonjon, Adrien (2019). Black Metal Theory Symposium Program. University of Ljubljana. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- "If It Ain't Got No Blastbeat, It's Not My Revolution: Panopticon". PopMatters. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Skagos: Anarchic Album Review – Pitchfork". pitchfork.com.
- Kelly, Kim (29 March 2017). "Morast Expertly Synthesize Black, Death, and Doom Metal on 'Ancestral Void'". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Mattia, A. (7 February 2017). "DON'T LOOK BELOW: HARVEST GULGALTHA – 'ALTARS OF DEVOTION' REVIEW + STREAM". Cvlt Nation. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Falzon, Denise (31 October 2012). "Dragged Into Sunlight 'Widowmaker' (album stream)". Exclaim!. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Moore, Doug (31 August 2016). "The Black Market: The Month In Metal – August 2016". Stereogum. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Daniels, Eric. "ERIC DANIELS / SOULBURN". Jackson Guitars. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Whelan, Kez (11 June 2014). "Soulburn: Band Of The Day". Terrorizer. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Unger, Matthew. Sound, Symbol, Sociality: The Aesthetic Experience of Extreme Metal Music. p. 27.
- Henderson, Alex. "Ninewinged Serpent – Devian". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Bowar, Chad. "Hacavitz – Venganza Review". About.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Gardner, Robert Owen. Studies in Symbolic Interaction. p. 119.
- Dunn, Sam; Deaville, Jason (2016). "Blackened Death Metal". Cite journal requires
- "Belphegor Suspends All Activities". terrorizer.com. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Prato, Greg. "Behemoth". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Lee, Cosmo (21 February 2006). "Akercocke – Words That Go Unspoken, Deeds That Go Undone – Review – Stylus Magazine". Stylus Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
Death metal and black metal are notoriously insular, but Akercocke has distinguished itself by freely drawing from both. Death metal tends to emphasize the low end, while black metal mainly resides in the midrange and treble, so Akercocke's 'blackened death' hybrid is rich and full-bodied.
- Pretorious, Neil (30 July 2009). "Review – Sacramentum – Far Away from the Sun"]. The Metal Observer. "If you think that Blackened Death Metal begins and ends with DISSECTION, then think again. SACRAMENTUM seriously dropped the (snow) ball with 'The Coming of Chaos' and 'Thy Black Destiny', but on 'Far Away from the Sun' they really delivered the goods on all fronts."
- D, Chris. "Top 5 Dissection Clones". Decibel. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- ANDREW, J. "Blackened Melodic Death Metal: A History Lesson". Metal Injection. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Ekeroth, Daniel. Swedish Death Metal. p. 267.
- Symmetry, Terraa. "An Exhaustive Study: Melodic Black Metal [1991–Present] Part IV – Symphonies of Destruction ('98-'99)". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- Symmetry, Terraa. "An Exhaustive Study: Melodic Black Metal [1991–Present] Part V – Ancient Thrones Conquered ('00-'01)". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- Symmetry, Terra. "An Exhaustive Study: Melodic Black Metal [1991–Present] Part I – Before the Light's Bane". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- Symmetry, Terraa. "An Exhaustive Study: Melodic Black Metal [1991–Present] Part III – Rituals Obscured by Dawning Suns". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- WIEDERHORN, JON. "SKELETONWITCH: HOW AN ANTON LAVEY–LOVING EX–CHOIR MEMBER PUSHED THRASHERS TO NEW LEVEL". Revolver. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- KATEL, JACOB (2013). "Florida's Top Ten Black Metal Bands". Miami New Times.
- "A HILL TO DIE UPON - OMENS CD". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- DISTEFANOl, ALEX. "The 13 Most Satanic Metal Bands". LA Weekly. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- "Converse Rubber Tracks x MetalSucks 2015 Preview: Dendritic Arbor". Metal Sucks. 16 September 2015.
- "Father-son blackened-grindcore band Vomit Fist premiere "Under The Rind" lyric video". Alternative Press. 10 September 2014.
- "Blackened Grindcore Innovators Dendritic Arbor Announce Fall Tour". Metal Sucks. 19 October 2015.
- "Video Premiere: Sunlight's Bane – 'Begrudging Soul'". Decibel Magazine. 21 June 2017.
- "Video Premiere: Scumpulse – 'Rotten'". Decibel Magazine. 12 February 2018.
- "Full Stream: Malevich / Iron Gag – 'Split'". Decibel Magazine. 1 May 2018.
- "Exclusive: Tech-Death Supergroup ABHORRENT Show Us "The Elegance Of Asymmetry"". Metal Injection. 5 November 2015.
- "Rotting Christ: Kata Ton Daimona Eaytoy". Pop Matters. 15 May 2013.
- "Top Ten Black-Thrash Albums by Steve Jansson (Daeva)". Decibel Magazine. 6 December 2017.
- "The Best Metal Album From 40 Subgenres".
- "Nine Metal Bands Leading the Blackened Thrash Attack". Archived from the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Hear Blackened-Thrash Crew Aura Noir Channel Sepultura on Thundering New Song". 5 April 2018.
- "WITCHERY Releases Video For 'Of Blackened Wing'". Blabbermouth. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- McIver, Joel (15 December 2008). The 100 Greatest Metal Guitarists. Jawbone Press. ISBN 9781906002206 – via Google Books.
- Fixell, Ethan. "THE UNDERGROUND SOUNDS OF AMERICA: BLACK FAST". Kerrang!. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (April 2009). "Stairway to Heathen". Revolver: 60–64. Archived from the original on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Jonsson, Johannes (13 November 2011). "Vardoger – Whitefrozen". Metal For Jesus!. Johannes Jonsson. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- Unger, Matthew (22 August 2016). Sound, Symbol, Sociality: The Aesthetic Experience of Extreme Metal Music. Springer. ISBN 9781137478351 – via Google Books.
- Patterson, Dayal (25 November 2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House. ISBN 9781936239764 – via Google Books.
- "Irish Metal Legends Primordial's New Album Is a Raw-Edged Epic – Noisey". noisey.vice.com.
- Monger, James Christopher. "Primordial". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Halupczok, Marc (March 2010). "Waldschrate & Met-Trinker". Metal Hammer: 30.
- Bolther, Giancarlo. "Rock Impressions – Interviews – Cruachan". rock-impressions.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Bathory". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Marty Rytkonen, Mysticum interview, Worm Gear No. 8,  Access date: 11 January 2009.
- Roel F., Interview with Treachery, Lords of Metal issue 87, December 2008.  Archived 9 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Access date: 3 December 2008.
- Chris Dick, "Blut Aus Nord", Decibel, December 2006. "Blut Aus Nord". Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2016. Access date: 22 July 2008.
- Samael, metal-archives.com, 3 September 2011.  Access date: 10 September 2011.
- Mooring, Matt (28 March 2005). "Review of The Axis Of Perdition". www.metalreview.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2010. Access date: 4 January 2009.
- Gothtronic.  Access date: 4 January 2009.
- Globaldomination, 26 September 2007. "Global Domination | Reviews | ...And Oceans: A.M.G.O.D." Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2010. Access date: 4 January 2009.
- Antti J. Ravelin, Nexus Polaris review, Allmusic.  Access date: 11 January 2009.
- Stefanos Zachariadis, Blood Inside review, Metal Invader, 3 May 2005. "Metal Invader ( Ulver - Blood Inside [featured album]) Review". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2007. Access date: 9 January 2009.
- Mark Hensch, Some Kind of Heroin review, Thrashpit.  Access date: 9 January 2009.
- "The 10 essential post-black metal albums".
- "MYRKUR On Criticism From Black Metal Scene: 'I Respect Passion, Even If It's Against Me'". 19 August 2018.
- "My Mom Likes Deafheaven and the Future of Black Metal". 25 February 2016.
- "The Best Metal Albums of 2015 – Pitchfork". pitchfork.com.
- "South African Post-Black Metal Enigmas Wildernessking Peer Into the 'Mystical Future'". Noisey Vice. 20 January 2016.
- Peters, Mark (30 March 2017). "French rockers Alcest bring blackgaze genre to Hong Kong". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- Walschots, Natalie Zina (26 February 2014). "The Translator Blackgaze". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Howells, Tom. "Blackgaze: meet the bands taking black metal out of the shadows". the Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Nelson, Michael (3 January 2014). "Deconstructing: Alcest's Shelter And Metal In A Post-Deafheaven World". Stereogum. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "Amesoeurs – Amesoeurs review". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "OATHBREAKER Is Streaming Its Blast-Heavy, Shoegazey New Album Rheia". Metal Injection. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Olson 2008, p. 101.
- Vikernes, Varg (July 2005). "A Burzum Story: Part VII – The Nazi Ghost". burzum.org. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 303.
- Olson 2008, p. 103.
- "Oranssi Pazuzu – Decibel Magazine". 22 February 2016.
- Kelly, Kim. "Finnish Black Metal Radicals Oranssi Pazuzu Set the Sky Ablaze In Their New Video For "Lahja"". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "READERS CHOICE: THE PSYCHEDELIC BLACK METAL EDITION – MetalSucks". 7 June 2010.
- "In The Woods…: Norway's psychedelic black masters branch out again".
- "Symphonic Black Metal : Significant Albums, Artists and Songs, Most Viewed : AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Kapelovitz, Dan (February 2001). "Heavy Metal Jesus Freaks – Headbanging for Christ". Mean Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 August 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
And where secular black metal thrived, so did its Christian counterpart, unblack metal, with names like Satanicide, Neversatan, and Satan's Doom.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 359.
- Frost (CD liner notes). Osmose Productions. 1994.
- Nordic Metal – A Tribute to Euronymous (CD liner notes). Necropolis Records. 1995.
- Olson 2008, p. 37.
- Murphy, David (2012). "Chapter 25: Extreme Neo-nationalist Music Scenes at the Heart of Europe". In Ullrich Kockel (ed.). A Companion to the Anthropology of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. p. 437.
- Manea, Irina-Maria (16 April 2015). "Primal Roots: Ancestry and Race in Extreme Music Discourses". Proceedings of IAC-SSaH 2015: International Academic Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities in Prague 2015. Czech Institute of Academic Education: 186–187, 190. ISBN 9788090579125.
- Noys, Benjamin (2010). "'Remain True to the Earth!': Remarks on the Politics of Black Metal". In Nicola Masciandaro (ed.). Hideous Gnosis: Black Metal Theory Symposium. Glossator. pp. 106–108.
- "An Interview w/ Wolves in the Throne Room's Aaron Weaver". brooklynvegan.com. 22 May 2009. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Olson 2008, p. 2.
- Kalis, Quentin (31 August 2004). "CoC : Rant : Black Metal: A Brief Guide". Chronicles of Chaos. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Van Young, Adrian. Black Metal is Sublime. The New Inquiry. 4 March 2014.
- Lesourd, Elodie (2013). "Baptism or Death: Black Metal in Contemporary Art". In Amelia Ishmael (ed.). Helvete: a Journal of Black Metal Theory. Punctum Books. p. 36.
- Norsk Black Metal. Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 2003.
- Olson 2008, p. 27f.
- Olson 2008, p. 129.
- Olson 2008, p. 4.
- Olson 2008, p. 50.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 16.
- Olson 2008, p. 7f.
- Esa Lahdenpera: Northern Black Metal Legends. In: Kill Yourself, no. 2, August 1993. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Maki, Jeff (18 July 2006). "live-metal.net – Interviews: Gorgoroth – Infernus". live-metal.net. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Dr. Rape: Funeral Mist. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Brooklyn, New York: Bazillion Points Books 2011. pp. 420f.
- Arthur. "Interview with Watain". geocities.com/flesh_ro. Archived from the original on 19 October 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- terrybezer: Unpublished Watain Interview Extras! Archived 17 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 27 March 2009, accessed on 21 November 2012.
- Ophth: AntaeuS, accessed on 21 November 2012.
- "Article: Interview". metallibrary.ru (in Russian). Open Publishing. 7 January 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Throne of Malediction Talks the Art of Black Metal". metalunderground.com. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Kristiansen, Jon (2011). "Worship Him!". Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. Brooklyn, New York: Bazillion Points Books: 467.
- Mulvany, Aaron Patrick (May 2000). 'Re-Awakening Pride Once Lost': Indigeneity and European Folk Metal. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University. p. IV.
- Varg Vikernes: "A Burzum Story: Part III – The Lie-Propaganda". Burzum.org.
- "Writing the deeds of Darkness and Evil". Official Bathory website. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Mayhem vs. Burzum: Opposing views of black metal", Invisible Oranges, 21 September 2011.
- Tatiana Godarska: GORGOROTH'S GAAHL – INFINITE DIMENSIONS, 19 June 2006, accessed on 28 October 2012.
- Interview with Gaahl of Gorgoroth, 7 October 2004 Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Tartarean Desire Webzine.
- 'Det Som Engang Varg'. In: Jon Kristiansen: Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries, p. 292.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 191.
- "heavymetaltribune.com". www.heavymetaltribune.com. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "Do You Know Your Greek Gods? Identify the Major Players". About.com.
- Sanneh, Kelefa. "Enslaved – Music". The New York Times.
- Director Sam Dunn Picks the Five Most Important Extreme-Metal Bands – Revolver Magazine (13 August 2013) Archived 27 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Jordan, Jason (24 May 2005). "Crimson Moonlight – At Their Most Brutal – Ultimate Metal Forum". ultimatemetal.com. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Erasmus (2006). "Horde Interview". Unblack.de. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2007.
- Morrow, Matt (2001). "Antestor – The Return of the Black Death". The Whipping Post. Open Publishing. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Sherlock, Jayson (5 February 2013). "For the life of me,..." Facebook. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Moynihan & Søderlind 2003, p. 349-355.
- Trafford, Simon; Pluskowski, Aleks (2007). Marshall, David W. (ed.). "Antichrist Superstars: The Vikings in Hard Rock and Heavy Metal". Mass Market Medieval: Essays on the Middle Ages in Popular Culture. McFarland & Company: 64. ISBN 978-0-7864-2922-6.
- Gardell, Mattias. Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism. Duke University Press, 2003. p.307
- Olson 2008, p. 123f.
- Metal Heart 2/00
- "YouTube – Dark Funeral- Interview(Episode 276)". YouTube. 5 April 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Political Statements from Protector (Summoning)". summoning.info. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Interview with Michael Ford". fmp666.com. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Olson 2008, p. 123.
- "Black metal – Belgique 1998 – sur Cinergie.be".
- "True Norwegian Black Metal – VICE – 1 of 5 – YouTube". YouTube. 25 April 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Pure Fucking Mayhem Full Documentary". YouTube. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Blabbermouth.net – Black Metal Documentary 'Out of the Black' to Be Released for Free via Web". Blabbermouth.net. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "One Man Metal – Part 1 – Black Metal's Unexplored Fringes". YouTube. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Christe, Ian (2004). Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. New York: Harper Collins. p. 289.
- "Brian Posehn – "Metal by Numbers" – YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Edwardson, Åke (2005). Sun and Shadow (in Swedish). New York: Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-03415-0.
- "ZYX SITRUUNA 3 mg (1 × 20fol)". Nettiapteekki | Apteekkituotteet netistä (in Finnish). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- Moynihan, Michael; Søderlind, Didrik (2003) . Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground (revised and enlarged ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-94-6. OCLC 63047807.
- Moynihan, Michael; Søderlind, Didrik (1998). Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground (first ed.). Venice, CA: Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-48-2. OCLC 39151590.
- Olson, Benjamin Hedge (May 2008). I Am the Black Wizards: Multiplicity, Mysticism and Identity in Black Metal Music and Culture. Bowling Green State University.
- Kristiansen, Jon (2011). Metalion: The Slayer Mag Diaries. New York: Bazillion Points Books. ISBN 978-0-9796163-4-1.
- Kahn-Harris, Keith (2007). Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge. Oxford; New York: Berg. ISBN 978-1-84520-399-3. OCLC 701719393.
- Partridge, Christopher H.; Christianson, Eric S. (2014). The Lure of the Dark Side: Satan and Western Demonology in Popular Culture. Routledge. ISBN 9781317490791.
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2008). Swedish Death Metal. New York: Bazillion Points Books. ISBN 978-0-9796163-1-0.
- Hainaut, Bérenger (2017). Le Style black metal. Château-Gontier: Aedam Musicae. ISBN 978-2-919046-21-8.
- Kugelberg, John, ed. (2008). True Norwegian Black Metal. Beste, Peter (photographer). New York: Power House Books. ISBN 978-1-57687-435-6.
- Lilja, Esa (2009). Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony. Helsinki: IAML Finland. ISBN 978-952-5363-35-7.
- Metalphoto, Chérie, ed. (2011). Chants of Evil: The Visions of the Breathing Darkness. Metalphoto, Chérie (photographer). Metalphoto Publisher. ISBN 978-90-816734-1-9.
- Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Port Townsend: Feral House. ISBN 978-1-936239-75-7.
- Pattison, Louis; Richardson, Nick; Stosuy, Brandon, eds. (2012). Black Metal: Beyond the Darkness. Black Dog Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907317-72-9. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Swinford, Dean (2013). Death Metal Epic (Book I: The Inverted Katabasis). Dayton: Atlatl Press. ISBN 978-0-9883484-3-1.