Sohar

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Sohar

صُحَار
City
The fort at Al Hujra
The fort at Al Hujra
Official seal of Sohar
Seal
Sohar is located in Oman
Sohar
Sohar
Location in Oman
Coordinates: 24°20′31.2″N 56°43′47.6″E / 24.342000°N 56.729889°E / 24.342000; 56.729889
Country Oman
GovernorateAl Batinah North
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Total221,605
Time zoneUTC+4 (Oman Standard Time)
Sohar (Soar) Portuguese 16th century Fortress in a drawing of the 17th century Book of Fortress.
Purple - Portuguese in Persian Gulf in the 16th and 17th centuries. Main cities, ports and routes.

Sohar (Arabic: صُحَار‎, also Romanized as Suḥār) is the capital and largest city of the Al Batinah North Governorate in Oman. An ancient capital of the country that once served as an important Islamic port town,[1] Suhar has also been credited as the mythical birthplace of Sinbad the Sailor.[2]

According to the 2010 census, Suhar's population was 140,006, making it Oman's fifth most-populated settlement.[3] Described as an industrial town,[4] the development of the Sohar Industrial Port during the 2000s has transformed it into a major Omani industrial hub.

History[edit]

As the largest town in the region, it has been argued that Suhar is identified with the ancient town called 'Omanah' (Arabic: عُمَانَة‎) mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History. This settlement is believed to have given Oman its name.[5]

According to Al-Tabari, in 893 or 894, during the Abbasid era, there was a dispute about who should rule Oman amongst local factions. A faction that approached the Abbasids was the Bani Sama, who were based in Al-Buraimi or Tawam, before moving to Sohar. Bani Sama also referred to themselves as the Wajihid Dynasty, and assumed leadership over the region. The present-day town of al-Buraimi is part of a historical region that Tabari referred to as 'Tawam', which nowadays also includes the adjacent UAE city of Al Ain.[6]

By the 10th century, Sohar was one of the richest ports of the Persian Gulf. It was praised by Ibn Hawqal and al-Muqadsasī, who called it "flourishing, populous, beautiful, pleasant and delightful" and compared it favourably with the ports of China. Aloes, wood, bamboo, sandalwood and spices were brought from India and frankincense from Dhofar. The city was sacked by the Buwayhids in 971 and its trade went into decline. It also suffered from attacks by the merchants of Kish across the gulf. By the 13th century, it was part of the Kingdom of Hormuz. It was still an international port until at least the 16th century.[7]

Portuguese[edit]

In the early 16th century , Sohar was conquered by the Portuguese empire , to control the entrances of the Persian Gulf and trade in the Region.It was part of a web of fortress that the Portuguese had in the region , from Bahrain to Hormuz. It was drawned in the 17th century as it appears in the António Bocarro Book of fortress[8].

Industry[edit]

Suhar is currently experiencing significant investment and economic shifts making it the focus of attention of many local and international investors and businessmen. This change is due to a series of investment projects and economic giant in Suhar industrial area where Port of Sohar is located. Established in 2002, the port has a strategic importance due to its nearness to the Strait of Hormuz. It is operated by Suhar Industrial Port Company (SIPC) and it is considered a world class port. With current investments exceeding $12 billion, it is one of the world’s largest port development projects.

The Omani government has paid special attention to the city of Suhar, and placed it in the priorities of the future plan of the Omani economy in 2020. The goal of the Omani government is to make Suhar a business and industrial hub and help the Omani economy diversify away from oil. In order for the Omani economy to achieve this economic diversification, the Omani government is investing in a number of projects in the industrial area of Suhar. For example, it is investing more than $5 billion in the steel industry in which Oman aims to be one of the Gulf Cooperation Council's leading producers. In addition to the steel industry, there is also the industry of aluminium in Suhar industrial area. Sohar Aluminium Company was established in 2004[9] and it is considered one of the leading projects that play a major role in the sultanate’s economic diversification strategy.

Education[edit]

Suhar has four high educational institutes:

Suhar also has a number of international schools such as:

Climate[edit]

Suhar has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and mild winters. Precipitation is low; more than half of the year's total rainfall falls in February, and summers are almost completely dry.

Climate data for Sohar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.6
(90.7)
32.1
(89.8)
37.4
(99.3)
44.5
(112.1)
46.9
(116.4)
48.5
(119.3)
50.0
(122.0)
45.0
(113.0)
43.2
(109.8)
42.4
(108.3)
37.7
(99.9)
33.9
(93.0)
50.0
(122.0)
Average high °C (°F) 24.2
(75.6)
25.3
(77.5)
27.5
(81.5)
31.9
(89.4)
36.3
(97.3)
36.9
(98.4)
36.2
(97.2)
34.7
(94.5)
34.1
(93.4)
33.0
(91.4)
29.5
(85.1)
26.1
(79.0)
31.3
(88.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.9
(66.0)
19.5
(67.1)
22.4
(72.3)
26.8
(80.2)
31.0
(87.8)
32.7
(90.9)
33.0
(91.4)
31.6
(88.9)
30.3
(86.5)
27.4
(81.3)
23.7
(74.7)
20.4
(68.7)
26.5
(79.6)
Average low °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
13.3
(55.9)
16.1
(61.0)
19.6
(67.3)
23.7
(74.7)
26.2
(79.2)
28.2
(82.8)
27.1
(80.8)
24.7
(76.5)
20.4
(68.7)
16.8
(62.2)
14.4
(57.9)
20.2
(68.4)
Record low °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
5.8
(42.4)
6.8
(44.2)
11.2
(52.2)
16.0
(60.8)
19.7
(67.5)
22.4
(72.3)
21.4
(70.5)
17.4
(63.3)
12.0
(53.6)
8.0
(46.4)
7.4
(45.3)
5.7
(42.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.7
(0.19)
56.2
(2.21)
17.0
(0.67)
7.8
(0.31)
2.5
(0.10)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
3.8
(0.15)
15.9
(0.63)
108.5
(4.28)
Average relative humidity (%) 72 74 72 65 63 70 77 80 79 73 72 74 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 269.4 228.6 230.8 276.0 322.4 310.9 281.5 275.6 276.3 284.6 257.5 259.8 3,273.4
Source 1: NOAA (all but average maximum, 1980–1990)[10]
Source 2: www.world-climates.com (average maximum)[11]

Parks[edit]

Suhar has four main parks. The first is Suhar Park, located in Al Humbar. The second is the Silver Jubilee Park which is located in Sallan. The third is the Entertainment Park in Sanaiyyah. The fourth is in falaj alqabail. And it has many other parks like Alminyal, Alsanqar, Alsuwaihra, Al-ons, Corniche park and Aluwaynat park.

The city also has the Sohar Regional Sports Complex.

Landmarks[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Agius, Dionisius A. (2008). Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean. Brill. p. 85. ISBN 9789004158634. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  2. ^ "Tourist Information". Port of Sohar. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  3. ^ "timesofoman.com". timesofoman.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
  4. ^ "The sultanate of Oman is taking a kicking". The Economist. 8 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  5. ^ "Oman". Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 1913.
  6. ^ Leech, Nick (2015-10-22). "The long read: has a lost Arab capital been found on the Oman-UAE border?". The National. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
  7. ^ Dionisius A. Agius, Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman: People of the Dhow (Routledge, 2005), pp. 76–77.
  8. ^ "Livro das plantas de todas as fortalezas, cidades e povoaçoens do Estado da India Oriental / António Bocarro [1635]".
  9. ^ "Sohar Aluminum Smelter Project Makes First 'Hot Metal'". www.bechtel.com. Bechtel. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  10. ^ "Majis Climate Normals 1980–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
  11. ^ "Sohar Climate". www.world-climates.com. Retrieved January 15, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fiorani Piacentini, Valeria. "Sohar and the Daylamī Interlude (356–443/967–1051)". Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 35 (2005): 195–206. JSTOR 41219377
  • Wilkinson, J. C. "Suhar (Sohar) in the Early Islamic Period: The Written Evidence". South Asian Archaeology (1979): 887–907.

External links[edit]