Dadra and Nagar Haveli
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli
दादरा आणि नगर हवेली
દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી
|Uniton territory||Dadra and Nagar Haveli|
|Established||11 August 1961|
|• Administrator||Shri Ashish Kundra (IAS)|
|• Total||487 km2 (188 sq mi)|
|• Density||700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|• Official||Marathi, Gujarati, English, Hindi,|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-DN|
|No. of districts||1|
Dadra and Nagar Haveli // & / / is a Union Territory in Western India. Nagar Haveli is wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat, whereas Dadra is a enclave 1 km NW surrounded by Gujarat. The shared capital is Silvassa. The larger part spans a large, roughly c-shaped area 12–30 kilometres up-river from the city of Daman on the coast, at the centre of which, and thus outside the territory, is the Madhuban reservoir.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH) are in the middle of the undulating watershed of the Daman Ganga River, which (after the reservoir) flows through Nagar Haveli and later forms the short southern border of Dadra. The towns of Dadra and Silvassa lie on the north bank of the river. The Western Ghats range rises to the east, and the foothills of the range occupy the eastern portion of the district. While the territory is landlocked, the Arabian Sea lies just to the west in Gujarat.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Administration
- 5 Education
- 6 Economy
- 7 Media and communications
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Language
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2015)|
||This section's text uses more words than are necessary. (July 2015)|
These territories were earlier ruled by the Koli chiefs who were defeated by the Hindu kings of Jawhar and Ramnagar. The Marathas had conquered and annexed these territories to their kingdom.
To keep the British at bay and to enlist their support against the Moghuls, the Marathas, who had founded their own empire/kingdom made friends with the Portuguese and signed with them a treaty in 1779. Under this, the Maratha-Peshwa agreed that the Portuguese would be allowed to collect revenues from Dadra and Nagar Haveli which consisted of 72 villages (then known as parganas, now referred to as district places).
In return for security against the two large empires, the main extent of the treaty's concessions to the Portuguese were that they would only collect revenue in compensation for their loss of a warship, Santana, which had earlier been captured by the Marathas but not surrendered to the Portuguese in spite of their many entreaties.
It was annexed by India from Portugal on 2 August 1954. The people of the territory established free administration of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which was finally merged into the Union of India in 1961.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (or D.N.H or D. & N. H.) was formerly a Portuguese colony until it was liberated in 1954. But the Territory remained independent until 1961 when it was integrated into the Union of India. It is located between the States of Maharashtra (in the south) and Gujarat (in the north). The nearest railway station is Vapi, located in Gujarat and 18 km from Silvassa. Vapi is located on the Mumbai-Delhi route. Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay, the capital of Maharashtra) is 180 km south of Silvassa. The city of Surat located in Gujarat is 140 km away to north. Delhi is approximately 1600 km away to north as well.
Since D.N.H. has many industries, people from all over the country have migrated to the region and the population reached approximately 4,000,000 inhabitants as 2014. The territory has an area of approximately 491 km2. Silvassa town is around 15 km2
There are 72 villages, mainly inhabited by the various tribal communities like the Varly (Varlie), Kokana, Dhodia, Koli, Kathodi, Naika, Dubla and Kolgha. The tribal communities are locally known as adivasi (which means original inhabitant). Each community has its own culture, traditions and languages and dialects. None of these languages has written literature or script until today. The tribal communities consist of approximately 60% of the population of D.N.H. (Earlier in the eighties it was more than 80%, but after influx from different parts of the country, the percentage has reduced). But the influx has helped the tribals in increasing their earnings.
In the year 1262 a Rajput prince from Rajasthan (now Rajasthan is a State in India, located to the north of Gujarat State), named Ramsinh established himself as the ruler of Ramnagar, the present day Dharampur, which consisted of 8 Paraganas (group of villages) and assumed the title Maharana. Nagar Haveli was one of the Paraganas. In the year 1360 Rana Dharamshah I (the first) shifted his capital from Nagar Haveli to Nagar Fatehpur.
Vasco da Gama (a Portuguese explorer) with his fleet landed in May 1498, at Kaappaakkadav (present day Kappad, pronounced as Kaappaad) about 15 to 16 kilometres north of Calicut (in the Malayalam language Calicut is Kozhikkode). Subsequently in the next few centuries the Portuguese cpatured many places along the western coast as well as the eastern coast and built factories and forts and established trading centres, entering into treaties or defeating the local rulers.
With the rise of the Maratha power, Shivaji viewed Ramnagar as an important locality. He captured the region, but Somshah Rana recaptured it in 1690.
After the Treaty of Vasai (which was on 6 May 1739) Vasai and the surrounding territories came under the Maratha rule.
Soon after, the Marathas captured Ramnagar but reinstated the ruler, Ramdeo, under conditions. Thus the Marathas acquired the rights to collect revenue, known as chauthai from Nagar Haveli and two other paraganas.
During the time of Dharamdeo, the son of Ramdeo, due to his ungrateful attitude, (he neglected the conditions imposed earlier) the Marathas captured Nagar Haveli and the surrounding regions.
In 1772, the Marathas captured a Portuguese warship named Santana. At the same time the Marathas had to struggle with the British. They always feared that the Portuguese would join hands with the British against them. The Mughals were already a constant threat. An alliance between the British and the Portuguese was a nightmare for the Marathas.
Due to this, in 1779, the Marathas signed a treaty with the Portuguese by which, as a compensation for the loss of the warship Santana, the Marathas allowed the Portuguese to collect revenue from 72 villages of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
The actual possession of the territory took place in 1783 and was placed under the administration of the Governor of Daman. (Goa, Daman and Diu were already Portuguese possessions.)
In 1818, the Maratha Empire collapsed. Thus the Portuguese ultimately became the rulers of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
But as Daman was more important from the point of view of generation of income from exports, D.N.H. received very little attention from the Portuguese except for exploitation of the rich forest wealth of the region.
As time passed the Indian Independence Struggle picked up momentum. On 18 June 1946, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia was arrested in Goa. This was the beginning of the freedom struggle in Goa. He was deported to India. On 15 August 1947, India became independent from the British rule, but the Portuguese and other European colonies continued to be so.
The Goan struggle continued for many years. Shri Atmaram Narsinh Karmalkar, an officer in the Banco Colonial (Portuguese Bank) at Panaji (in Goa) (also known as Panjim), who was popularly known as Appasaheb Karmalkar was indirectly involved in the freedom struggle in Goa. He was removed from the bank and finally took up the struggle to liberate Goa. In course of time he realized that liberation of D.N.H. was crucial if Goa was to be liberated. (Shri - read as shree'-maan - means Mister and Smt - read as shree'-muh-thee - means Mrs)
Shri Karmalkar reached Vapi and met Shri. Jayantibhai Desai from Dadra. He also met Shri Bhikubhai Pandya from Nani Daman and Shri Vanmali Bhavsar from Silvassa.
Azad Gomantak Dal under the leadership of Shri Vishwanath Lavande, Shri Dattatreya Deshpande, Shri Prabhakar Sinar and others, the Rashtriya Swaymsewak Sangh under the leadership of Shri Raja Wakankar, Communist Party under the leadership of Mr Shamrao Parulekar and Smt Godavaribai Parulekar, and the United Front of Goans under the leadership of Francis Mascerenhas, J.M. D’Souza, Waman Desai and others were also attempting the liberation of D.N.H.
On 18 June 1954, many leaders met at Lavaccha. Lavaccha and Vapi were Indian territories. The order in which these places are lying is, N.H., Lavaccha, Dadra, Vapi and Daman. So the Portuguese officers required transit permit through Indian territories of Lavaccha and Vapi to reach N.H. Dadra and Daman.
On the night of 22 July 15 volunteers of the United Front of Goans under the leadership of Mr Francis Mascerenhas and Mr Waman Desai sneaked into the territory of Dadra and reached the police station. There were only three officers. One was attacked with a knife by one of the volunteers and the other two were overpowered. The Indian tricolor was hoisted and the national Anthem sung. Dadra was declared “Free territory of Dadra.”
On the night of 28 July, around 30 to 35 volunteers of R.S.S. and Azad Gomantak Dal proceeded to Naroli from Karambele by swimming across the rivulets. June to September is the rainy season in the region and the rivers are usually flooded during this season. The Daman Ganga river was flooded and no help could reach Naroli. There were only six police personnel. The volunteers and the villagers reached the police station and asked them to surrender or face death. They immediately surrendered. The Portuguese rule of Naroli came to an end.
The Special Reserve Police in the Indian Territory did not intervene in any way. Mr J.D. Nagarwala, the D.I.G. of the Special Reserve Police in the Indian Territory, without entering D.N.H. asked Captain Fidalgo, the administrator of Dadra and Nagar Haveli to surrender to the Indian Forces along with his paramilitary forces before they would be butchered by the liberators.
Leaving about 50 policemen and five civilian officers posted at Silvassa, Captain Fidalgo fled to Udva passing through Rakholi, Dappada and Khanvel and surrendered to the SRP on 11 August. They were later allowed to go to Goa.
In the meanwhile there were several rumours and the officers at Silvassa were in confusion. On 1 August the liberators took advantage of the situation and proceeded from Dadra and Naroli and liberated Pipariya. The five police officers surrendered without resistance.
During the night the volunteers divided themselves into three batches and reached the police chowky at Silvassa. The police Chowky at Silvassa was protected by sand bags. There were three policemen guarding from three sides. Shri Vasant Badve, Shri Vishnu Bhople and Shri Shantaram Vaidya overpowered them from behind when least expected.
The other policemen surrendered without resistance on seeing the other volunteers. The volunteers spent the night awake at the police chowky.
In the morning of 2 August 1954, the liberators reached the town of Silvassa to find it free of any Portuguese occupation. The liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli was complete.
Senhor Luis de Gama, the eldest nationalist hoisted the Indian national flag and declared the territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli liberated and the National Anthem was sung.
The area of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is spread over 491 km2, landlocked between Gujarat to the north and Maharashtra to the south.
The Union Territory comprises two separate geographical units – Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It is close to on the Western coast of India between the parallels of 20º – 0’ and 20º – 25’ of latitude North and between the meridian 72º – 50’ and 73º – 15’ of longitude East. It occupies an area of 491 square kilometres (190 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to the Philippines' Biliran Island. It ranks 4th among the Union Territories and 32nd including the states. The territory is surrounded by Valsad District of Gujarat on the West, North and East and by Thane District of Maharashtra on the South and South-East (after division of Thane district, it is now surrounded by newly formed Palghar District.).
The stretch of the main southern area is hilly terrain especially towards the northeast and east where it is surrounded by ranges of Sahyadri mountains (western ghats). The central alluvial region of the land is almost plain and the soil is fertile and rich. The river Damanganga rises in the Ghat 64 km from the western coast and discharges itself in the Arabian Sea at the port of Daman after crossing Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Its three tributaries viz. Varna, Pipri and Sakartond join Daman Ganga within the territory.
Flora and fauna
About 43% of the land is under forest cover. However, the reserved forest cohis territory constitutes about 40% of the total geographical area. The protected forests constitute 2.45% of the total land area.
According to satellite data taken in 2008, UT has roughly about 114 square kilometres (28,000 acres) of moderately dense forest and 94 square kilometres (23,000 acres) open forest. As per Forest Survey of India, DNH has two major forest types: tropical moist deciduous forest and tropical dry deciduous forest. The major produce is khairwood/khair and general timber. Teak, sandra, khair, mahara and sisam are the major tree species in the region.
Tree cover has been estimated around 27 square kilometres (6,700 acres) from the six-year data (2002–08), which is around 5.5% of the total geographical area of DNH.
The rich biodiversity makes it a habitat for a variety of birds and animals with numerous trips from inland safari or the coast by tour guides providing eco-tourism. Silvassa's hills and wide, forested buffer land provides a main focal point for wildlife enthusiasts.
The climate of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is typical of its type. Being near the coast, all but the sparsely inhabited easternmost parts have a typical north Indian Ocean maritime climate. The summers are hot and become in their later part more humid with temperatures reaching as high as 39° in the month of May. The monsoon starts in the month of June and extends until September. The rainfall is brought by South West monsoon winds. It is known as the Cherrapunji that covers the bulk of western India (apart from the Thar Desert) which produces most of the annual rainfall of 200–250 cm. Winters are between maritime temperate and semi-tropical with temperatures ranging from 14° to 30°, reliably, as with the monsoon, with scant deviation from this range.
The profound history of Dadra and Nagar Haveli begins with the defeat of the Kohli chieftains of the region by the invading Rajput kings. It was the Marathas that retrieved the region from the rule of the Rajputs in the mid 18th century. In 1779, the Maratha Peshwa formed an alliance with the Portuguese allowing them to collect revenue from the 79 villages of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The rule of the Portuguese in the region continued till the region gained independence on 2 August 1954. The region was merged with the Union of India in the year 1961.
The Portuguese occupied Nagar Haveli on 10 June 1783 on the basis of Friendship Treaty executed on 17 December 1779 as compensation towards damage to the Portuguese frigate by Maratha Navy. Then, in 1785 the Portuguese purchased Dadra.
Under the Portuguese rule, Dadra and Nagar Haveli were part of the Distrito de Damão (Daman district) of the Estado da Índia (Portuguese State of India). The two territories formed a single concelho (municipality), named "Nagar Haveli", with its head in Darará until 1885 and, after that, with its head in the town of Silvassa. The local affairs were administrated by an elected câmara municipal (municipal council), with the higher level affairs administrated by the district governor of Daman, who was represented in Nagar Haveli by an administrator.
The Portuguese rule lasted until 1954, when Dadra and Nagar Haveli were occupied by supporters of the Indian Union.
End of Portuguese rule
After India attained Independence in 1947, the residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the help of volunteers of organisations like the United Front of Goans (UFG), the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the National Movement Liberation Organisation (NMLO), and the Azad Gomantak Dal, subtracted the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese India in 1954.
Integration into India
Although it enjoyed de facto independence, Dadra and Nagar Haveli were still recognised internationally (e.g. by the International Court of Justice) as Portuguese possessions. The residents of the former colony requested the government of India for administrative help. K.G. Badlani, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) was sent as the administrator.
In 1961 when Indian forces took over Goa, Daman, and Diu, Badlani was, for one day, designated the Prime Minister of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, so that, as Head of State, he could sign an agreement with the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, and formally merge Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Republic of India.
On 31 December 1974 a treaty was signed between India and Portugal on recognition of India's sovereignty over Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
|Source:Census of India|
An Administrator administers the territory, which covers an area of 188 sq mi or 487 km² and consists of two talukas:
Dadra is the headquarters of Dadra taluka, comprising Dadra town and two other villages. Silvassa is the headquarters of Nagar Haveli taluka, comprising Silvassa town and 68 other villages.
There are several top standard schools, colleges and other academic institutions, computer-training institutes, industrial training institutes, polytechnic institutes and other technical training institutes. Government and private run hostels provide accommodations to local and outstation students. Some of the famous schools of the Union Territory of Dadra & Nagar Haveli are:
- Govt. Higher Secondary School, Tokarkhada
- BAPS Swaminarayan Vidya Mandir, Athal
- Prabhat Scholars Academy
- St. George English School, Silvassa
- Father Agnelo English High School
- Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas
- Lions English School
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Tokarkhada
- Alok Public School
- St. Xavier's School
- Silvassa Public School
- Diamond Computers, Kilavni Naka, Silvassa
Some of the well-known colleges in Dadra & Nagar Haveli are:
- SSR College of Science, Commerce & Arts
- Dr. B.B.A.Government Polytechnic, Karad
- Pramukh Swami Institute of Information Technology, Swaminarayan Cultural Complex
- Silvassa institute of higher learning,Naroli
- Institute Of Hotel Management, Karad
Roman Catholic church
- Our Lady of Piety Church, Char Rasta, Silvassa.
Parish Priest-Fr. Silvester Asstt. Parish Priest-Fr. Rony
- St. Thomas church,Bombadafaliya,Silvassa
present priest-Rev.Fr.Mathew Kizhakearanjaniyil
Dadra and Nagar Haveli's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $218 million in current prices. Its nominal GDP increased to $360 million in the year 2009 with a per capita GDP of $1,050. The economy of DNH relies on five major activities viz. Agriculture, Industries, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Tourism.
Media and communications
- Gujarat Samachar
- Gujarat Today
- Praja Samachar
- Gujarat Mitra
- Divya Bhaskar
- Akila Daily
- Silvassa Times
- The Times of India
- Hindustan Times
- The Hindu
- The Business Line
- The Economic Times
- The Indian Express
- Silvassa Times
- Pratah Varta
- Silvassa Times
- Airtel, Aircell, BSNL, Idea Cellular, Reliance Mobile, Tata Docomo, Vodafone Etc.
- Satellite Television:
- Airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Reliance Digital TV, TATA Sky, Videocon D2H Etc.,
- All India Radio, FM.
- Union Bank of India
- State Bank Of India
- ICICI Bank
- Bank of Baroda
- Dena Bank
- IDBI Bank
- HDFC Bank
- Oriental Bank of Commerce
- Yes Bank
- Central Bank of India
- Indian Bank
- Federal Bank
- Punjab National Bank
- The Ratnakar Bank
- Indian Overseas Bank
The basic economic activity of the territory is agriculture involving about 60% of the working population. The total land area under cultivation is 236.27 square kilometres (58,380 acres) i.e. 48% of the total geographical area.The area under high yielding crops is 12,000 acres (49 km2). The main food crops cultivated in this area are paddy (40% of the net sown area), ragi,small millets, jowar, sugarcanes, tur,nagli and val. Vegetables like tomato, cauliflower, cabbage and brinjal and fruits like mango, chikoo, guava, coconut and banana are also grown. Agriculture sector has given a major boost to the economy of DNH.
The local population is also involved in forestry and animal husbandry. 92.76% of the farmers belong to the weaker sections and 89.36% of them are tribal farmers. There is a full-fledged veterinary hospital and nine veterinary dispensaries. Mass vaccination against various diseases is done regularly free of cost by the Animal Husbandry Department.
Another major contributor to the economy are the manufacturing industries. Due to heavy industrialisation in the region owing to tax stops for industries in the union territories, a steady growth in employment has been observed. The employment generation is increasing at the pace of 5% per annum.
Industrialisation in the area began in 1965 when the first industrial unit in the UT was started at Piparia, Silvassa in the cooperative sector by Dan Udyog Sahakari Sangh Ltd, following which three industrial estates were established at Masat(1978), Khadoli(1982) and Silvassa (1985). Earlier (before 1965) only traditional craftsmen who made clay pots, leather items, viz., chappals, shoes and some other items of bamboo were present. Since there was no sales tax in the UT, it attracted many entrepreneurs. Around 30 new units comprising Engineering, fabric weaving units and dyeing and printing units were established till 1970.
In 1971, UT was declared as industrially backward area by Government of India and increased the cash subsidy to 15 to 25% for the industrial units on their capital investment which resulted in the speedy industrial development. The scheme was however terminated from 30 September 1988. Sales Tax Act was implemented from January 1984 till 1998 under which industries enjoyed sales tax exemption for 15 years from the start-up date. VAT was introduced in 2005. At present the newly established units get Central Sales Tax exemption which will continue till 2017.
|Small scale industries||2118|
|Medium scale industries||564|
|Large scale industries||28|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012)|
According to the 2011 census Dadra and Nagar Haveli has a population of 342,853, roughly equal to the nation of Belize. This gives it a ranking of 566th in India, out of a total of 640 districts. It has a population density of 698 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,810/sq mi), and its population growth rate over the decade from 2001 to 2011 was 55.5 per cent, which is the highest percentage growth among all Indian states and union territories. Dadra and Nagar Haveli has a sex ratio of 775 females for every 1,000 males, and a literacy rate of 77.65 per cent.
Tribal groups make up a large part of the population: 62%. The most prominent are Dhodia (16.90%), Kokna (16.85%) and Varli (62.94%), with small groups of Koli, Kathodi, Naika and Dubla scattered across the territory, collectively representing 3.31% of the population. Dhodias and Dubles mainly populate the Northern part, whereas Koknas and Varlis are found all over the Union Territory. They worship the primary deities of Dis (Sun) and Chand (Moon), and Narandev, Kanasari, Himai, Hirva, Veer, Rangtai and Vagdev.
One prominent feature of this territory is that people from all over India form a part of non-tribal residents. Though Gujaratis have a prime influence in the area. The same is reflected by the fact that Gujarati is one of the three official languages, the others being Hindi and English. Besides Gujaratis, one can find Marathis, Rajasthanis, Biharis, Tamilians, Uttar Pradeshis, and people from several other states. The prime reason for such diverse population is the industrial hub. Employment opportunities, good climate and the landscape are highly appealing.
Per the 2001 Census, out of the 137,225 ST persons of the UT, all are Hindus except for 3,796 Christians (2.8 per cent). At the individual tribe level, Kokna have the highest Christian population in 2001, 6.7 per cent. Jains also form an important part of the non-tribal population. Recently the Digambara Jains constructed a temple in the capital city Silvassa. Swetambara sects also have a temple in Dadra and Silvassa – two important towns of the union territory. The influence of Swaminarayana has also grown especially in Silvassa. Their temple is constructed and is supposedly the biggest and most expensive in the area.
Language and ethnicity
The traditional spoken languages in the territory are
A former Portuguese enclave, Silvassa has a significant Roman Catholic population, speaking a distinct dialect of Portuguese. Marathi-Konkani and Gujarati languages are widely spoken. Hindi and Marathi. is also understood
Although commonly associated with Maharashtra, and found in Gujarat too, Varlis (Warlis) consider Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli to be their original home. A tribe of non-Aryan origin, they are the largest tribal group in the territory and constitute 62.94% of the total tribal population.
Rituals are extremely important to the Varlis; they are nature worshipers who regard the Sun and the Moon as the eyes of God. Their main deities are Naran dev, Hirwa, Himai and Waghio, and stone images of these deities are found in tree groves. A Bhagat plays the Ghangal (a musical instrument made from gourd, bamboo and iron strings) and performs the rituals.
Traditionally the Varlis wear a loin cloth with a small waist coat and a turban. The women wear a knee-length, one-yard saree – lugde – and adorn themselves with silver and white metal ornaments.
The term Dhodia seems to be derived from Dhundi, which means a small thatched hut, and the Dhodias are primarily hut dwellers. They reside mostly in the northern part of Dadra & Nagar Haveli. They are known to be the most educated among all the tribes and are good cultivators. Some own enough farm land to be able to earn a decent livelihood.
Traditionally the men wear a white knee length dhoti with a shirt or waist coat, white or coloured caps and ornaments like earrings and silver chains around their waist. The women wear a knee length dark blue saree with an aanchal worn from the front and left loose at the back. Popular accessories include colourful bead necklaces, and metal ornaments such as bangles or thick kadas around their ankles
The Koknas derive their name from the Konkan region in West India. They have land of their own, produce paddy and are better cultivators than the Varlis. With the introduction of formal education many of them have moved up the social ladder.
Koknas well built and both men and women often tattoo their bodies, especially their foreheads. The men wear a dhoti up to the knees, with a waist coat or shirt and a turban. The women wear traditional colourful sarees that are either knee length or full length.
The Kathodis, called Katkari in the Thane district of Maharashtra, make up 0.08% of the total tribal population of Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Their name is derived from their profession of kattha or catechew making.
They are considered to be at the bottom of the tribal social ladder. They usually live in forests, in semi-permanent settlements. Most of them cut wood and collect charcoal. The government has tried to improve their standard of living by engaging them in permanent professions. They wear minimal jewelry; what is worn adorns the women only.
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- Index of India-related articles
- Bibliography of India
- India – Wikipedia book
- Portuguese India
- 1961 Indian annexation of Goa
- Mohanbhai Sanjibhai Delkar
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||Valsad district, Gujarat|
|Thane district, Maharashtra|