The Sukkalmah Dynasty (c. 1900-1500 BCE), also Epartid Dynasty after the founder Eparti/Ebarat, was an early dynasty of West Asia in the ancient region of Elam, to the southeast of Babylonia. It corresponds to the latest part of the Old Elamite period (dated c.2700 – c. 1600 BC).
The founder of the dynasty was a ruler named Shilhaha, who described himself as "the chosen son of Ebarat", who may have been the same as King Ebarti mentioned as the 9th King of the Shimashki Dynasty. Ebarat appears as the founder of the dynasty according to building inscriptions, but later kings rather seem to refer to Shilhaha in their filiation claims.
The dynasty was roughly contemporary with the Old Assyrian Empire, and the Old Babylonian period in Mesopotamia. During this time, Susa was under Elamite control, but Akkadian-speaking Mesopotamian states such as Larsa and Isin continually tried to retake the city. Notable Sukkalmah dynasty rulers in Elam during this time include Sirukdukh (c. 1850), who entered into various military coalitions to contain the power of the south Mesopotamian states; Siwe-Palar-Khuppak, who for some time was the most powerful person in the area, respectfully addressed as "Father" by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimrilim of Mari, Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria, and even Hammurabi of Babylon; and Kudur-Nahhunte, who plundered the temples of southern Mesopotamia, the north being under the control of the Old Assyrian Empire. But Elamite influence in southern Mesopotamia did not last. Around 1760 BC, Hammurabi drove out the Elamites, overthrew Rim-Sin of Larsa, and established a short lived Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia. Little is known about the later part of this dynasty, since sources again become sparse with the Kassite rule of Babylon (from c. 1595).
Artifacts of the Sukkalmah
Sealed tablet with a serpent god, Susa circa 17th century BCE. Inscription: "Tan-Uli, sukkalmah, sukkal from Susa and Shimashki, son of the sister of Shilhaha".
|Name||Portrait||Title||Born-Died||Entered office||Left office||Family Relations||Note|
|Sukkalmah or Epartid dynasty, c. 1970–c. 1500 BC|
|1||Eparti II||king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah||?–?||c. 1973 BC||?||Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.||cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin|
|2||Shilhaha||king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah||?–?||?||?||son of Eparti II|
|3||Kuk-Nashur I||Sukkalmah||?–?||?||?||son (ruhushak) of Shilhaha|
|4||Atta-hushu||Sukkal and Ippir of Susa, Shepherd of the people of Susa, Shepherd of Inshushinak||?–after 1894 BC||?1928 BC||after 1894 BC||son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)|
|5||Tetep-Mada||Shepherd of the people of Susa||?–?||after c. 1890 BC||?||son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)|
|7||Kuk-Sanit||?–?||?||?||son of Palar-Ishshan (?)|
|8||Kuk-Kirwash||Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa||?–?||?||?||son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan|
|9||Tem-Sanit||?–?||?||?||son of Kuk-Kirwash|
|10||Kuk-Nahhunte||?–?||?||son of Kuk-Kirwash|
|11||Kuk-Nashur II||Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa||?–?||?||?||son of Kuk-Nahhunte (?)|
|12||Shirukduh||Sukkalmah||?–?||c. 1790 BC||?||?||cont. Shamshi-Adad I king of Assyria|
|13||Shimut-Wartash I||?–?||?||?||son of Shirukduh|
|14||Siwe-Palar-Hupak||Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa, Prince of Elam||?–?||before 1765 BC||after 1765 BC||son of Shirukduh|
|15||Kuduzulush I||Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa||?–?||?||?||son of Shirukduh|
|16||Kutir-Nahhunte I||Sukkalmah||?–?||c. 1710 BC||?||son of Kuduzulush I|
|17||Atta-Merra-Halki||?–?||?||?||son of Kuduzulush I (?)|
|18||Tata II||Sukkal||?–?||?||?||brother of Atta-Merra-Halki|
|19||Lila-Irtash||?–?||?||?||son of Kuduzulush I|
|20||Temti-Agun||Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa||?–?||?||?||son of Kutir-Nahhunte I|
|21||Kutir-Shilhaha||Sukkalmah, Sukkal||?–?||?||?||son of Temti-Agun|
|22||Kuk-Nashur III||Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Susa||?–?||before 1646 BC||after 1646 BC||son of Kutir-Shilhaha|
|23||Temti-Raptash||?–?||?||?||son of Kutir-Shilhaha|
|24||Shimut-Wartash II||?–?||?||?||son of Kuk-Nashur III|
|25||Shirtuh||King of Susa||?–?||?||?||son of Kuk-Nashur III|
|26||Kuduzulush II||Sukkalmah, King of Susa||?–?||?||?||son of Shimut-Wartash II|
|28||Temti-Halki||Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa||?–?||?||?||son of Tan-Uli|
|29||Kuk-Nashur IV||Sukkalmah||?–?||?||?||son of Tan-Uli|
|30||Kutik-Matlat||?–?||c. 1500 BC||?||son of Tan-Uli|
|History of Greater Iran|
- Louvre, Musée du (1992). The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 114. ISBN 9780870996511.
- "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
- Potts, D. T. (1999). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 147. ISBN 9780521564960.
- Harper, Prudence O. (1992). Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 114.
- Carter, Elizabeth. Elam survey of political history and archaeology. University of California Press. p. 26.
- Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. p. 221. ISBN 9781134159079.
- Sigfried J. de Laet; Ahmad Hasan Dani (1994). History of Humanity: From the third millennium to the seventh century B.C. UNESCO. p. 579. ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3.
- Álvarez-Mon, Javier; Basello, Gian Pietro; Wicks, Yasmina (2018). The Elamite World. Routledge. p. 289. ISBN 9781317329831.
- Harper, Prudence O. (1992). Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 117–118.
- Harper, Prudence O. (1992). Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 115.
- Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
- Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
- "Ruhushak" means son of sister but probably it refers to a dynastical marriage between siblings. See Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
- Potts, 1999.
- Cameron, 1936.
- Cameron, George, "History of Early Iran", Chicago, 1936 (repr., Chicago, 1969; tr. E.-J. Levin, L’histoire de l’Iran antique, Paris, 1937; tr. H. Anusheh, ایران در سپیده دم تاریخ, Tehran, 1993)
- Potts, D. T., The Archaeology of Elam, Cambridge University Press, 1999.