Sukkalmah Dynasty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Seal impression of King Ebarat (𒂊𒁀𒊏𒀜), founder of the Sukkalmah Dynasty, also called "Epartid Dynasty" after him. He uses the title of king (𒈗 Šàr, pronounced Shar) in the inscription. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 6225. King Ebarat appears enthroned. The inscription reads "Ebarat the King. Kuk Kalla, son of Kuk-Sharum, servant of Shilhaha"[1][2][3][4]
Location of Susa, capital of the Sukkalmah Dynasty.

The Sukkalmah Dynasty (c. 1900-1500 BCE), also Epartid Dynasty after the founder Eparti/Ebarat,[5][6] was an early dynasty of West Asia in the ancient region of Elam, to the southeast of Babylonia. It corresponds to the latest part of the Old Elamite period (dated c.2700 – c. 1600 BC).

The Sukkalmah dynasty followed the Shimashki Dynasty (2200-1900 BCE).[7][8] The name of the dynasty comes from the name Sukkalmah meaning "Grand regents", the title used by Elamite rulers.[7]

Numerous cuneiform documents and inscriptions remain from this period, particularly from the area of Susa.[7]

The dynasty[edit]

The founder of the dynasty was a ruler named Shilhaha, who described himself as "the chosen son of Ebarat", who may have been the same as King Ebarti mentioned as the 9th King of the Shimashki Dynasty.[8] Ebarat appears as the founder of the dynasty according to building inscriptions, but later kings rather seem to refer to Shilhaha in their filiation claims.[5]

The dynasty was roughly contemporary with the Old Assyrian Empire, and the Old Babylonian period in Mesopotamia. During this time, Susa was under Elamite control, but Akkadian-speaking Mesopotamian states such as Larsa and Isin continually tried to retake the city. Notable Sukkalmah dynasty rulers in Elam during this time include Sirukdukh (c. 1850), who entered into various military coalitions to contain the power of the south Mesopotamian states; Siwe-Palar-Khuppak, who for some time was the most powerful person in the area, respectfully addressed as "Father" by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimrilim of Mari, Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria, and even Hammurabi of Babylon; and Kudur-Nahhunte, who plundered the temples of southern Mesopotamia, the north being under the control of the Old Assyrian Empire. But Elamite influence in southern Mesopotamia did not last. Around 1760 BC, Hammurabi drove out the Elamites, overthrew Rim-Sin of Larsa, and established a short lived Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia. Little is known about the later part of this dynasty, since sources again become sparse with the Kassite rule of Babylon (from c. 1595).

Artifacts of the Sukkalmah[edit]

Rulers[edit]

Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Sukkalmah or Epartid dynasty,[11] c. 1970–c. 1500 BC
1 Eparti II king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah ?–? c. 1973 BC ? Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.[12] cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
2 Shilhaha king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah ?–? ? ? son of Eparti II
3 Kuk-Nashur I Sukkalmah ?–? ? ? son (ruhushak)[13] of Shilhaha
4 Atta-hushu Sukkal and Ippir of Susa, Shepherd of the people of Susa, Shepherd of Inshushinak ?–after 1894 BC ?1928 BC after 1894 BC son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
5 Tetep-Mada Shepherd of the people of Susa ?–? after c. 1890 BC ? son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
6 Palar-Ishshan Sukkalmah ?–? ? ? ?
7 Kuk-Sanit ?–? ? ? son of Palar-Ishshan (?)
8 Kuk-Kirwash Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ?–? ? ? son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan
9 Tem-Sanit ?–? ? ? son of Kuk-Kirwash
10 Kuk-Nahhunte ?–? ? son of Kuk-Kirwash
11 Kuk-Nashur II Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ?–? ? ? son of Kuk-Nahhunte (?)
12 Shirukduh Sukkalmah ?–? c. 1790 BC ? ? cont. Shamshi-Adad I king of Assyria
13 Shimut-Wartash I ?–? ? ? son of Shirukduh
14 Siwe-Palar-Hupak Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa, Prince of Elam ?–? before 1765 BC after 1765 BC son of Shirukduh
15 Kuduzulush I Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa ?–? ? ? son of Shirukduh
16 Kutir-Nahhunte I Sukkalmah ?–? c. 1710 BC ? son of Kuduzulush I
17 Atta-Merra-Halki ?–? ? ? son of Kuduzulush I (?)
18 Tata II Sukkal ?–? ? ? brother of Atta-Merra-Halki
19 Lila-Irtash ?–? ? ? son of Kuduzulush I
20 Temti-Agun Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa ?–? ? ? son of Kutir-Nahhunte I
21 Kutir-Shilhaha Sukkalmah, Sukkal ?–? ? ? son of Temti-Agun
22 Kuk-Nashur III Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Susa ?–? before 1646 BC after 1646 BC son of Kutir-Shilhaha
23 Temti-Raptash ?–? ? ? son of Kutir-Shilhaha
24 Shimut-Wartash II ?–? ? ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
25 Shirtuh King of Susa ?–? ? ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
26 Kuduzulush II Sukkalmah, King of Susa ?–? ? ? son of Shimut-Wartash II
27 Tan-Uli Sukkalmah, Sukkal ?–? ? ? ?
28 Temti-Halki Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ?–? ? ? son of Tan-Uli
29 Kuk-Nashur IV[14] Sukkalmah ?–? ? ? son of Tan-Uli
30 Kutik-Matlat[15] ?–? c. 1500 BC ? son of Tan-Uli

See also[edit]

Faravahar background
History of Greater Iran

References[edit]

  1. ^ Louvre, Musée du (1992). The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 114. ISBN 9780870996511.
  2. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  3. ^ Potts, D. T. (1999). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 147. ISBN 9780521564960.
  4. ^ Harper, Prudence O. (1992). Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 114.
  5. ^ a b Carter, Elizabeth. Elam survey of political history and archaeology. University of California Press. p. 26.
  6. ^ Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. p. 221. ISBN 9781134159079.
  7. ^ a b c Sigfried J. de Laet; Ahmad Hasan Dani (1994). History of Humanity: From the third millennium to the seventh century B.C. UNESCO. p. 579. ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3.
  8. ^ a b Álvarez-Mon, Javier; Basello, Gian Pietro; Wicks, Yasmina (2018). The Elamite World. Routledge. p. 289. ISBN 9781317329831.
  9. ^ Harper, Prudence O. (1992). Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 117–118.
  10. ^ Harper, Prudence O. (1992). Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 115.
  11. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  12. ^ Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  13. ^ "Ruhushak" means son of sister but probably it refers to a dynastical marriage between siblings. See Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  14. ^ Potts, 1999.
  15. ^ Cameron, 1936.

Sources[edit]

  • Cameron, George, "History of Early Iran", Chicago, 1936 (repr., Chicago, 1969; tr. E.-J. Levin, L’histoire de l’Iran antique, Paris, 1937; tr. H. Anusheh, ایران در سپیده دم تاریخ, Tehran, 1993)
  • Potts, D. T., The Archaeology of Elam, Cambridge University Press, 1999.