since 17 July 1992
|Dominated by Principlists:|
|Government of Islamic Republic of Iran|
The Guardian Council, also called Council of Guardians or Constitutional Council (Persian: شورای نگهبان, romanized: Shūrā-ye Negahbān) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Iranian constitution calls for the council to be composed of six Islamic faqihs (experts in Islamic Law), "conscious of the present needs and the issues of the day" to be selected by the Supreme Leader of Iran, and six jurists, "specializing in different areas of law, to be elected by the Majlis (the Iranian Parliament) from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Chief Justice", (who, in turn, is also appointed by the Supreme Leader).
The Constitutional Council is charged with interpreting the Constitution of Iran, supervising elections, and approving of candidates for the Assembly of Experts, the President and the Majlis, as well as "ensuring ... the compatibility of the legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly [i.e. Majlis] ... with the criteria of Islam and the Constitution".
The Council has played a central role in controlling the interpretation of Islamic values in Iranian law in the following ways:
- Oversees surveillance of potential candidates and determines who can and cannot run for national office
- Disqualifies reform-minded candidates—including the most well-known candidates—from running for office
- Vetoes laws passed by the popularly elected Majlis.
- Increased the influence that the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (an ideological fighting force separate from the Iranian army) has on the economic and cultural life of the country.
When the 2009 presidential election was announced, popular former president Mohammad Khatami would not discuss his plans to run against Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, for the Council might have disqualified Khatami as it had other reformists' candidatures, on the grounds that they were not dedicated enough to Islamic values.
There have been instances when current Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei has publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Khamenei publicly called then-member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts. There have also been instances where the Constitutional Council reversed its ban on particular people after being ordered to do so by Khamenei.
According to Article 96 of the constitution, the Constitutional Council holds absolute veto power over all legislation approved by the Majlis. It can nullify a law based on two accounts: being against Islamic laws, or being against the constitution. While all the members vote on the laws being compatible with the constitution, only the six clerics vote on them being compatible with Islam.
If any law is rejected, it will be passed back to the Majlis for correction. If the Majlis and the Council of Guardians cannot agree on a case, it is passed up to the Expediency Council for a decision.
The Constitutional Council is uniquely involved in the legislative process, with equal oversight with regards to economic law and social policy, including such controversial topics as abortion. Chapter 6 of the Constitution explains its interworkings with the Islamic Consultative Assembly. Articles 91-97 all fall into the legislative Chapter 6.
The Council of Guardians also functions similar to a constitutional court. The authority to interpret the constitution is vested in the Council. Interpretative decisions require a three-quarters majority. The Council does not conduct a court hearing where opposing sides are argued.
Since 1991, all candidates of parliamentary or presidential elections, as well as candidates for the Assembly of Experts, have to be qualified by the Constitutional Council in order to run in the election. For major elections it typically disqualifies most candidates, for example in the 2009 election, 476 men and women applied to the Constitutional Council to seek the presidency, and four were approved.
The Council is accorded "supervision of elections". The Constitutional Council interprets the term supervision in Article 99 as "approbation supervision" (Persian: نظارت استصوابی, naẓārat-e istiṣwābī) which implies the right to accept or reject the legality of elections and the competency of candidates. This interpretation is in contrast with the idea of "notification supervision" (Persian: نظارت استطلاعی, naẓārat-e istitlā‘ī) which does not imply the mentioned approval right. The "evidentiary supervision" (Persian: نظارت استنادی, naẓārat-e istinādī), which requires evidences for acceptance or rejection of elections legality and candidates competency, is another interpretation of mentioned article.
Role in the 2009 elections
On Monday June 29, 2009, the Constitutional Council certified the results of the controversial election in which President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected. The Council had completed a recount of 10 percent of the overall votes in order to appease the citizens of Iran. As the "final authority on the election", the Council has declared the election closed. The certification of the results set off a wave of protests, disregarding the Iranian government's ban on street marches.
Increases the role of the army in everyday life
The Council favors military candidates at the expense of reform candidates. This ensures that the ideological Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (separate from the Iranian army) holds a commanding influence over the political, economic, and cultural life of Iran.
Arbitrarily disqualifies candidates from elections
Hadi Khamenei, the brother of Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and an adviser in the administration of reformist former President Mohammad Khatami, has said the Constitutional Council's vetting of candidates threatens Iranian democracy. He believes some reformist candidates are wrongly kept from running. In 1998, the Constitutional Council rejected Hadi Khamenei's candidacy for a seat in the Assembly of Experts for "insufficient theological qualifications".
After conservative candidates fared poorly in the 2000 parliamentary elections, the Council disqualified more than 3,600 reformist and independent candidates for the 2004 elections.
The Council disqualified many candidates in the 2008 parliamentary elections. One third of them were members of the outgoing parliament it had previously approved. The Iranian Ministry of the Interior reasons for disqualification included narcotics addiction or involvement in drug-smuggling, connections to the Shah's pre-revolutionary government, lack of belief in or insufficient practice of Islam, being "against" the Islamic Republic, or having connections to foreign intelligence services.
Rule by unelected leaders
This unelected Council frequently vetoes bills passed by the popularly elected legislature. It repeatedly vetoes bills in favor of women’s rights, electoral reform, the prohibition of torture and ratification of international human rights treaties.
The Supreme Leader (Iran's Head of State) directly appoints the six clerics, and may dismiss them at will. The head of the judicial system of Iran nominates six lawyers for confirmation by the Majlis.
On March 13, 2021, the Iranian Constitutional Council officially launched its English service.The English website was inaugurated during the regular monthly press briefing of the spokesman of the Constitutional Council, Abbas-Ali Kadkhodaei, in Tehran. The website, https://www.shora-gc.ir/en, has five main sections: News, Multimedia, Members, Legislation, and the Constitution.
|Mohammad Emami Kashani||N/A||Yes||N/A|
|Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi||N/A||Yes||N/A|
|Abdolrahim Rabbani Shirazi||Yes||N/A|
|Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani||Yes||N/A|
|Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani||Yes||N/A|
|Mohammad Mohammadi Gilani||N/A||Yes||N/A|
|Hassan Taheri Khorramabadi||N/A||Yes||N/A|
|Mohammad Reza Modarresi-Yazdi||N/A||Yes|
|Mohammad Mehdi Rabbani-Amlashi||Yes||N/A|
|Mehdi Shabzendedar Jahromi||N/A||Yes|
|Goudarz Eftekhar Jahromi||Yes||N/A|
|Mohammad Reza Alizadeh||N/A||Yes||N/A|
|Mohammad Reza Abbasifard||N/A||Yes||N/A|
|Mohammadhassan Sadeghi Moghaddam||N/A||Yes|
|Hadi Tahan Nazif||N/A||Yes|
|Note: Each period represents a six-year term from July to June and the number of members in a given period may exceed the maximum twelve-members quota because of the random rotations prescribed in the law.|
- Shaul, Bakhash (12 September 2011). "Iran's Conservatives: The Headstrong New Bloc". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- Schirazi, Asghar (2003). "GUARDIAN COUNCIL". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica. XI. New York, NY: Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. pp. 379–382. ISBN 0933273711.
- "Council of Guardians | Definition, Role, Selection, & History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-03-17.
- Inc., Manou & Associates. "Iranian Government Constitution, English Text". Archived from the original on 2011-06-17.
- Article 98 of the constitution
- Article 99 of the constitution
- Articles 96 and 94 of the constitution.
- The Guardian Council Expands Power: Election Monitoring Boards, Arseh Sevom, Arseh Sevom, Feb 18, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
- https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/iransource/factbox-irans-2020-parliamentary-elections/, Arash Azizi, Atlantic Council, February 14, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
- Whose Iran?, Laura Secor, The New York Times, January 28, 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2008.
- Iran: Voices Struggling To Be Heard, U.S. Department of State Fact Sheet, April 9, 2004. Retrieved September 22, 2008.
- The Revolutionary Guards' Role in Iranian Politics, Ali Alfoneh, Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2008; accessed via AEI's website on September 22, 2008.
- Khatami reluctant to discuss candidacy Archived 2009-04-27 at the Wayback Machine, Maryam Sinaiee, The National, September 21, 2008.
- Split hard-liners hold Iran parliament, AP via USA Today, March 16, 2008.
- Staff; agencies (24 May 2005). "Iran reverses ban on reformist candidates" – via The Guardian.
- IRANIAN LEGISLATURE APPROVES FUNDS FOR GASOLINE IMPORTS Archived 2006-11-01 at the Wayback Machine provides an example the need for approval of the Guardian Council.
- Article 4 Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Article 112 Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Article 98 Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Article 110 Clause 9 Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Eqbali, Aresu (29 May 2009). "Iranian women need more rights: candidate's wife". AFP. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- Article 99 Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- خانه ملت Archived 2006-10-11 at archive.today
- "سايت اطلاع رساني شوراي نگهبان/آشنايي با شوراي نگهبان". shora-gc.ir.
- "magiran.com: نشريه حقوق اساسي، شماره 21". magiran.com.
- Mellat Electronic Newspaper Archived May 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- http://www.irannewspaper.ir/1382/820205/html/politic.htm#s210702[permanent dead link]
- Michael Slackman (June 29, 2009). "Iran Council Certifies Disputed Election Results". The New York Times. Missing or empty
- "Lebanon's President congratulates Admadinejad on re-election". Washington TV. June 30, 2009. Retrieved June 30, 2009.[dead link]
- "Iran Electoral Body: Won't Accept More Election Objections". EasyBourse. June 30, 2009. Retrieved June 30, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "Khamenei's brother attacks reformist purge". BBC News. 2000-01-12. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- A. William Samii (2000-01-17). "Candidates rejected and Guardians Criticized". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Iran Report. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- "Iranian Elections, 1997-2001". PBS. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- "Overview of Human Rights Issues in Iran". Human Rights Watch. 2005-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- The Iranian Regime: Human Rights and Civil Liberties Under Siege, U.S. State Department Fact Sheet, April 18, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2008.
- "irisn.com". Portal.irisn.com. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
- Article 91 Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Article 110 Archived 2006-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Inc., Manou & Associates. "Iranian Government Constitution, English Text". Archived from the original on 2011-06-17.
- "GC Chairman Reelected", Financial Tribune, 21 July 2016, retrieved 2 December 2017
- "Iran's supreme leader appoints members of Guardian Council", Trend News Agency, 16 July 2013, retrieved 2 December 2017
- "SL reappoints 3 Guardian Council religious jurists, names a new face", Mehr News Agency, 17 July 2013, retrieved 2 December 2017
- Yasmin Alem (2011), Duality by Design: The Iranian Electoral System, Washington, D.C.: International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), p. 19, ISBN 978-1-931459-59-4
- The official website of the ConstitutionalCouncil (in Persian)
- Photos of members from official website (in Persian)