Assassination and terrorism in Iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Numerous civilians, including men, women, children, government officials, activists, secular intellectuals and clerics have been victims of assassination, terrorism, or violence against non-combatants, over the course of modern Iranian history.[1] Among the most notable acts of terrorism in Iran in the 20th century have been the 1978 Cinema Rex fire and the 1990s chain murders of Iran.

Several Iranian prime ministers, president, and ministers were assassinated by militant groups during the 20th century. Some notable victims are Prime Ministers Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Shapour Bakhtiar, Amir-Abbas Hoveida, Abdolhossein Hazhir and Haj Ali Razmara; President Mohammad Ali Rajai; Head of Judiciary Mohammad Beheshti; Chief Commander of the Army Ali Sayad Shirazi; and Minister of Labor Dariush Forouhar.

Groups have taken responsibility for some attacks, in others a group or regime is suspected or has been accused of the attack by the victims, and in still others the perpetrator is unknown. Alleged or admitted perpetrators of the killings in Iran span a wide range, including Islamic fundamentalists/revivalists (Fadayan-e Islam, Jundallah, Cinema Rex fire, Taliban in a 1998 killing of Iranian diplomats in Afghanistan), Israel or other foreign enemies of the Islamic Republic's nuclear program (Assassination of Iranian nuclear scientists), unidentified anti-Shia extremists (2010 Chabahar suicide bombing, 1994 Imam Reza shrine bomb explosion), Islamist enemies of the Islamic Republic, possibly with help from foreign enemies (Haft-e Tir bombing), hardline supporters of the Islamic Republic (Chain murders of Iran).

Attacks on Iranians[edit]

Assassinations in Qajar era[edit]

Shah Mohammad Khan Qajar was assassinated in 1797 in the city of Susa (Shushi), the capital of Karabakh khanate, after about 16 years in power. While Mohammad Khan Qajar's assassination might be called part of the ancient practice of palace intrigue, or motivated simply by fear and/or revenge, the May 1, 1896, killing of Shah Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar[2] conforms more closely to the modern phenomenon of terrorism as a tool of a political movement. Nasser al-Din was shot and killed by Mirza Reza Kermani, a follower of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, an early promoter of modern Pan-Islamism. Al-Afghani is reported to have said of the assassination, "surely it was a good deed to kill this bloodthirsty tyrant."[3]

Fadayan-e Islam[edit]

Navab Safavi of Fadayan-e Islam.

Fadayan-e Islam was an Islamic fundamentalist secret society founded in Iran in 1946, by "a charismatic theology student" named Navab Safavi. Safavi sought to "purify Islam" in Iran by ridding it of "corrupting individuals" by means of carefully planned assassinations of certain leading intellectual and political figures.[4] Some of its targets in the late 1940s and early 1950s included secularist author Ahmad Kasravi, former premier Abdul-Hussein Hazhir, Education and Culture Minister Ahmad Zangeneh, and Prime Minister Haj-Ali Razmara. Such was the groups influence and success that it was able to use its powerful clerical supporters to free its assassins from punishment. In the mid-1950s, after the consolidation of the power of the Shah, the group was suppressed and Safavi executed. The group survived as supporters of the Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution of Iran.

1978 Cinema Rex fire[edit]

On August 19, 1978, in the midst of the Iranian Revolution, more than 420 people were killed when the Cinema Rex in Abadan, Iran was set on fire during a showing of the movie The Deers. At the time the tragedy was blamed on the regime of Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, generated great popular anger and contributed to his overthrow.[5][6][7][8]

Attacks by Mujahedin-e-Khalq[edit]

Hafte Tir bombing victims mausoleum, designed by Mir-Hossein Mousavi

On June 28, 1981, bombs set by the People's Mujahedin of Iran or MEK, (a militant Islamist but anti-regime organization) killed 70 high-ranking officials of the Islamic Republic Party, including Chief Justice Mohammad Beheshti who was the second highest official after Ayatollah Khomeini at the time. Two years after the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the MeK detonated bombs at the headquarters of the now-dissolved Islamic Republic Party. Two months later, the MeK detonated another bomb in the office of the president, killing President Rajai, Premier Mohammad Javad Bahonar and Colonel Vahid Dastjardi, the head of the country's police force.

The 1998 Chain murders[edit]

Since the founding of the Islamic Republic, dissidents in Iran have complained of unsolved murders and disappearances of intellectuals and political activists who had been critical of the Islamic Republic system in some way. In 1998 these complaints came to a head with the killing of three dissident writers, political leader Dariush Forouhar and his wife in the span of two months, in what became known as the Chain Murders or 1998 Serial Murders of Iran.[9][10][11] The deputy security official of the Ministry of Information, Saeed Emami, was arrested for the killings and later committed suicide, although many believe higher level officials were responsible for the killings. According to, "it was widely assumed that [Emami] was murdered in order to prevent the leak of sensitive information about Ministry of Intelligence and Security operations, which would have compromised the entire leadership of the Islamic Republic."[12]

Attacks by Taliban and Sunni extremists[edit]

1994 Mashhad bombing[edit]

On June 20, 1994, the explosion of a bomb in a prayer hall of Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad[13] killed at least 25 people.[14] The Iranian government officially blamed Mujahedin-e-Khalq for the incident to avoid sectarian conflict between Shias and Sunnis.[15] However, the Pakistani daily The News International reported on March 27, 1995, "Pakistani investigators have identified a 24-year-old religious fanatic Abdul Shakoor residing in Lyari in Karachi, as an important Pakistani associate of Ramzi Yousef. Abdul Shakoor had intimate contacts with Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and was responsible for the June 20, 1994, massive bomb explosion at the shrine Imam Ali Reza in Mashhad."[16] According to the Jamestown Foundation Terrorism Monitor, "a report produced by the [Iranian] Ministry of Intelligence in October 1994 identified the culprits as operatives of Pakistan's Lashkar-e-Jhangvi the sister organization of Sipah-e-Sahaba."[17]

1998 Mazar-i-Sharif killings[edit]

On August 8, 1998, the Taliban, assisted by Al-Qaeda, attacked the Afghan city of Mazar-i-Sharif, killing 11 Iranian diplomats and journalists along with thousands of Afghan civilians, in what was considered an attack motivated by takfir against Shias.[18]

More infuriating for Iran was the fact that Pakistan's ISI had guaranteed their security.

Tehran had earlier contacted the Pakistan government to guarantee the security of their Consulate, because the Iranians knew that ISI officers had driven into Mazar with the Taliban. The Iranians had thought that Dost Mohammed's unit had been sent to protect them so had welcomed them at first. .... At first the Taliban refused to admit the whereabouts of the diplomats but then as international protests and Iranian fury increased, they admitted that the diplomats had been killed, not on official orders but by renegade Taliban. But reliable sources said that Dost Mohammed had spoken to Mullah Omar on his wireless to ask whether the diplomats should be killed and Omar had given the go-ahead."[19]

Iran was also angry at the lack of support from Western countries, particularly America, which considered Iran an enemy. Referring to the attack, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei alleges that "neither the Americans, nor the Europeans, who are now pursuing Al-Qaeda agents as members of the most dangerous terror organization, showed any reaction at all."[20]

The Taliban were also thought to have "secretly" backed anti-regime Iranian groups. These groups received weapons and support from the Taliban and "Iranians were convinced that the Pakistanis were also sponsoring them." The group sought to overthrow the Shia Iranian government, despite the fact that Iran was overwhelmingly Shia.[21]

Iran responded to the killings by putting its forces on alert and moving troops to the Afghan border, though tensions would subside.

Jundallah (since 2003)[edit]

Jundallah, a Sunni Islamist Baloch insurgent organization based in Balochistan, claims to be fighting for the rights of Sunni in Iran.[22] It is believed to have 1,000 fighters and claims to have killed 400 Iranian soldiers.[23] The group has been identified as a terrorist organization by Iran and Pakistan[24] and many believe it is linked to Al-Qaeda.[25] It is also believed to receive support from the US government.[26]

2007 Zahedan bombing[edit]

A car filled with explosives stopped in front of a bus full of Revolutionary Guards in Ahmabad district, Zahedan, Sistan-Baluchestan Province at 6:30 a.m. on February 14, 2007. The car, parked in the middle of the road, forced the bus to stop. The car's driver and passengers then got out of the car and used motorbikes to leave the scene while they shot at the bus. A few seconds later the bombs exploded, killing 18 Guards. Guards commander Qasem Rezaei said, "This blind terrorist operation led to the martyrdom of 18 citizens of Zahedan." Rezaei attributed the attack to "insurgents and elements of insecurity." Majid Razavi, an Interior Ministry official, said Iranian police arrested a suspect within an hour of the bombing.[27]

Jundallah, an organization some alleged to be affiliated with Al Qaeda,[28] claimed responsibility for the attack on February 15 and said it is retaliation for the executions of those accused of carrying out the Ahvaz Bombings.[citation needed] The Iranian government has arrested five suspects, two of whom were carrying camcorders and grenades when they were arrested, while the police killed the main "agent" of the attack.[29]

Hossein Ali Shahriari, Zahedan's representative in parliament, rhetorically asked, "Why does our diplomatic apparatus not seriously confront the Pakistani government for harboring bandits and regime's enemies? Why do security, military and police officials not take more serious action?"[29]

2005 Ahvaz bombings[edit]

The Ahvaz bombings were a series of bombings that took place mostly in Ahvaz. The bombings were linked to previous suppression of the Arab unrest in Ahvaz, occurred earlier in 2005. The first bombing came ahead of the presidential election on June 12. Interior Ministry official Mohammad Hussein Motahar said at the time:[30]

Two bombs were hidden in toilets within the building of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development and at the Office of Construction and Civil Engineering. The third bomb exploded in front of the house of the governor of Khuzestan Province. All three of these explosions were in the city center of Ahvaz. Another bomb was hidden in the doorway of the house of a [state] radio and television official in Ahvaz. The bomb went off when the door was opened.

2008 Shiraz bombing[edit]

A terrorist bombing inside a mosque in Shiraz in April 2008 killed 14 people including 10 men, 2 women and 2 children. More than 200 were also injured. Responsibility for the attack has not been determined.

2008 convoy bombing[edit]

According to Western news reports, at least 15 people were killed and scores wounded in a July 2008 explosion in Tehran. Initially there was a news black-out on the explosion in Iran and Revolutionary Guards launched an investigation into the causes of the blast and the possibility that sabotage was involved. There had been "a number of unexplained explosions in recent months." The convoy was reported to be carrying arms for Hezbollah when it exploded.[31]

2010 Chabahar suicide bombing[edit]

2010 Chabahar suicide bombing was carried out on December 14, 2010, by two suicide bombers, who blew themselves up in the crowded Shiite Muslim mourning procession in Southeastern Iranian coastal city of Chabahar outside Imam Husain Mosque.[32] The bombings took place in the day of Tasua, when Shiite Muslims gathered there to commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad.[33] The bombing resulted in killing at least 38 people.[34]

2010–2012 scientist assassinations[edit]

Four Iranian nuclear scientists were assassinated between 2010 and 2012, and a fifth was wounded in a failed assassination attempt. The Iranian government has accused Israel of committing the attacks, a claim which Israel has denied.

2017 Tehran attacks[edit]

On June 7, 2017, two simultaneous terrorist attacks were carried out by five terrorists belonging to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The Iranian Parliament building and the Mausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini, both in Tehran, Iran, were hit, leaving 17 civilians dead and 43 wounded.[35][36]

2018 Ahvaz attack[edit]

On September 22, 2018, a military parade was attacked in Ahvaz, a southwestern Iranian city.[37][38]

2018 Chabahar suicide bombing[edit]

On December 6, 2018, a suicide bomber detonated his car near a police station killing two policemen and wounding dozens more.[39]

2022 stabbings at Imam Reza shrine[edit]

On April 5, 2022, a stabbing attack took place at the Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad, Iran, killing two Shia clerics and wounding a third. The perpetrator, identified as foreign national Abdullatif Moradi, was immediately arrested along with six others accused of assisting him. The victims were active members of non-profit constructing and cultural communities.[40]

The attacker, Abdullatif Moradi, a 21-year-old ethnic Uzbek illegal immigrant from Afghanistan,[41] has been called as a "Takfiri who viewed Shia Muslims as heretics and believed their blood should be spilled". Moradi and his brother were reportedly active in social networks under the names of "Abdullatif al-Salafi", "Hassan Moradi" and "Abulaqib al-Mowahid", criticizing Shia Muslims and promoting Takfiri thoughts. (The "Abdullatif al-Salafi" alias indicates Salafi sympathies.)[42] He was executed by hanging in June 2022.[43]

2022–2023 attacks on Shah Cheragh shrine[edit]

On October 26, 2022, a gunman shot and killed 15 pilgrims at the Shah Cheragh shrine in Shiraz, including women and children, and wounding scores of others. The man was shot by security forces and later died of his wounds.[44] Daesh (or ISIS) "took responsibility for the attack", but according to Iranian state media, they are "being masterminded by the West and Israel".[45]

On August 13, 2023, another gunman, later identified as Rahmatollah Nowruzo, shot and killed two and injuring seven at the same shrine. He was convicted and sentenced to death twice for "moharebeh" (waging war against God) and other offenses on September 22, 2023, by a Revolutionary court.[44]

According to a statement by Iran's Intelligence Ministry reported by Iranian state media, the ministry's forces had captured a "Daesh-linked" loyalist who performed the "most pivotal" role in the August 13 attack on the shrine, and that 196 Takfiri terrorists were caught or killed between the Ocoter 2022 and August 2023 attacks on the holy site, all of whom were non-Iranians. They were from Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan.[44]

Mahsa Amini protests[edit]

According to state media, "30 simultaneous terrorist attacks" were set to take place on the one year anniversary of "the riots that broke out in September 2022", i.e. on the date of Mahsa Amini's death at the hands of security forces after she was arrested for allegedly bad hijab.[46] "Iran's intelligence ministry declared its forces neutralized" the planned attacks and arrested 28 terrorists".[46]

2024 Kerman bombings[edit]

2024 Kerman bombings
The site of the bombings.
The site of the bombings on the route toward the Martyrs' Cemetery with the dome of the Saheb al-Zaman mosque visible in the background
LocationKerman, Iran
DateJanuary 3, 2024 (January 3, 2024)
15:50 – 16:00 IRDT (UTC+03:30)
TargetIranian civilians
Attack type
PerpetratorIslamic State (claimed responsibility)

On January 3, 2024, between 15:50 and 16:00 (Iran time), two bombs exploded during a commemorative ceremony marking the assassination of Qasem Soleimani in Kerman.

The twin explosions struck a procession going towards Soleimani's tomb in the Golzar Shohada cemetery,[48] around the Saheb al-Zaman mosque, to commemorate the fourth anniversary of his death.[49] The first explosion occurred 700 metres from Soleimani's grave near a parking lot, while the second occurred one kilometre away at Shohada Street, where many had fled.[50][51]

At least 89 people were killed and at least another 171 were injured,[52] including three paramedics who responded to the site of the first explosion and were caught in the second blast.[53]

Most of the fatalities were believed to have been killed in the second explosion.[50] Several of the injured were trampled in the panic that followed the explosions.[54]

The Iranian government declared the bombings a terrorist attack,[49] making it the deadliest such incident in the country since 1979.[50]

Alleged attacks by the Islamic Republic of Iran[edit]

In addition to attacks perpetrated in the country of Iran, since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, there have been lethal attacks that took place in other countries but were made possible at some level by the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Specifically, the government of the Islamic Republic has been accused by several countries of training, financing, arming, and providing safe havens for non-state militant actors. Examples include Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in Palestine, and other Palestinian groups (Islamic Jihad (PIJ) and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC)). These groups are designated terrorist groups by a number of countries and international bodies; however, Iran considers such groups to be "national liberation movements" with a right to self-defense in the face of Israeli military occupation.[55]

A number of countries (Argentina, Thailand, Albania,[56] Denmark,[57] France,[58] India,[59] Kenya,[60] United States)[61][62][63][64][65] have also accused Iran's government itself (usually in the form of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps) of plotting assassinations or bombings against perceived enemies of the Iranian government in their countries.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Iran, victim of terrorism and discrimination". Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  2. ^ Clay, Catrine (2006), King, Kaiser, Tsar. London: John Murray
  3. ^ Nikki R. Keddie, Sayyid Jamal ad-Din "al-Afghani": A Political Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), p.412
  4. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, (1985), p.98
  5. ^ Afkhami, R. Gholam (2009) The life and times of the Shah University of California Press, page 465 & 459, ISBN 0-520-25328-0
  6. ^ Ansari, M. Ali (2007) Modern Iran: the Pahlavis and after Pearson Education, page 259, ISBN 1-4058-4084-6
  7. ^ Federal Research Division (2004) Iran A Country Study Kessinger Publishing, page 78, ISBN 1-4191-2670-9
  8. ^ Bahl, Taru, Syed, M.H (2003) Encyclopaedia of the Muslim World Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2003, page 105, ISBN 81-261-1419-3
  9. ^ "Killing of three rebel writers turns hope into fear in Iran", Douglas Jehl, The New York Times, December 14, 1998, p. A6
  10. ^ "RFE/RL Iran Report". Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
  11. ^ Green Left – Regular Feature: Write On: Letters to Green Left Weekly Archived June 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ A Man Called Saeed Emani Archived September 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "ABC Evening News for Monday, Jun 20, 1994". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2009.
  14. ^ Explosive circles: Iran. (Mashhad bombing)
  15. ^ "Special Analysis: The Ashura Massacre". Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  16. ^ SIPAH-E-SAHABA PAKISTAN, LASHKAR-E-JHANGVI, BIN LADEN & RAMZI YOUSEF Archived January 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "The Iranian Intelligence Services and the War On Terror By Mahan Abedin". Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  18. ^ Human Rights Watch Report, `Afghanistan, the massacre in Mazar-e-Sharif`, November 1998
  19. ^ Rashid, Ahmed, Taliban : Militant Islam, Oil & Fundamentalism in Central Asia, Yale University Press, 2000 p.74-5
  20. ^ We Cannot Believe Muslims Are Behind Terrorism in Iraq: Leader Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Rashid, Ahmed, Taliban : Militant Islam, Oil & Fundamentalism in Central Asia, Yale University Press, 2000 p.203
  22. ^ "Preparing the Battlefield". The New Yorker. July 7, 2008. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  23. ^ Massoud, Ansari (January 16, 2006). "Sunni group vows to behead Iranians". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  24. ^ 2nd blast in 3 days hits Iranian city, 16 February 2007 Archived February 24, 2008, at the Wayback MachineAl-Qaeda's New Face, August 2004 Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ The legacy of Nek Mohammed By Syed Saleem Shahzad Archived May 3, 2012, at the Stanford Web Archive
  26. ^ "Seymour Hersh: US Training Jundullah and MEK for Bombing Preparation". Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  27. ^ Report: Bomb kills 18 Revolutionary Guardsmen in Iran Archived July 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Washington Post
  28. ^ Al-Qaeda gains Palestine foothold Archived February 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Scotsman
  29. ^ a b 11 Guards killed in Iran bomb attack Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Gulf Times
  30. ^ "Iran: Bombings May be Connected with Minorities, Election". Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
  31. ^ Coughlin, Con (July 24, 2008). "Iranian military convoy rocked by mystery explosion". Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  32. ^ "Explosion in Chabahar". IRNA. December 15, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ "Suicide bombers kill at least 38 in southeast Iran". Times of India. December 15, 2010. Archived from the original on December 18, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  34. ^ "Deadly bomb attack in Iran city of Chabahar". BBC News. December 15, 2010. Archived from the original on December 16, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  35. ^ Erdbrink, Thomas (June 7, 2017). "Islamic State Claims Deadly Iran Attacks on Parliament and Khomeini Tomb". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
    "Iran shootings: Parliament and shrine attacked". BBC. June 7, 2017.
  36. ^ "Shootings reported at Iranian parliament and Khomeini shrine". The Guardian. France-Presse Agence. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
  37. ^ "Several Killed as Gunmen Attack Military Parade in Iran: State TV". The New York Times. Reuters. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  38. ^ "Several killed, at least 20 injured in attack on military parade in Iran". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  39. ^ "Suicide bomber kills at least two in attack on southeast Iran..." Reuters. December 6, 2018. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  40. ^ "حضور معنادار مردم در مراسم تشییع پیکر شهید اصلانی/ ‌پیکر شهید رمضان در کنار شهدای انفجار حرم ‌رضوی آرام گرفت + فیلم و تصاویر". خبرگزاری تسنیم | Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  41. ^ "Taliban Condemn Stabbing Attack at Shiite Site in Iran – Politics news". Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  42. ^ "اختصاصی تسنیم/ جزییاتی از هویت ضارب سه روحانی در حرم رضوی(ع)- اخبار استانها تسنیم". خبرگزاری تسنیم | Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  43. ^ "Iran hangs extremist accused of murdering Shia clerics". Al Arabiya. June 20, 2022.
  44. ^ a b c "Main culprit in terror attack on Shah Cheragh shrine sentenced to death". Tehran Times. September 22, 2023. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  45. ^ Emami, Sara (August 14, 2023). "Shah Cheragh terrorist attack: sequel to a failed plot". Tehran Times. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  46. ^ a b "30 simultaneous terrorist attacks neutralized in Tehran". Tehran Times. September 24, 2023. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  47. ^ a b Yee, Vivian; Fassihi, Farnaz (January 3, 2024). "Bombing in Iran Kills Over 100, Sowing Confusion and Speculation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2024. Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  48. ^ Wintour, Patrick; editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (January 3, 2024). "Almost 100 dead in blasts at Iran memorial for assassinated commander". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 3, 2024. {{cite news}}: |last2= has generic name (help)
  49. ^ a b "Ninety-five killed in bomb blasts near Iran general Qasem Soleimani's tomb - state TV". January 3, 2024. Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  50. ^ a b c "Iran says at least 73 people killed, 40 wounded in blasts at ceremony honoring slain general". AP News. January 3, 2024. Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  51. ^ "Iran: Deadly blasts near grave of slain Qassem Soleimani – DW – 01/03/2024". Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  52. ^ i24NEWS (January 3, 2024). "Iranian official declares explosion near Soleimani's tomb was a 'terrorist attack'". I24news. Retrieved January 3, 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ "Iran blames Israel, US for blasts that killed 95 near grave of Guards general Soleimani". France 24. January 3, 2024. Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  54. ^ "Dozens killed in blasts near Iran general's tomb". Al Jazeera. Retrieved January 3, 2024.
  55. ^ Malakoutikhah, Zeynab (September 10, 2018). "Iran: Sponsoring or Combating Terrorism?". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 43 (10): 913–939. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2018.1506560. Alt URL
  56. ^ "Albania Expels Two Iranian Diplomats For Allegedly 'Harming' National Security". RFE/RL. December 20, 2018.
  57. ^ "Denmark calls for fresh EU sanctions on Iran after alleged assassination plot foiled – ABC News". ABC News. October 30, 2018.
  58. ^ Paris, Charles Bremner (October 3, 2018). "France freezes Iranian assets after rally bomb plot". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  59. ^ Chauhan, Neeraj (July 29, 2012). "Cops name Iran military arm for attack on Israeli diplomat". The Times of India. Archived from the original on December 8, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
  60. ^ Kreider, Randy (July 2, 2012). "Iranians Planned to Attack US, Israeli Targets in Kenya: Officials". ABC News. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  61. ^ "Hunted in Brooklyn: Activist targeted by Iran in assassination plot says Rushdie attack has made her more determined than ever". The Independent. September 2022.
  62. ^ "Iranian Dissident: Man With Rifle Arrested Outside Brooklyn Home Is Agent for Iran". NBC New York. August 9, 2022.
  63. ^ "Suspected Plot Against VOA Persian Host in NY Underscores Dangers of Transnational Reprisal". VOA. August 11, 2022.
  64. ^ "U.S. charges Iranian military operative in plot to assassinate former Trump advisor John Bolton". CNBC. August 10, 2022.
  65. ^ "Iranian operative plotting assassination of John Bolton also targeted Mike Pompeo: Report". Fox News. August 11, 2022.