Summer solstice

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UT date and time of
equinoxes and solstices on Earth[1]
event equinox solstice equinox solstice
month March June September December
year
day time day time day time day time
2010 20 17:32 21 11:28 23 03:09 21 23:38
2011 20 23:21 21 17:16 23 09:04 22 05:30
2012 20 05:14 20 23:09 22 14:49 21 11:12
2013 20 11:02 21 05:04 22 20:44 21 17:11
2014 20 16:57 21 10:51 23 02:29 21 23:03
2015 20 22:45 21 16:38 23 08:21 22 04:48
2016 20 04:30 20 22:34 22 14:21 21 10:44
2017 20 10:28 21 04:24 22 20:02 21 16:28
2018 20 16:15 21 10:07 23 01:54 21 22:23
2019 20 21:58 21 15:54 23 07:50 22 04:19
2020 20 03:50 20 21:44 22 13:31 21 10:02
Summer Solstice Sunset over the Mojave desert 7:54 p.m. PDT (19:54) June 20, 2016
Diagram of the Earth's seasons as seen from the north. Far left: summer solstice for the Northern Hemisphere. Front right: summer solstice for the Southern Hemisphere.

The summer solstice (or estival solstice) occurs when a planet's rotational axis, in either northern or southern hemispheres, is most inclined toward the star that it orbits. Earth's maximum axial tilt toward the Sun is 23° 26′. This happens twice each year (once in each hemisphere), at which times the Sun reaches its highest position in the sky as seen from the north or the south pole.

The summer solstice or aestival solstice occurs during a hemisphere's summer. This is the northern solstice in the northern hemisphere and the southern solstice in the southern hemisphere. Depending on the shift of the calendar, the summer solstice occurs some time between June 20 and June 22 in the northern hemisphere[2][3] and between December 20 and December 23 each year in the southern hemisphere.[4] The same dates in the opposite hemisphere are referred to as the winter solstice.

When on a geographic pole, the Sun reaches its greatest height, the moment of solstice, it can be noon only along that longitude which at that moment lies in the direction of the Sun from the pole. For other longitudes, it is not noon. Noon has either passed or has yet to come. Hence the notion of a solstice day is useful. The term is colloquially used like midsummer to refer to the day on which solstice occurs. The summer solstice day has the longest period of daylight – except in the polar regions, where daylight is continuous, from a few days to six months around the summer solstice.

2016 was the first time in nearly 70 years that a full moon and the summer solstice concur on the same day.[5] The 2016 summer solstice's full moon will rise just as the Sun sets.[5] The moment of the full moon is early Monday on June 20.[5]

Worldwide, interpretation of the event has varied among cultures, but most recognize the event in some way with holidays, festivals, and rituals around that time with themes of religion or fertility.[6]

Solstice is derived from the Latin words sol (sun) and sistere (to stand still).

Date[edit]

Date of the summer solstice over time. The jumps are leap years.

Celebrations[edit]

Winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere[edit]

Length of the day on the summer solstice of the north[edit]

The following tables contain information on the length of the day on the summer solstice of the northern hemisphere (i.e. June solstice). The data was collected from the website of the Finnish Meteorological Institute on 20 June 2016[7] as well as from certain other websites.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

The data is arranged geographically and within the tables from the longest day to the shortest one.

Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries
City Sunrise
20 June 2016
Sunset
20 June 2016
Length of the day
Rovaniemi 24 h
Kem’ 01:45 23:40 21 h 55 min
Reykjavik 2:55 21.6.2016 0:03 21 h 08 min
Trondheim 3:02 23:38 20 h 36 min
Tórshavn 3:36 23:21 19 h 45 min
Petrozavodsk 2:55 22:34 19 h 39 min
Helsinki 3:54 22:50 18 h 56 min
Saint Petersburg 3:35 22:26 18 h 51 min
Oslo 3:54 22:44 18 h 50 min
Tallinn 4:03 22:42 18 h 39 min
Stockholm 3:31 22:08 18 h 37 min
Riga 4:29 22:21 17 h 52 min
Copenhagen 4:25 21:58 17 h 33 min
Vilnius 4:42 22:00 17 h 18 min
Europe
City Sunrise
20 June 2016
Sunset
20 June 2016
Length of the day
Edinburgh 4:26 22:03 17 h 37 min
Moscow 3:44 21:18 17 h 34 min
Berlin 4:43 21:33 16 h 50 min
London 4:43 21:21 16 h 38 min
Paris 5:47 21:58 16 h 11 min
Rome 5:35 20:49 15 h 14 min
Madrid 6:45 21:48 15 h 03 min
Lisbon 6:12 21:05 14 h 53 min
Athens 6:03 20:51 14 h 48 min
Africa
City Sunrise
20 June 2016
Sunset
20 June 2016
Length of the day
Cairo 4:54 18:59 14 h 05 min
Dakar 6:42 19:41 12 h 59 min
Addis Ababa 6:07 18:46 12 h 39 min
Nairobi 6:33 18:36 12 h 03 min
Kinshasa 6:04 17:57 11 h 53 min
Dar es Salaam 6:33 18:16 11 h 43 min
Luanda 6:20 17:57 11 h 37 min
Saint Helena 6:49 18:00 11 h 10 min
Antananarivo 6:22 17:21 10 h 59 min
Windhoek 6:31 17:16 10 h 45 min
Johannesburg 6:55 17:24 10 h 29 min
Cape Town 7:51 17:45 9 h 54 min
Americas
City Sunrise
20 June 2016
Sunset
20 June 2016
Length of the day
Fairbanks 2:58 21.6. 00:48 21 h 49min
Nuuk 2:54 00:04 21 h 09 min
Iqaluit 2:11 23:01 20 h 49 min
Anchorage 4:20 23:43 19 h 23 min
Kodiak 5:08 23:15 18 h 07 min
Sitka 5:06 23:00 17 h 54 min
Unalaska 6:34 23:41 17 h 07 min
Vancouver 5:07 21:22 16 h 15 min
Seattle 5:11 21:11 16 h 00 min
Ottawa 5:14 20:55 15 h 41 min
New York 5:25 20:31 15 h 06 min
Washington, D.C. 5:43 20:37 14 h 54 min
Los Angeles 5:42 20:08 14 h 26 min
Miami 6:30 20:15 13 h 45 min
Havana 6:44 20:18 13 h 34 min
Honolulu 5:50 19:16 13 h 26 min
Mexico City 6:59 20:17 13 h 18 min
Managua 5:22 18:12 12 h 50 min
Bogotá 5:46 18:10 12 h 24 min
Quito 6:13 18:19 12 h 06 min
Lima 6:27 17:52 11 h 25 min
Rio de Janeiro 6:33 17:16 10 h 43 min
Santiago 7:46 17:42 9 h 56 min
Buenos Aires 8:00 17:50 9 h 50 min
Ushuaia 9:59 17:11 7 h 12 min
Asia and Oceania
City Sunrise
20 June 2016
Sunset
20 June 2016
Length of the day
Provideniya 0:55 22:14 21 h 17 min
Magadan 2:37 21:20 18 h 43 min
Petropavlovsk 4:59 21:55 16 h 56 min
Khabarovsk 4:58 21:05 16 h 07 min
Ulaanbaatar 5:53 21:55 16 h 02 min
Vladivostok 5:33 20:55 15 h 22 min
Beijing 4:46 19:46 15 h 00 min
Tokyo 4:25 19:00 14 h 35 min
Shanghai 4:50 19:01 14 h 11 min
Lhasa 4:56 18:59 14 h 03 min
Delhi 5:24 19:22 13 h 58 min
Kathmandu 5:08 19:02 13 h 54 min
Taipei 5:05 18:47 13 h 42 min
Hong Kong 5:40 19:10 13 h 30 min
Manila 5:28 18:27 12 h 59 min
Bangkok 5:51 18:48 12 h 57 min
Singapore 7:00 19:12 12 h 12 min
Jakarta 6:01 17:47 11 h 46 min
Darwin 7:06 18:30 11 h 24 min
Papeete 6:28 17:32 11 h 04 min
Sydney 7:00 16:54 9 h 54 min
Auckland 7:34 17:11 9 h 37 min
Melbourne 7:35 17:08 9 h 33 min
Dunedin 8:20 16:59 8 h 39 min

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Naval Observatory (2015-09-21). "Earth's Seasons: Equinoxes, Solstices, Perihelion, and Aphelion, 2000-2025". Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  2. ^ "The June Solstice". Time and Date AS. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  3. ^ "Solstice (astronomy)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  4. ^ "December Solstice". Time and Date AS. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  5. ^ a b c "Full Moon and Summer Solstice coincide on the same day". The Old Farmer's Almanac. Retrieved 21 June 2016. 
  6. ^ "Summer solstice celebrations of Christianity, Judaism, Neopaganism, etc". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  7. ^ "Paikallissää Helsinki" [‘Local weather in Helsinki’] (in Finnish). Finnish Meteorological Institute. 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2016-06-20. 
  8. ^ "Jamestown, Saint Helena". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  9. ^ "Fairbanks". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  10. ^ "Nuuk". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  11. ^ "Iqaluit". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  12. ^ "Sitka". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  13. ^ "Unalaska". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  14. ^ "Provideniya". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  15. ^ "Katmandu". Retrieved 2016-06-22. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]