Tag (game)

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Tag
Jongensspelen 10.jpg
A Dutch cartoon of children playing tag, 1860s
Players2 or more
Setup time0 to 1 minutes
Playing timeNo limit
Random chanceLow
Skills requiredRunning, stalking, hiding, observation

Tag (also called tig, it, tiggy, tips, tick, tip) is a playground game involving two or more players chasing other players in an attempt to "tag" and mark them out of play, usually by touching with a hand. There are many variations; most forms have no teams, scores, or equipment. Usually, when a person is tagged, the tagger says, "Tag, you're 'it'!" The last one tagged during tag is "it" for the next round.

Basic rules[edit]

Children playing a version of tag

Players (two or more) decide who is going to be "it", often using a counting-out game such as eeny, meeny, miny, moe. The player selected to be "it" then chases the others, attempting to "tag" one of them (by touching them with a hand) as the others try to avoid being tagged.[1] A tag makes the tagged player "it". In some variations, the previous "it" is no longer "it" and the game can continue indefinitely, while in others, both players remain "it" and the game ends when all players have become "it".

Many variants modify the rules for team play or place restrictions on tagged players' behavior. A simple variation makes tag an elimination game, so that tagged drop out of play.[2] Some variants have a rule preventing a player from tagging the person who has just tagged them (known as "no tag-backs", "no catch-backs", "no returns", "can't tag your master" or "can't get the butcher back").[3]

Base and truce terms[edit]

Players may be safe from being tagged under certain circumstances: if they are within a pre-determined area, off the ground, or when touching a particular structure. Traditional variants are Wood tag (see knock on wood), Iron tag, and Stone tag, when a player is safe when touching the named material.[3] This safe zone has been called a "gool", "ghoul", or "Dell",[4][5] probably a corruption of "goal".[6] The term "gool" was first recorded in print in Massachusetts in the 1870s, and is common in the northern states of the US. Variants include gould, goul, and ghoul, and alternatives include base and home.[7] In the United Kingdom, the base is frequently known as "den". In much of Canada and parts of the northern United States, the state or home base of being immune from tagging is known as "times" or "T", most likely as mutilation of "time out".

Players may also make themselves safe from being tagged by the use of a truce term. When playing the game tag, some may cross fingers to let others know that they, the player, cannot be it. Yet, this rule may come into play only if the crossing of fingers is shown; if the fingers are not shown to the person who is it, then the crossing does not count.

Bans and restrictions[edit]

Tag and other chasing games have been banned in some schools in the United States due to concerns about injuries, complaints from children that it can lead to harassment and bullying, and that there is an aspect to the game that possesses an unhealthily predatory element to its nature.[8][9] In 2008, a 10-year-old boy in Omaha, Nebraska, died from brain injuries suffered from falling onto a metal pole while playing tag.[10] A school dinner lady in Dorset was left partially paralyzed after a boy playing tag ran into her in 2004; her damage claim was rejected by three Court of Appeal judges, who ruled that the boy had not broken any school rules by playing the game.[11]

A principal who banned tag in her school criticized the game for creating a "self-esteem issue" in nominating one child as a victim, and noted that the oldest and biggest children usually dominate the game.[12] A dislike of elimination games is another reason for banning tag.[13] In some schools only supervised tag is allowed, sometimes with a type of tagging called butterfly tagging—a light tap on the shoulders, arms or upper back.[14]

The president of the US National Association for Sport and Physical Education said that "Tag games are not inherently bad ... teachers must modify rules, select appropriate boundaries and equipment, and make sure pupils are safe. Teachers should emphasize tag games that develop self-improvement, participation, fair play, and cooperation."[13]

Variants[edit]

British bulldog[edit]

The game "British bulldog" (sometimes also called Bullrush, Cat and Mouse, Red Rover, Cats and Mice, sharks and dolphins, Sharks and Minnows, Spiders and Flies, or Octopus or Open the gates (in South Africa)) is mainly played in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa and other Commonwealth countries. It is banned from many schools.[citation needed] One or two players start as the "bulldogs", who stand in the middle of the play area, while the other players stand at one end of the area. The aim is to run from one end of the area to the other without being caught by the bulldogs. When a player is caught, they become a bulldog themselves. The winner is the last player "free".[15]

Duck, duck, goose[edit]

How duck, duck, goose is played

In this game, usually played by young children, the players sit in a circle facing inward. One player, the "picker" or "fox", walks around tapping or pointing to each player in turn, calling each of them a "duck", until finally announcing one of his choosing to be the "goose". The goose then rises and runs around the circle in the same direction as the picker, attempting to return to their seat before the "picker" can sit back down in the vacated spot. In Minnesota, this game is referred to as "Duck, duck, gray duck".[16]

Freeze tag[edit]

Freeze tag is a variation of classic tag. A player is deemed "it." When a person is tagged by "it", they are then "frozen" (staying still in the place where they were tagged). All "unfrozen" players still in play can then touch frozen players to "unfreeze" them, allowing them to be back in play. The game ends when "it" freezes all but one of the players who is then typically "it" during the next game.

Kiss chase[edit]

Kiss chase, also referred to as Catch and Kiss, is a tag variant in which tagging is performed by kissing.[1] All members of one sex are "it" at once and chase players of the opposite sex until everyone is caught, then the roles are reversed.[17] A variant is that the player chosen to be "it" will, with assistance from players of the same gender, chase all members of the opposite sex and kiss one of them.

Octopus tag[edit]

Octopus tag is a mix between Red Rover and tag.[18] "It", or "octopus", attempts to tag the other players. The playing field is known as the ocean. The players, or "fish", line up along one side of the ocean. When the Octopus calls out, "Come fishies come!", "Octopus!", or a matching attribute of one or more fishes, they try to run to the other side without getting tagged. In a variation, once the fish run to the other side without getting tagged, the game pauses until the octopus starts it again. Upon getting tagged the fish become "seaweed" and must freeze or sit where they were tagged, but they can wave their arms around and assist the Octopus in tagging other fish within their reach. The last fish to be tagged becomes the next Octopus. This game can also be played in the water and then it is called Sharks and Minnows.[citation needed]

Poison[edit]

In the game of Poison, play starts with players holding hands around a small "poison" circle marked on the ground. The first player to be pushed or pulled into the circle become "poisoned", all hands are released and the poisoned player or players must chase the others.

Team tag[edit]

Cops and robbers[edit]

Cops and robbers, sometimes called "jail", "jail tag", "team tag", "chase", "cowboys and indians", "police and thief", "prisoner's base"[19] "jailbreak", "releaseo" or "manhunt",[20] has players split into two teams: cops and robbers.

A. M. Burrage calls this version of the game "Smee" in his 1931 ghost story of the same name.[21] The cops, who are in pursuit of robbers (the team being chased), arrest the robbers by tagging the robbers and putting them in jail. Robbers can stage a jailbreak by tagging one of the prisoners in the jail without getting tagged themselves.[22] The game ends if all the robbers are in jail. In a variant, the robbers have five minutes to hide before being hunted, and only one jailbreak may be allowed per robber. In the videogame Mario Kart 8 Deluxe, a variation of the game is used for a Battle Mode minigame known as "Renegade Roundup".[23]

Zombie tag[edit]

Humans vs. Zombies is a survival game of tag, where "human" players fight off increasingly large numbers of "zombies"; if a human is "turned" (i.e. tagged), then that player also becomes a zombie. At the game's beginning, there are only one or two zombies; the zombies multiply by tagging humans, turning them into zombies after a period of one hour. Humans can defend themselves from zombies by using socks, marshmallows, Nerf Blasters or any other toys deemed safe and appropriate; if a zombie is hit by one of these, they are stunned (not allowed to interact with the game in any way) for 15 seconds. The goal of the zombies is to turn all the humans; the humans, meanwhile, must outlast all the zombies.

Manhunt[edit]

Manhunt is a mixture of hide and seek and tag, often played during the night. One person is "it", while the other players have to hide. Then, the person who is "it" tries to find and tag them. The game is over when all players are out. Manhunt is sometimes played in teams. In one variant there is a home base in which a player is safe. That version ends when all players who are not safe are out.

Prisoner's Base[edit]

In Prisoner's Base, each team starts in a chain, holding hands, with one end of the chain touching the base. The end two players on each team break from the chain and try to tag each other, taking them to their base if they do. The end pair progressively break from the chain and join the tagging. As with Cops and Robbers, prisoners can be freed by tagging them in the base. The game is thought to date back to the Renaissance period, and may be inspired by the act of bride kidnapping.[24] A game of Prisoner's Base was played by members of Lewis & Clark's Corps of Discovery against a group of Nez Perce.[25][26]

What's the time, Mr Wolf?[edit]

One player is chosen to be Mr Wolf and stands facing away from the other players at the opposite end of the playing field. All players except Mr Wolf chant in unison "What's the time, Mr Wolf?", and Mr Wolf will answer in one of two ways: Mr Wolf may call a time – usually an hour ending in "o'clock". The other players take that many steps towards Mr Wolf. They then ask the question again. Alternatively Mr Wolf may call "Dinner time!", and turn and chase the other players back to their starting point. If Mr Wolf tags a player, that player becomes Mr Wolf for the next round.

Ringolevio[edit]

In Ringolevio, there are two teams. In one version, one team goes off and hides. The other team counts to a number such as 30 and then goes looking for them. Each team has its own "jail", a park bench or other defendable area in another version. The game goes on until all of one team is in jail. In many ways, Ringolevio is similar to Prisoner's Base.

Variants requiring equipment[edit]

The "Blind man's bluff" variant requires a blindfold to be played.

Some variants of tag use equipment such as balls, paintball guns, or even flashlights to replace tagging by hand.

Blind man's bluff[edit]

Blind man's bluff, also known as Mr Blind Man, is a version of tag in which one player, designated as "it", is blindfolded and attempts to tag the other players, while the other players try to avoid them.

Computer tag[edit]

Research students developed a version of tag played using handheld WiFi-enabled computers with GPS.[27][28]

Flashlight tag[edit]

Flashlight tag, also called "Army tag", "Spotlight", and "German Spotlight",[29] is played at night. Rather than physically tagging, the "it" player tags by shining a flashlight beam on other players.

Fox and geese[edit]

A traditional type of line tag, sometimes played in snow, is Fox and geese. The fox starts at the centre of a spoked wheel, and the geese flee from the fox along the spokes and around the wheel. Geese that are tagged become foxes. The intersections of the spokes with the wheel are safe zones.[30]

Kick the can[edit]

One person is "it" and a can is placed in an open space. The other players run off and hide, then it tries to find and tag each of them. Tagged players are sent to jail. Any player who has not been caught can kick the can, setting the other players free from jail.[31]

Laser tag[edit]

Laser tag is similar to flashlight tag, but using special equipment to avoid the inevitable arguments that arise about whether one was actually tagged. Players carry guns that emit beams of light and wear electronic equipment that can detect the beams and register being hit. The equipment often has built-in scoring systems and various penalties for taking hits. Pay-per-game laser tag facilities are common in North America.

Marco Polo[edit]

An aquatic American variant of blind man's bluff, most commonly played in a swimming pool, although it may also be played while swimming in shallow natural bodies of water (typically the areas near the shores of oceans, seas, and lakes). The players may be swimming, treading water, or walking on the bottom of the pool or body of water. The person designated "it" is required to close their eyes, and shouts "Marco!" at regular intervals; the other players must shout "Polo!" in response. "It" must use sound localization to find one of the other players and tag them. The tagged player then generally becomes "it," and the process repeats. In some variants, if any of the players who are not "it" climb out of the water to ensure not being caught (depending on the variant, this may be cheating) and the player designated "it" suspects this, they are to shout "Fish out of water!" and can open their eyes briefly to confirm this. If their suspicions are correct, then the culprit must become "it" as the game starts over.

Muckle[edit]

Muckle (sometimes called "muckle the man with the ball", "kill-the-guy-with-the-ball", "smear the queer",[32] "kill the carrier", among other names) is the reverse of regular tag; all the other players chase "it". This player is denoted by carrying a ball (usually a football). When they are caught, they are tackled, or "muckled". Whoever retrieves the ball first or whoever attacks the one who is it then becomes it. Sometimes the last player arriving to tackle the former ball carrier is the next person to be it; in other variations the player with the ball throws the ball up in the air, where it is caught by another player who becomes it.

Paintball[edit]

Paintball is a sport in which players use compressed air guns (called paintball markers) to tag other players with paint-filled pellets. Games are usually played on commercial fields with a strict set of safety and gameplay rules.

Sock tag[edit]

A tube sock is filled with a small amount of flour in the toe of the sock; the sock is then gripped by the leg hole and wielded as a flail. Striking a player with any part of the sock counts as a tag.[33][34]

Spud[edit]

Spud is a tag variant that is best played in large, open areas. Players begin each round in a central location. "it" then throws a ball high into the air. The other players run but must stop as soon as "it" catches the ball and shouts "Spud!" It may then take three large steps toward the player of his choosing before throwing the ball at that player. If the ball hits the target, that player becomes it and the game starts over.

Team tag sports[edit]

In South Asia, two sports are variants of tag, played at the team level, sometimes internationally. In Kabaddi, raiders cross a dividing line to try to tag defenders, while continuously chanting "kabbadi" on one breath while over the line.[24] It is included in the Asian Games and even has a world championship, being played throughout India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Iran, as well as in Indian communities in Canada, Great Britain, the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, and the Netherlands. It was also demonstrated in 1936 Berlin Olympics. The other tag sport is called Kho Kho.

Tag or flag rugby is a non-contact variation in which each player wears a belt that has two velcro tags attached to it, or shorts with velcro patches. The mode of play is also similar to rugby league with attacking players attempting to dodge, evade and pass a rugby ball while defenders attempt to prevent them scoring by tagging – pulling a velcro attached tag from the ball carrier. However, the "tag" in "tag rugby" is derived from the "tags" that the players wear and the children's game of tag more closely resembles touch rugby whereby a touch replaces a tackle.

Origin of name[edit]

In 2018, the popular internet meme "How old when you were when you found out ____" began circulating stating that the meaning of the word tag was an acronym meaning 'touch and go'.[35] Investigation by snopes.com found this to be false.[36] According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the origin of the name 'tag' is unknown.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The games children play". BBC News. 21 May 1999. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  2. ^ Wise, Debra (2003). Great big book of children's games: over 450 indoor and outdoor games for kids. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 320. ISBN 0-07-142246-3.
  3. ^ a b Beard, Daniel Carter (1900). "Games of tag". The Outdoor Handy Book: For Playground Field and Forest. The Minerva Group, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89875-135-2.
  4. ^ Sanborn, Frank B. (1904). "History and poetry from the life of F. B. Sanborn of Concord, Massachusetts". The Granite Monthly: A Magazine of Literature, History and State Progress. J. N. McClintock. 36–37.
  5. ^ Cassidy, Frederic Gomes; Joan Houston Hall (1985). Dictionary of American regional English, Volume 4. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00884-7.
  6. ^ Cassidy, Frederic G. (1991). Dictionary of American Regional English: D–H, Volume 2. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-20511-1.
  7. ^ "gool". The Mavens' Word of the Day. Random House, Inc. 1999.
  8. ^ "Mass. grade school bans tag, other chase games". Associated Press. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  9. ^ "Elementary school bans tag on its playground". Associated Press. 31 August 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  10. ^ Schoetz, David (16 April 2008). "Nanny State of Play? Another Tag Ban". ABC News. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  11. ^ "Dinner lady bid to sue boy fails". BBC News. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  12. ^ Sealey, Geraldine (24 June 2002). "Is Tag Too Tough for Kids?". ABC News. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  13. ^ a b Bafile, Cara (8 October 2007). "Is This "It" for Tag?". Education World. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  14. ^ Anderson, Jennifer (10 September 2009). "Schools try to reduce playground conflicts". Portland Tribune. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  15. ^ McFarlane, Andy (2 September 2008). "The return of British Bulldog". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  16. ^ Lileks, James (19 February 1999). "'Duck, duck' apparently has no shades of gray; 'Research shows that Minnesota is only state that flat-out refuses to say 'goose'". StarTribune. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  17. ^ McQueen, Craig (22 October 2008). "New book celebrates games which were playground favourites of yesteryear". Daily Record. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  18. ^ "Disney Family - Recipes, Crafts and Activities". Disney Family.
  19. ^ "Prisoner's base".
  20. ^ Miller, Claude H. (1911). Outdoor sports and games. The Library of Work and Play. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page & Company.
  21. ^ The Oxford Book of English Ghost Stories, OUP 1986.
  22. ^ Wise, Debra (2003). Great Big Book of Children's Games. New York: McGraw Hill Professional. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-07-142246-8. OCLC 53838650.
  23. ^ "Battle Mode". mariokart8.nintendo.com.
  24. ^ a b Leibs, Andrew (2004). Sports and games of the Renaissance. Sports and games through history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 199. ISBN 0-313-32772-6.
  25. ^ "Sunday 8th June 1806. the 2 men returnd from the villages. a number of the natives visited us and gave Frazer a fine young horse a number of the natives joined and got out our canoe which was Sank. our party exercised themselves running and playing games called base in the evening danced after the fiddle as the Indians were anxious to See them." "The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition". Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  26. ^ "The Forgotten Games of the Corps of Discovery". 16 February 2012.
  27. ^ Reichardt, Patricia (3 August 2004). "PCs bring a game of tag to the urban playground". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  28. ^ "CitiTag". Centre for New Media. Open University. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  29. ^ "Flashlight Tag". Lori Donnahue. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  30. ^ Grover, Kathryn (1992). Hard at play: leisure in America, 1840-1940. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 262. ISBN 0-87023-792-6.
  31. ^ Newcombe, Jack (6 March 1970). "The Games Children Play". LIFE. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  32. ^ Doll, Beth; Katherine Brehm (2009). Resilient Playgrounds. School-based Practice in Action. CRC Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-415-96088-5.
  33. ^ Anthony, Michelle; McLaughlin, Dennis R. (1999). The Gigantic Book of Games for Youth Ministry. Group Pub. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-7644-2113-6.
  34. ^ "Flour Sock Tag - Ultimate Camp Resource". www.ultimatecampresource.com. 9 August 2019.
  35. ^ "What Does 'Tag' Really Mean?". 25 July 2018.
  36. ^ Emery, David. "Etymology of Tag". Snopes.com. Snopes Media Group Inc. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  37. ^ "Tag". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 16 November 2020.