Tashahhud

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The Tashahhud (Arabic: تشهد‎‎) is the portion of salat (obligatory prayer) where the Muslim kneels on the ground facing Qibla in Mecca.

Origins[edit]

There is a Hadith, thought to be authentic (or Sahih) that says:

Sunni (Hanafi and Hanbali) Recitation[edit]

التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلّٰهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَ عَلٰى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُوْلُهُ

This translates as:

"Salutations to God and prayers and good deeds. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of God and his blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no god but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger."

Sunni (Maliki) Recitation[edit]

  • A variant used by Sunni (Maliki school of thought) Muslims is:

التحيات لله الزكيات لله والطيبات الصلوات لله السلام عليك ايها النبي و رحمة الله و بركاته السلام علينا و على عبادك الصالحين أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد أنّ محمدا عبده ورسوله


This translates as:

"Blessed salutations, pure actions, good words and prayers to God. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no god other than God the One and no partner to Him, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger."

Sunni (Shafii) Recitation[edit]

  • Another variant used by Sunni (Shafii school of thought) Muslims is:

التحيات المباركات الصلوات الطيبات لله، السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته، السلام علينا، وعلى عباد الله الصالحين، أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله، وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله


This translates as:

"Blessed salutations, prayers, good deeds to God. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no god but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His messenger."

Shi'ite (Ja'fari) Recitation[edit]

[2] أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له, وأشهد أنّ محمدا عبده ورسوله. اللهم صلى على محمد وآل محمد


This translates as:

"I bear witness that there is no god but God the One and no partner to Him, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His prophet. O God bestow blessings upon Muhammad and the household of Muhammad."


The Tashahhud is followed by the Taslim

The bare minimum is to say "Assalamu Alaikum" (Peace be with you) السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ. It is highly recommended, though, that you add "Wa Rahmatul Lahi wa Barakatuh" (and God’s mercy and blessings) وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ..[3]

It is highly recommended, though, that you recite

[4]

السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ


This translates as:

"May peace, mercy of the Almighty and His blessings be with you, Oh Prophet. May peace be with us and the good among Allah’s servants. May peace, mercy, and blessings of the Almighty be with you."

Zaidi Recitation[edit]

For the Zaidi, the middle Tashahhud after the second rakʿah is recited as:

After the last rakʿah, the Zaidi recite the Tashahhud in its full formula:

Greetings on Muhammad[edit]

The recitation of the tashahhud is followed by reciting greetings on Muhammad, known as aṣ-ṣalātu ʿala -n-nabī.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari » Asking Permission - كتاب الاستئذان » Hadith". 
  2. ^ http://www.sistani.org/english/book/49/2406/
  3. ^ http://www.sistani.org/english/book/49/2406/
  4. ^ http://www.sistani.org/english/book/49/2406/
  5. ^ This aforementioned wording ("Bismillah wa Billahi...") does appear in Zaydi books of hadith such as the Musnad of Imam Zayd (as), Amaali of Ahmed bin Isa bin Zayd (as), Sharh at-Tajreed and other books of hadith with complete chains of narrators. Its legitimacy and authenticity does not depend on whether Sunni narrators report it or not. If you peruse the Sunni books of hadith, you will find variant wordings for the tashahhud. As for the Sunni reports that narrate some of the wording of the Zaidi tashahhud: The wording "Bimillah wa Billahi" on the authority of Jabir (ra) appears in Sunan an-Nisa`i and Al-Mustadrak. Imam Hakim authenticated the report. There is another wording that says: "Bismillahi wa khayr al-Asmaa." This is narrated from Umar in Al-Mustadrak and Al-Hakim said that it is authentic according to the criteria of Muslim. It also appears in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi. There is also "Bismillah wa Billahi wa khayr al-Asmaa" narrated from Ibn Zubayr in the Mu'jam al-Kabeer and al-Mu'jam al-Aswat of at-Tabaraani.
  6. ^ This aforementioned wording ("Bismillah wa Billahi...") does appear in Zaydi books of hadith such as the Musnad of Imam Zayd (as), Amaali of Ahmed bin Isa bin Zayd (as), Sharh at-Tajreed and other books of hadith with complete chains of narrators. Its legitimacy and authenticity does not depend on whether Sunni narrators report it or not. If you peruse the Sunni books of hadith, you will find variant wordings for the tashahhud. As for the Sunni reports that narrate some of the wording of the Zaidi tashahhud: The wording "Bimillah wa Billahi" on the authority of Jabir (ra) appears in Sunan an-Nisa`i and Al-Mustadrak. Imam Hakim authenticated the report. There is another wording that says: "Bismillahi wa khayr al-Asmaa." This is narrated from Umar in Al-Mustadrak and Al-Hakim said that it is authentic according to the criteria of Muslim. It also appears in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi. There is also "Bismillah wa Billahi wa khayr al-Asmaa" narrated from Ibn Zubayr in the Mu'jam al-Kabeer and al-Mu'jam al-Aswat of at-Tabaraani.