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Ghusl (Arabic: غسل Ġusl , IPA: [ˈɣʊsl]) is an Arabic term referring to the full-body ritual purification mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, ejaculation or completion of the menstrual cycle, although wudu or just sleep, without either, are the lesser stages of purity that is acceptable.
The washing is also recommended but not required (i.e. it is mustahabb) before Jumu'ah and Eid prayers, before entering the ihram in preparation for Hajj, after having lost consciousness and after formally converting. Shia Muslims also perform the ablution before Namaz-e-tawbah (Prayer of Repentance).
Ghusl is often translated as "full ablution", as opposed to the "partial ablution" of wudu وضوء that Muslims perform after lesser impurities such as urination, defecation, breaking wind, deep sleep, and light bleeding.
It is a ritual bath.:471
Types of ghusl by purpose
Ghusl becomes obligatory for seven causes, and the ghusl for each of these different causes has different names:
- Ghusl Janabat is ghusl performed after sexual intercourse or ejaculation.
- Ghusl Hayd is following menstruation.
- Ghusl Istihadad is for irregular bleeding (in women).
- Ghusl Nifas is for post-partum bleeding.
- Ghusl Mayyit is ghusl performed on a dead Muslim.
- Ghusl Mase Mayyit becomes obligatory if one directly touches a dead body.
- Ghusl also becomes obligatory following a vow or oath to perform it.
Similar to wudu, some water is permissible for use for ghusl whereas some water is not. Permissible water sources include:
- Well water
- Spring, sea, or river water
- Water of melting snow or hail
- Water of a big tank or pond
Ghusl is not allowed with unclean or impure water or water extracted from fruit and trees.
The acts of ghusl
O Believers, do not come near to prayer when you are drunk, until you know what you are saying; nor when sexually defiled, unless passing through, until you perform ablutions. If you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from the toilet, or you had intercourse with women, and you do not find water, then use some clean earth and wipe your faces and hands.[Quran 4:42–43 (Translated by Tarif Khalidi)]
The phrase translated as 'intercourse' in this verse has been interpreted by Hanafi scholars to mean sexual contact, while Shafi'i scholars interpret it to mean both physical and sexual contact. Hence, the Hanafi school of thought does not require one to take wudu if there is non-sexual contact with a member of the opposite sex, while the Shafi'i school of thought does require wudu before salah and so on.
Farā'id of Ghusl
- Rinsing the inner mouth.
- Sniffing water and blowing it out.
- To wash the entire body in a rigorous manner.
Sunnah of Ghusl
- Washing both the hands up to the wrists.
- Wash the private parts and remove dirt or filth from the body.
- Perform wudu.
- Water should be poured over the head three times so that it flows all over the body.
- Pour water on the right shoulder three times.
- Pour water on the left shoulder three times.
Sunni school of thought
- Start by making niyyah (intention) to perform Ghusl, say Bismillah (in the name of Allah) and cleanse yourself of impurities.
- Wash the right hand up to and including the wrist (and between the fingers) three times, then similarly for the left hand.
- Wash the private parts and remove dirt or filth from the body.
- Perform Wudu as if for prayer. Ensure that the mouth and nostrils are thoroughly rinsed three times. If sitting on a stool or stone while bathing then the feet should also be washed when performing Wudu. But if sitting in a muddy place, feet should not be washed at this stage.
- Water should be poured over the head three times so that it flows all over the body, ensuring that the roots of hairs and parts not easily reached by water such as the backs of the knees are washed thoroughly.
- Pour water over both the shoulders three times each. Hands should be passed all over the body when water is poured so that no part of the body is left dry.
- Move to a clean spot and wash the feet if not washed during Wudu
- As at the end of Wudu, it is recommended to recite the Shahada.
If, after Ghusl, one recalls that a certain portion of the body is left dry, it is not necessary to repeat the Ghusl, but merely wash the dry portion. It is not sufficient to pass a wet hand over the dry place. If one has forgotten to rinse the mouth or the nostrils, these too could be rinsed when recalled after Ghusl has been performed.
The following hadith describes how ghusl should be performed by Sunni Muslims.
When Allah's Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse, he first washed his hands; he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts. He then performed wudu as is done for prayer. He then took some water and ran his fingers in the roots of his hair. And when he found that it had been properly moistened, he poured three handfuls on his head and then poured water over his body and subsequently washed his feet.
Ghusl should be made in a place of total privacy
In another hadith, Ibn Abbas stated that Maimuna said that Muhammad was given a towel after ghusl, but he shook off the water instead of rubbing his body with it. In addition, Ibn Abbas recorded the following hadith on the authority of his mother's sister.
I placed water near The Messenger of Allah to take a bath because of sexual intercourse. He washed the palms of his hands twice or thrice and then put his hand in the basin and poured water over his body then struck hand against the earth and rubbed it with force and then performed ablution for the prayer and then poured three handfuls of water on his head and then washed his whole body after which he moved aside from that place and washed his feet, and then I brought a towel (so that he may wipe his body), but he returned it.
Shia school of thought
There are two methods of performing ghusl. One is known as ghusl tartibi, and the other is known as ghusl irtimasi.
"Ghusl tartibi" means an ordinal bath, performed in three stages.
After washing away the najasat (e.g., semen or blood) from the body and after niyyat, the body has to be washed in three stages: head down to the neck; then the right side of the body from the shoulder down to the foot; then the left side of the body.
Each part should be washed thoroughly in such a way that the water reaches the skin. Special care should be taken while washing the head; the hair should be combed (e.g., with your fingers) so that water reaches the hair-roots. While washing the right side of the body, some part of the left side must be washed too, and vice versa.
"Ghusl irtimasi" means a bath involving immersion of the whole body in the water. It can only be done in a body of water, e.g., a pool, river, lake or sea. After washing away the semen or blood from the body and after niyyat, the whole body should be completely immersed in the water all at once, not gradually. One has to make sure that the water reaches all parts of the body, including hair and the skin under it.
Ghusl tartibi is preferred over ghusl irtimasi.
Recommendable acts of ghusl
What has been mentioned above are the wajib acts of ghusl; there are things which are recommendable (mustahabb, sunnat) during the ghusl. These recommendable acts are five:
- Gargling three times and washing the nose three times.
- Performing the acts of wudu before the actual washing
- Wiping the hands on the whole body to ensure that every part has been thoroughly washed.
- Combing the hair with the fingers to ensure that the water reaches the hair-roots.
- (For men) Doing istibra' (urinating) before ghusl janabat. If a liquid comes out of a man's penis after completing the ghusl, and he doubts whether it is semen or urine, he does not need to repeat the ghusl as long as he also urinated before the ghusl. If he did not urinate before the ghusl, then he must repeat the process. This rule of istibra' applies only to men.
- Sahih Muslim, Hadith number 616
- Sharh as-Sunnah by al-Baghawi, vol 2., pg. 9
- "The Ritual Bath (ghusl): Obligatory, Recommended, and Disliked Acts - SeekersHub Answers". 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
- Kitab al-Kafi Volume 3, Hadith 4029
- Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Hadith number 817
- Sharh Mukhtasar, Volume 2, pg. 102
- Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam (PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Ghusl Explain QA - IslamicLaws
- Najasat in the water for Ghusl - My Religion Islam
- "Does Touching Women Break the Wudu'?". IslamOnline. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Pānīpatī, Muḥammad S̲anāʾullāh (1985-01-01). The Essential Hanafi Handbook of Fiqh. Kazi Publications. p. 39.
- Sahih Bukhari, Book 5: Bathing (Ghusl) Prophet performing Ghusl
- Sahih Muslim, hadith number 616
- Sahih Muslim, hadith number 622
- Sahih Muslim, hadith number 620
- The Major Abolution Archived 2012-04-23 at the Wayback Machine.
- Wasa'il al Shia, vol. 1, p. 517.
- Wasa'il al Shia, vol. 1, p. 482.