Tesla US dealership disputes
Tesla, Inc. has faced dealership disputes in several U.S. states as a result of local laws. In the United States, direct manufacturer auto sales are prohibited in many states by franchise laws requiring that new cars be sold only by independent dealers. The electric car manufacturer Tesla maintains that in order to properly explain to their customers the advantages their cars have over traditional vehicles with an internal combustion engine, they cannot rely on third party dealerships to handle their sales.
- 1 Corporate strategy
- 2 US dealerships and automotive dealership disputes
- 3 States with total direct sales bans
- 3.1 Michigan (also bans service centers)
- 3.2 New Mexico (also bans service centers)
- 3.3 Alabama (also bans service centers)
- 3.4 South Carolina (also bans service centers)
- 3.5 Louisiana (also bans service centers)
- 3.6 Texas
- 3.7 Utah
- 3.8 Connecticut
- 3.9 West Virginia
- 3.10 Wisconsin
- 3.11 Nebraska
- 3.12 Oklahoma
- 4 States with limited sales
- 5 States for which Tesla gained the right to mostly unrestricted direct sales
- 5.1 New Hampshire (2013 law change)
- 5.2 Minnesota (2013 law interpretation)
- 5.3 Washington (2014 law)
- 5.4 Massachusetts (2014 court ruling)
- 5.5 Missouri (2017 court ruling)
- 5.6 Wyoming (2017 law change)
- 5.7 Arizona (2017 court ruling)
- 5.8 Indiana (2017 law change)
- 5.9 Rhode Island (2017)
- 5.10 Utah (2018 law change)
- 6 Surveys
- 7 References
Tesla has an 80% degree of vertical integration in 2016 according to Goldman Sachs. The integration includes own sales channels and proprietary charging infrastructure among others. The high degree is rare in the automotive industry, where companies typically focus on engine manufacturing and vehicle assembly, outsourcing 80% of components to suppliers while letting franchises serve as sales points.
Some of Tesla's stated goals are to increase the number and variety of electric vehicles (EVs) available to mainstream consumers by selling its own vehicles in company-owned showrooms and online. Tesla states that owning stores "creates an information loop from our customers straight into manufacturing and vehicle design". Tesla attempts to not make a profit on servicing cars.
Tesla operates more than 200 stores and galleries around the world, 120 of which are outside the USA. It owns the stores and sells directly to customers via the internet and in non-US stores.[better source needed]
US dealerships and automotive dealership disputes
|Map of direct automaker sales, regarding Tesla conditions. Archive|
There are stores and galleries—usually located in shopping malls—in 26 US states and Washington DC. Customers cannot buy vehicles from stores, only from the Tesla website. The stores serve as showrooms that allow people to learn about the company and its vehicles. Some galleries are located in states with restrictive dealership protection laws which prevent discussing price, financing, and test drives, as well as other restrictions. Tesla has set up mobile-shipping-container "stores" and 6 Airstream travel trailers each pulled by a Model X, reaching areas not served by brick-and-mortar shops.
Tesla's strategy of direct customer sales and owning stores and service centers is different from the standard dealership model in the US vehicle marketplace. Tesla is the only manufacturer that sells cars directly to customers; all other automakers use independently owned dealerships (partly due to earlier conflict), although some automakers provide online configuration and financing. 48 states have laws that limit or ban manufacturers from selling vehicles directly to consumers, and although Tesla has no independent dealerships, dealership associations in multiple states have filed numerous lawsuits against Tesla, to prevent the company from selling cars. North Carolina and New Hampshire sided with Tesla, while Virginia and Texas sided with dealers. Lack of outlets and customers reduce the need for service centers. Tesla currently has service centers in 25 states. Media cited direct sales or lack thereof as reasons when selecting the site for Gigafactory 1.
Countries other than USA do not have such laws protecting car dealerships. The Federal Trade Commission recommends allowing direct manufacturer sales, which analysts believe would save buyers 8% per purchase on average. In May 2014, a report prepared by Maryann Keller and Kenneth Elias for the National Automobile Dealers Association states that franchises (such as offered by its members) offer better value for customers than direct sales.
States with total direct sales bans
Michigan (also bans service centers)
On October 1, 2014, Michigan House Bill 5606, drafted "to keep automakers from forcing dealers to charge different documentation fees to different customers," was amended with a section stating that a manufacturer shall not "sell any new motor vehicle directly to a retail customer other than through its franchised dealers." The word "its" was removed, which assumed the manufacturer already had dealerships. Both houses passed the revised bill the next day, with only one nay vote from Tom McMillin in either house of the Michigan Legislature. Tesla argued that the original law would have allowed them to sell, because they did not yet have franchised dealers. On October 21, General Motors released a statement saying that governor Rick Snyder should sign the bill into law because "we believe that House Bill 5606 will help ensure that all automotive manufacturers follow the same rules to operate in the State of Michigan." The same day, Snyder signed the bill. Tesla responded to the GM statement by saying "GM distorts the purpose of the franchise laws which are in place not to cement a monopoly for franchised dealers, but rather to prevent companies with existing franchises from unfairly competing against them." The law in Michigan even bans manufacturers from operating service centers and from giving test drives. According to Tesla, the law was changed to also prohibit galleries. Michigan denied Tesla's request for a gallery in September 2016, and Tesla filed a federal lawsuit against the State. Tesla opened a gallery showroom in the Nordstrom shop in the Somerset shopping mall in Troy, Michigan in December 2016, with a "Not For Sale" sign on the displayed car.
New Mexico (also bans service centers)
2006 New Mexico Statutes, Section 57-16-5-V prohibits manufacturers like Tesla to be licensed as a dealer, directly or indirectly performing warranty or other services. Despite Tesla owners' pleas to change the law, they still currently depend on out-of-state centers such as Arizona and Colorado for Tesla sales and services.
Alabama (also bans service centers)
Alabama regards manufacturer-owned new motor vehicle stores and service centers as "unfair and deceptive trade practices". In August 2016 State Senator Tom Whatley introduced Senate Bill 22, assigned to the Senate Tourism and Marketing Committee, which would allow a manufacturer of alternative fuel vehicles to sell and lease its vehicles directly to the public. The bill never made it out of committee.
South Carolina (also bans service centers)
South Carolina bans manufacturer ownership of new car dealerships and manufacturer service/repair of cars they do not own.
Louisiana (also bans service centers)
Texas law states "Except as provided by this section, a manufacturer or distributor may not directly or indirectly:(1) own an interest in a franchised or nonfranchised dealer or dealership;(2) operate or control a franchised or nonfranchised dealer or dealership; or(3) act in the capacity of a franchised or nonfranchised dealer. (Tex. Occ. Code Ann. § 2301.476) and "A motor vehicle shall not be advertised for sale in any manner that creates the impression that it is being offered for sale by the manufacturer or distributor of the vehicle. An advertisement shall not contain terms such as “factory sale,” “fleet prices,” “wholesale prices,” “factory approved,” “factory sponsored,” “manufacturer sale,” use a manufacturer's name or abbreviation in any manner calculated or likely to create an impression that the vehicle is being offered for sale by the manufacturer or distributor, or use any other similar terms which indicate sales other than retail sales from the dealer" (43 Tex. Admin. Code § 215.261).
These laws make it illegal to buy a car from Tesla in person, at a Tesla Gallery. Thus, all Texas orders are taken via the internet or over the phone. Texas residents can still easily buy a car from Tesla, but the purchase is handled as an out-of-state transaction. This may mean that the price will not include Texas state sales tax, which instead must be paid when the buyer registers the car with the state. In 2015, Tesla lobbied the Texas Legislature to modify the law to allow Tesla to sell directly to consumers, and specifically allow Tesla employees to discuss "financing, leasing, or purchasing options" at the firm's existing stores in Austin, Dallas, and Houston. Texas considered legislation in 2015 to allow Tesla to operate in the state but legislation was not passed.
As of 2016[update], most of the GOP delegates support direct sales while Governor Abbott prefers the current system. According to Texans for Public Justice, Tesla spent $1.3m on lobbyists while dealerships spent $1m.
Utah also bans direct auto sales. In connection with Tesla's request in 2016 that the Utah Supreme Court reverse the state's ban on direct auto sales, the automobile dealers filed documents to the court that was interpreted as supporting Tesla's case by stating: 'Tesla builds a car. It has four wheels. You press a pedal with your foot to make it go, and you turn the steering wheel to change direction. That you plug it in rather than gas it up is a trifle'. Tesla has a gallery showroom open in Salt Lake City that was originally intended to be a store. In 2017 the Utah Supreme Court upheld the law banning manufacturers from having any controlling interest in an autodealer.
As of March 2018, H.B. 369 Auto Dealership License Amendments that would allow manufacturer direct sales, has passed the House with no votes against it and passed the Senate with only a single vote against it.
Connecticut does not allow manufacturer direct sales. Tesla operates at gallery in Greenwich that the Connecticut Automotive Retailers Association is attempting to get shut down via a lawsuit. As of March 2018, Tesla is appealing a ruling that they operate the Greenwhich gallery as an unlicensed dealership.
In 2015, 2016, and 2017, bills were introduced in the legislature to allow licensing electric vehicle manufactures as dealers. As of March 2018, H.B. No. 5310 was introduced that would allow manufacturer direct electric vehicle sales. The 2018 bill passed the Joint Committee on Transportation on a 25 to 11 vote on 23 March.
States with limited sales
Colorado (1 store limit)
Tesla opened its first and only Colorado store in Boulder in 2009. A 2010 revision to the state dealership law removed the word "franchised". This closed the loophole that Tesla had used to open a direct dealership but grandfathered in the existing single store. This limitation was supported by the Colorado Automobile Dealers Association. The store moved from Boulder to the Park Meadows shopping mall in Lone Tree in 2011.
North Carolina (second store not allowed)
Tesla has one store in North Carolina, but the state would not grant Tesla a dealer license for a second location in 2016. A legislative bill that would allow six Tesla stores was shelved in 2017.
Virginia (2 stores, unclear if more would be denied)
In Virginia Tesla has obtained license from the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) for a single direct sales dealership (Tysons Corner). Upon learning of Tesla's attempt to obtain a second dealership in the state, the Virginia Automobile Dealers Association filed a lawsuit in March 2016 against both Tesla and the DMV to prevent the licensing of the second dealership. In September 2016, the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (VDMV) recommended ending Tesla direct sales, as at least 11 dealerships were interested in selling Tesla vehicles. The VDMV later allowed Tesla to open another shop (Richmond), as Tesla has no dealerships to compete against; the 11 interested dealerships would not be able to compete on undiscounted prices, as Tesla has the same price online and in shops. Third-party profits could come from servicing as is traditional, but Tesla already has satisfactory servicing.
The Virginia Automobile Dealers Association continues to use the legal system in an attempt to prevent Tesla from opening more than a single store and is currently appealing the ruling by the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles allowing the second store to be opened. The Dealers Association also had state Senators remove a governor-appointed Tesla employee from the Motor Vehicle Dealer Board, created in 1995, that regulates car dealers in the state.
New Jersey (4 store limit)
On March 10, 2014, it was announced that New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission and Governor Chris Christie's administration would be holding a meeting to pass a new proposal into law. This new proposal, PRN 2013-138, was announced one day before it was to be put into law. Tesla responded by saying that the proposal "seeks to impose stringent licensing rules that would, among other things, require all new motor vehicles to be sold through middlemen and block Tesla's direct sales model," and that "[Governor Christie's] Administration has decided to go outside the legislative process by expediting a rule proposal that would completely change the law in New Jersey." The law was passed, and "Tesla will no longer [be able to] sell electric cars in New Jersey, effective April 1". Diarmuid O'Connell, Tesla Vice President of Business Development, said, "Worse, it has done so without any reasonable notice or even a public hearing." Forbes contributor Mark Rogosky said, "The state's new rules protect its auto dealers from having to compete with Tesla's direct sales model"; he points out that this is a direct contrast from what Christie said earlier, "We are for a free-market society that allows your effort and ingenuity to determine your success, not the cold, hard hand of the government." Kevin Roberts, a spokesman for the Christie administration, responded by saying "it was the [Tesla Motors] company, not the governor's office, that was attempting to bypass normal procedures.". In March 2015, the ban on Tesla Motor's operations in New Jersey was lifted, but with restrictions (maximum of 4 locations, and 1 service center).
Maryland (4 store limit)
In May 2015, Maryland approved, through House Bill 235, direct Tesla sales to customers beginning in October 2015, though limiting the statewide number of stores to only four. The legislation was crafted specifically for Tesla and allows only four manufacturers of electric or non-fossil fuel burning vehicles without existing franchisees to be licensed to sell direct to the public.
Pennsylvania (5 store limit)
Pennsylvania enacted a law in 2014 that allows Tesla to open up to five stores.
New York (5 store limit)
There is proposed legislation (Senate bill S6600A and Assembly bill A8248A) to allow more stores. The Eastern New York Coalition of Automotive Retailers is opposed to this as is the Rochester Automobile Dealers Association.
Georgia (5 store limit)
States for which Tesla gained the right to mostly unrestricted direct sales
New Hampshire (2013 law change)
Minnesota (2013 law interpretation)
The Minnesota Department of Public Safety ruled in 2013 that the original dealer law "does not prohibit a manufacturer from becoming licensed as a dealer in Minnesota". The dealership association in the state failed in their attempt to get the law changed to block Tesla.
Washington (2014 law)
Massachusetts (2014 court ruling)
After an almost two year court battle with the Massachusetts State Automobile Dealers Association, a September 2014 ruling by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court allowed Tesla to begin selling directly in the state.
Missouri (2017 court ruling)
A Missouri circuit court ruled in August 2016 to end direct sales, confirmed in late December 2016, and delayed in early January while the Missouri Department of Revenue appeals the former verdict. In December 2017 an appeals court reversed the circuit court's decision, saying the Missouri Automobile Dealers Association did not have standing to sue.
Wyoming (2017 law change)
Arizona (2017 court ruling)
Arizona blocked direct sales until June 2017 when an administrative law judge ruled that the Arizona Department of Transportation interpreted the law incorrectly. This was after a years legal long battle by Tesla.
Indiana (2017 law change)
Indiana allows a service center and manufacturer sales for 30 months, ending direct Tesla sales by the end of 2017. A legislative proposal had further restrictions, opposed by Tesla. The Roads and Transportation committee approved a modification that grandfathered Tesla, but maintained the ban on all new direct sales by other automakers.
Rhode Island (2017)
In December 2017, Tesla was granted a license by the state of Rhode Island after DMV lawyers concluded that the law blocking direct auto sales only applied to manufactures that have franchise dealers. Tesla plans to begin sales in 2018.
Utah (2018 law change)
As of March 21st, 2018, Utah Governor Herbert signed into law allowing Tesla direct sales in the state.
In 2014, Consumer Reports performed a mystery shopper survey of 19 secret shoppers in 85 dealerships, querying electric vehicles (EV). Most shoppers found it to be a positive experience, although 35 dealerships recommended petrol cars instead, and 13 discouraged EVs. The most knowledgeable dealerships were Chevrolet, and the least were Toyota.
In 2016, two shopper surveys showed contrasting shopping experiences between Tesla and traditional dealerships. One performed by the environmental organization Sierra Club found that in 14% of traditional dealerships, their electric cars were not charged to test drive, and 33% did not discuss $7,500 tax credits.
Another study by industry analyst Pied Piper using mystery shoppers found that Tesla sales stores (not galleries) differed among each other on sales techniques, and many stores were reluctant to engage in closing a sale.
Customers generally view car shopping as a challenging experience.
- Bodisch, Gerald R. (May 2009). "Economic Effects of State Bans on Direct Manufacturer Sales to Car Buyers". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (2016-01-19). "7 reasons why Tesla sells its own cars". Fortune. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- McAssey, Pat (2016-10-13). "Volkswagen CEO 'Annoyed Beyond Measure' That DHL Made Electric Van". NESN Fuel. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
- Lambert, Fred (2016-02-26). "Tesla is now ~80% vertically integrated, says Goldman Sachs after a Tesla Factory visit". electrek.co. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
- "Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles". afdc.energy.gov. United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
- "Press Releases" (Press release). Tesla Motors. 2009-06-04. Archived from the original on 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Elon Musk. "The Tesla Approach to Distributing and Servicing Cars". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on 2016-08-01. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- "Road Rules: How Tesla Plans to Change The Way We Buy Cars". Fast Company. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- Elon Musk (14 March 2014). "To the People of New Jersey". Tesla. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- Elon Musk (26 April 2013). "Creating the World's Best Service and Warranty Program". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
- "Tesla Service Center Stats". Tesla Motors Club. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
- "Does anyone know how many stores Tesla has over the years? • /r/teslamotors".
- Number of Tesla Stores
- "How Tesla's Referral Program Generates More Than 40x ROI". Inc.com. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "Tesla Accused of Operating Illegal Showrooms in 4 States". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Harry Stevens (2013-01-15). "Court Affirms Tesla's Right to Operate Company-Owned Stores". Triple Pundit: People, Planet, Profit. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "US Tesla Stores and Galleries | Tesla". www.tesla.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
- Rogowsky, Mark (2013-12-04). "Ohio To Tesla: We're Ignoring Our Whiny Car Dealers For Now, Come Sell Here". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-05-08.
- Borchers, Callum (2013-11-20). "Tesla battles auto dealers on direct sales to consumers - Business - The Boston Globe". Boston Globe.
- John Voelcker. "Tesla Loses Legal Battles To Texas, North Carolina Dealers". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Model S Design Studio". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Tesla is going on a road trip to sell cars". The Verge. Vox Media. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- "Tesla Explores". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- Richard Read. "Terrified of Tesla, NADA Launches Campaign To Tout Benefits of Franchise Dealerships". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Dan Gearino. "Auto dealers in Ohio seek to stop Tesla's way of direct selling". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- O'Toole, James (2013-07-02). "Tesla direct-sales petition hits 100,000 signatures". CNN. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Bradsher, Keith (October 13, 1999). "Fight Is Promised Over G.M. Plan to Buy Dealerships". The New York Times.
- Lane, Charles (2014-03-12). "Tesla takes on car dealerships in a fight to the death". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
- Crane, Daniel A. "Tesla, Dealer Franchise Laws, and the Politics of Crony Capitalism" page 577-579. Iowa L. Rev. 101, no. 2 (2016): 573-607 . Size: 35 pages in 1 MegaByte
- Christina Rogers (2013-10-07). "GM Opens the Door to Online New-Car Sales - WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Richard Read. "GM Follows Tesla's Lead, Plans To Sell Directly To Online Shoppers". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Bengt Halvorson. "Scion Lets You (Almost) Buy A Car at Home, Take Delivery at Dealership". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Voelcker, John (2012-10-25). "Auto Dealers' Fight Against Tesla Stores: Elon Musk Weighs In". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- David Noland. "How Texas's Absurd Anti-Tesla Laws Turn Car Buying into A Joke". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Chapman, Steve (2013-06-20). "Car buyers get hijacked". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- DeMorro, Christopher (2013-07-01). "Tesla Wins Big in North Carolina And New Hampshire". Gas 2. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- "US Tesla Service Centers | Tesla". www.tesla.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
- "Need a Tesla Service Center? Don't Look in Most States". 247wallst.com. 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
- How did Texas lose its bid for Tesla's 'gigafactory'? Archive 2014-09-04
- "Why This State Is The Most Likely To Get Tesla's Gigafactory". Jalopnik. 2014-01-04. Retrieved 2016-11-04.
Tesla's ongoing war with car dealers over their direct-to-customer car sales model, which is limited or banned outright by law in several states.
- "Direct-to-consumer auto sales: It's not just about Tesla". Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Richard Read. "Can The FTC Persuade Michigan & Other States To Open Their Doors To Tesla?". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- "Economic Effects of State Bans on Direct Manufacturer Sales to Car Buyers" Economic Analysis Group Competition Advocacy, May 2009.
- Keller, Maryann; Elias, Kenneth (2014-05-27). "Consumer Benefits of the Dealer Franchise System". National Automobile Dealers Association. Retrieved 2016-01-31.
- Gautz, Chris (2014-10-21). "Tesla's sales limits in Michigan tightened by one word of law". Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- Martinez, Michael; Wayland, Michael (2014-10-16). "New Jersey bans direct auto sales". The Detroit News. Business Insider.com. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- White, Joseph B.; Bennett, Jeff (2014-10-21). "Michigan Governor Signs Anti-Tesla Bill: Law Bars Auto Makers From Directly Selling to Consumers". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- Shepardson, David (2015-05-12). "FTC urges Michigan to drop Tesla sales ban". Detroit News. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- Lambert, Fred (28 July 2016). "Tesla owners give test drives in Michigan circumventing the Tesla sales ban".
- "Gov. Snyder signs bill banning direct Tesla sales". Detroit Free Press. 17 October 2014. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- "It's final: Michigan won't let Tesla open a dealership in Grand Rapids". Detroit Free Press. 15 September 2016. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- "Tesla Takes Fight on Sales Ban to Home Turf of Detroit Three". Bloomberg.com. 2016-09-29. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- "Tesla pushes boundaries of Michigan's direct sales law and opens showroom in the state". Electrek. 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- "2006 New Mexico Statutes - Section 57-16-5 — Unlawful acts; manufacturers; distributors; representatives". Justia Law. Retrieved 2018-01-12.
- Mexican, Bruce KrasnowThe New. "Tesla owners urge legislators to overhaul dealership law". The Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved 2018-01-12.
- "Alabama Code - Section 8-20-4: Unfair and Deceptive Trade Practices". FindLaw. Archived from the original on 2015-09-09. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
s. To own an interest in a new motor vehicle dealership, to operate or control a dealership, to make direct sales or leases of new motor vehicles to the public in Alabama, or to own, operate, or control a facility for performance of motor vehicle warranty or repair service work
- Lambert, Fred (2016-08-19). "Tesla tries to sell its vehicles directly in Alabama, senator introduces new bill". electrek.co. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- Meachum, Alex. "Tesla speaks out against La bill". arklatex. arklatex. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Dolzer, Mike. "Tesla hit with new Louisiana law that prohibits direct sales in state". teslarati. teslarati. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Tesla says new law will prohibit direct sales in Louisiana, June 6, 2017, The Associated Press
- "Tesla Poised for Lobbying Blitz in 2015". Texas Lobby Group, Conservative Lobbyists. 2015-01-21. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- White, Ronald D. (2013-04-10). "Tesla CEO takes dealer fight to Texas, says he can sell more cars". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- Lutz, Hannah (2015-01-20). "Tesla could open up to 12 Texas stores if legislation passes". Automotive News. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- Heisler, Yoni (2015-05-20). "Tesla Sales Texas: Direct sales of Tesla Model S not coming to Texas". BGR. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- "Texas auto dealers receive Tesla-sized dent from state GOP". Trail Blazers Blog. The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Whitehurst, Lindsay (2016-07-24). "Utah car dealers weighing in on Tesla court fight". KSL Broadcasting. Salt Lake City. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
- Lambert, Fred (2016-07-25). "Tesla Direct Sales Lawsuit: Dealerships argue they could sell Tesla vehicles because 'they have 4 wheels'". electrek.co. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- Utah Supreme Court upholds decision saying Tesla subsidiary can't sell its electric cars here, The Salt Lake Tribune, April 4, 2017
- Tesla loses at Utah Supreme Court, can't sell directly in state, KUTV, April 3rd 2017
- TESLA, INC. v. CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES Et Al
- After Four Years Of Trying, Tesla Hopes To Win Approval To Sell Cars In Connecticut, 10 Feb 2018
- Read, Richard (2015-03-27). "Tesla Wins in Georgia, Loses in West Virginia". TheCarConnection.com. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
- Legislation would let Tesla sell directly to buyers in Wisconsin
- "Tesla attends Nebraska hearing in support of new bill for direct sales rights". www.teslarati.com. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
- OK SB1560
- Dealers call Tesla factory stores illegal, Automotive News, Oct 2012
- Colorado House Bill 10-1049
- Tesla limited to one store in Colorado
- Tesla Motors moves from Boulder's Pearl Street showroom to Park Meadows
- Tesla expands Denver-area operations, Aug 2017
- Tesla to open shop in Superior, heralding company's return to Boulder County, Anthony Hahn, Daily Camera, 20 March 2018
- Carroll, Rick. "Tesla zooms out of Aspen, closes showroom on Cooper mall". Aspen Times. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- North Carolina walks back on direct sales and denies Tesla’s latest dealership license
- Tesla’s direct-sale bill is shelved in North Carolina
- LeSage, Jon (2016-06-02). "Virginia Dealers Protest Tesla's Retail Store Moves". hybridcars.com. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- "DMV hearing officer rules against Tesla Motors request for Richmond-area dealership". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- "Tesla Wins Right to Open Virginia Store in Win Against Dealers". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- "Tesla gets green light for second Virginia store". Washington Post. 2016-11-30. Archived from the original on 2016-12-01. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- Formal Evidentiary Hearing: Tesla Motors, Inc., File No. 2016-001 - Request for a Hearing Pursuant to Va. Code§§ 46.2-1572(4) and 46.2-1573 to be a Dealer Archive Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles, November 30, 2016. Quote: "Tesla sells its vehicles at uniform prices whether a customer purchases through the Tesla website or at a Tesla store. Tesla could not or would not offer “dealer discounts” or “wholesale pricing” on new cars to a prospective dealership. VADA’s own experts agreed that it would be very hard or impossible for a dealership to be profitable unless Tesla offered their cars at wholesale prices." "2015 Consumer Reports survey ranked Tesla service centers number one"
- "Independent vs. Dealer Shops for Car Repair". Consumer Reports. 2015-01-22. Archived from the original on 2016-05-22. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
With few exceptions, the entire list of independent shops got high marks on those factors. The same couldn’t be said for franchised new-car dealers. The one automaker that outscored the independent shops was the electric carmaker Tesla, which earned high praise for its on-time repairs, courtesy, price, quality, and overall satisfaction.
- Judge: Auto dealer group's challenge of Tesla store in Henrico can proceed
- Walker, Hunter (2014-03-11). "Tesla Goes To War Against Chris Christie". Business Insider. Business Insider.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Walker, Hunter (2014-03-11). "New Jersey bans direct auto sales". Business Insider. Business Insider.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Rogosky, Mark (2014-03-11). "In New Jersey, Tesla Crashes into The Hypocrisy of Chris Christie". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Young, Angelo (2015-03-16). "Tesla Motors Inc Direct Sales in New Jersey: Legislature Passes Measure To Allow Model S Sales Outside Of Dealer Franchise System; Will Gov. Christie Block The Bill?". International Business Times. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Symons, Michael (2015-03-18). "Christie signs law allowing Tesla sales in New Jersey". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
- HB0235, General Assembly of Maryland
- Angelo Young. "Tesla Motors Inc (TSLA) Wins Approval For Direct Car Sales In Maryland, Starting October 1"
- Richard Read. "Tesla Triumphs in Maryland As New Bill Allows Sales at Four Sites: Which State Is Next?". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Tesla cleared to open up to 5 stores in Pa. under new law, July 11, 2014
- Cuomo brokers deal to keep Tesla stores open, March 28, 2014
- Lambert, Fred (2017-05-25). "Tesla promises 10 stores in Connecticut by next year and dealerships warn of 10% job cuts in lobbying for direct sales". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
- Tesla could open 15 new stores, including one in Albany, under proposed state legislation
- General Assembly OKs Tesla bill, Atlanta Business Chronicle, 25 March 2015
- New Hampshire to allow Tesla, others to sell cars direct to consumers, June 26, 2013
- Minnesota sales of electric, gas cars collide, Star Tribune, March 13, 2013
- Minnesota dealers drop Tesla fight for now, Automotive News, March 12, 2013
- In Washington state, Tesla finds way to share the road with dealers, Mar 21, 2014
- "Massachusetts State Automobile Dealers v Tesla - Franchising - Standing (Law)". Scribd.
- "SJC rules for Tesla in fight with car dealers". Boston Globe. 2014-09-15.
- Levy, Gabrielle (2014-09-17). "Court: Tesla can sell direct to customers in Mass". UPI. Retrieved 2017-01-17.
- "Tesla vows to keep selling cars directly to Missouri consumers". MarketWatch. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
- Brown, Lisa (2016-12-30). "Tesla's license to sell cars in Missouri expiring". stltoday.com. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
a single entity may not manufacture vehicles for sale in Missouri and possess a Missouri new motor vehicle dealer license
- Feldt, Brian (2017-01-05). "Appeals court rules on Tesla sales in Missouri". Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
- Missouri Appeals Court Hands Win To Electric Car Maker Tesla, KCUR, 5 Dec 2017
- Legislature passes a bill that would allow Tesla to open showroom, service shop in Wyoming, Casper Star Tribune
- Yes, you can buy a Tesla electric car at its Scottsdale store
- "Tesla gets a service center with an expiration date in Indiana". Electrek. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
- "Tesla to open first Indy service center".
- Blanco, Sebastian (2016-02-22). "Tesla fights back against anti-store bill 'authored and pushed' by GM". Autoblog. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- Assembly, Indiana General. "House Bill 1592 - Automobile sales requirements". Indiana General Assembly.
- Lambert, Fred (2017-02-02). "Tesla escapes ban in Indiana by being 'grandfathered in', but the state moves forward with ban on direct sales". Electrek. Retrieved 2017-02-02.
- Electric car manufacturer Tesla granted licenses to sell direct in R.I.
- "Tesla enters Utah market as more drivers switch to electric - The Daily Universe". The Daily Universe. 2018-04-19. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
- "Dealership Survey - Electric Cars". Consumer Reports. 2014-04-22. Archived from the original on 2017-01-30. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
- "First-Ever Multi-State Study on Electric Vehicle Shopping Experience". Sierra Club National. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
- "Mystery Shoppers Put Tesla Dealerships in Cellar – Again". Ward's. Archived from the original on 2016-07-12. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Inc., Gallup,. "Honesty/Ethics in Professions".