This article is about the Udi language. For other uses, see
Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family. It is believed an earlier form of it was the main language of [4 ] Caucasian Albania, which stretched from south Dagestan to current day Azerbaijan. The Old Udi language is also called the [5 ] Caucasian Albanian language and possibly corresponds to the "Gargarian" language identified by medieval Armenian historians. [6 ] Modern Udi is known simply as Udi. [5 ]
The language is spoken by about 4,000 people in the
Azerbaijani village of Nij in Qabala rayon, in Oghuz rayon, as well as in parts of the North Caucasus in Russia. It is also spoken by ethnic Udis living in the villages of Debetavan, Bagratashen, Ptghavan, and Haghtanak in Tavush Province of northeastern Armenia and in the village of Zinobiani (Oktomberi) in the Kvareli District of the Kakheti province of Georgia.
endangered, classified as "severely endangered" by [7 ] UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. [8 ]
History [ edit ]
The Udi language can most appropriately be broken up into five historical stages:
around 2000 B.C. - 300 A.D.
300 - 900
900 - 1800
Early Modern Udi
1800 - 1920
Soon after the year 700, the Old Udi language had probably ceased to be used for any purpose other than as the liturgical language of the
Church of Caucasian Albania. [10 ]
The Old Udi language was spoken in an area stretching from
province and eastern
in the west to the city of
in the east, centered around the province of
and the city of Partaw (known now as
Old Udi was an
ergative–absolutive language. [12 ]
Morphology [ edit ]
agglutinating with a tendency towards being fusional. Udi affixes are mostly suffixes or infixes, but there are a few prefixes. Old Udi used mostly suffixes. Most affixes are restricted to specific [4 ] parts of speech. Some affixes behave as clitics. The word order is SOV. [13 ]
Udi does not have
gender, but has declension classes. Old Udi, however, did reflect grammatical gender within [14 ] anaphoric pronouns. [15 ]
Phonology [ edit ]
Consonants [ edit ]
Old Udi, unlike modern Udi, did not have the
front rounded vowel ö. Old Udi contained an additional series of palatalized consonants. [18 ] [6 ] [18 ]
Alphabet [ edit ]
The Old Udi language used the
Caucasian Albanian alphabet. As evidenced by Old Udi documents discovered at Saint Catherine's Monastery in Egypt dating from the 7th century, the Old Udi language used 50 of the 52 letters identified by Armenian scholars in later centuries as having been used in Udi language texts. [18 ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Harris, Alice C. (2002). Endoclitics and the Origins of Udi Morphosyntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924633-5.
^ Udi at (18th ed., 2015) Ethnologue
^ Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, & Charles D. Fennig, eds. (2013). (17th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World
^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Udi". . Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Glottolog
^ a b Gippert, Jost; Wolfgang Schulze (2007). "Some Remarks on the Caucasian Albanian Palimsest". Iran and the Caucasus (Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV) 11: 208, 201–212. doi: 10.1163/157338407X265441.
^ a b Gippert; Schulze. p. 210.
^ a b Gippert; Schulze. p. 201.
^ Published in: Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages. Edited by Christopher Moseley. London & New York: Routledge, 2007. 211–280.
^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
^ Schulze, Wolfgang (2005). "Towards a History of Udi" (PDF). International Journal of Diachronic Linguistics: 7, 1–27 . Retrieved . 4 July 2012
^ Schulze (2005). p. 23.
^ Schulze (2005). p. 22.
^ Gippert; Schulze. p. 206.
^ Schulze, Wolfgang (2002): The Udi language http://www.lrz-muenchen.de/~wschulze/The%20Udi%20language.htm
^ Harris, Alice (1990): History in Support of Synchrony, Department of Linguistics, SUNY Stony Brook, p. 7 http://elanguage.net/journals/index.php/bls/article/viewFile/787/678
^ Gippert; Schulze. p. 202.
^ Hewitt, George (2004): Introduction to the Study of the Languages of the Caucasus. LINCOM, Munich. Page 57.
^ Consonant Systems of the Northeast Caucasian Languages on TITUS DIDACTICA
^ a b c Gippert; Schulze. p. 207.
External links [ edit ]