Open-mid front rounded vowel

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Open-mid front rounded vowel
œ
IPA number 311
Encoding
Entity (decimal) œ
Unicode (hex) U+0153
X-SAMPA 9
Kirshenbaum W
Braille ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
Sound

The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is œ. The symbol œ is a lowercase ligature of the letters o and e. Note that ɶ, a small caps version of the Œ ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound: the open front rounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Open-mid front compressed vowel[edit]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azeri öküz [œˈcyz] 'ox'
Afrikaans Standard[1] lug [lœχ] 'air' Many speakers merge /œ/ and /ə/ into [ɪ̈], especially in natural speech.[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Armenian Western Armenian Էօժենի [œʒɛˈni] 'Eugenie'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] Seil [sœ̠ː] 'rope' Near-front; may be transcribed /ɶ/.[2]
Chinese Cantonese /hoe1 [hœː˥] 'boots' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /y [ɥœ˥˩] 'moon' See Mandarin phonology
Wu [ɰœ˩˧] 'bowl'
Danish Standard[3][4][5] gøre [ˈɡ̊œ̠ːɐ] 'to do' Near-front.[3][4] Most often, it is transcribed [œ̞ː] or the same as [ɶː]. See Danish phonology
Dutch Southern uit [œːt] 'out' Some dialects, corresponds to [œy] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
The Hague[6] Corresponds to [œy] in standard Dutch.
Limburg hut [hœt] 'hut' Some dialects. Corresponds to [ɵ] in standard Dutch.
English Cockney[7] bird [bœ̠ːd] 'bird' Near-front.[7] May as well be unrounded [ɜ̟ː], or the RP variant /ɜː/.
New Zealand[8] Near-front;[8] may be [ɵ̟ː] or [ø̞̈ː] instead. See English phonology
General
South African[9]
go [ɡœː] 'go' Some speakers. Can be a diphthong of the type [œʉ]~[œɤ̈] instead. Other South African varieties don't monophthongize.
Faroese løgdu [lœdːʊ] 'laid' (pl.)
French[10] jeune [ʒœn] 'young' See French phonology
German Standard[11] Hölle [ˈhœ̞̈lə] 'hell' Near-front and somewhat lowered.[11] See German phonology
Lori shö [ʃœ] 'night'
Mongolian Chakhar ᠣᠨᠢᠰᠤ [œnʲs] 'lock' The standard dialect in Inner Mongolia.
North Frisian blömk [blœmk] 'flower'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[12] øl [œ̠l̪] 'beer' Near-front.[12] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Auvergnat puei [pœj] 'then' Some dialects, especially the northern ones
Limousin
Western Lombard fioeu [fjœː] 'son' Old Milanese; now an allophone of /ø/
West Frisian Súdwesthoeksk[13] skoalle [ˈskœlə] 'school' See West Frisian phonology

Icelandic ö is often transcribed as /œ/, but it is actually central [ɞ].[14][15][16]

Open-mid front protruded vowel[edit]

Open-mid front protruded vowel
œ̫
œʷ
ɛʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, œʷ (an open-mid front rounded vowel modified by endolabialization) will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded open-mid front vowels.

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[17][18][19] öra About this sound [ˈœ̠̂ʷːˈrâ]  'ear' Allophone of /œ/ and most often also /øː/ before /r/.[17][18][19] May be more open [ɶ, ɶː] for younger speakers from Stockholm.[19] See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[19] köpa [ˈɕœ̠ʷːˈpa] 'to buy' Realization of /øː, œ/ for younger speakers.[19] Higher [øː, œ̝] for other speakers. See Swedish phonology
Southwestern dialects Corresponds to [øː] in Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Donaldson (1993:5)
  2. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  4. ^ a b Grønnum (2003)
  5. ^ Basbøll (2005:46): "Nina Grønnum uses two different symbols for the vowels in these and similar words: gøre she transcribes with [œ̞] (semi-narrow transcription) and [œ] (narrow transcription), and grøn she transcribes with [ɶ] (semi-narrow transcription) and [ɶ̝] (narrow transcription). Clearly, there is variation within Standard Danish on this point, cf. the end of the present s. 2.2."
  6. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:136)
  7. ^ a b Wells (1982:305)
  8. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:188)
  9. ^ Lass (2002:118)
  10. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  11. ^ a b Mangold (2005:37)
  12. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:13)
  13. ^ Hoekstra (2001:83)
  14. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  15. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  16. ^ "Icelandic Phonetic Transcription.PDF - ptg_ice.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  17. ^ a b Eliasson (1986:273)
  18. ^ a b Thorén & Petterson (1992:13–14)
  19. ^ a b c d e Riad (2014:38)

Bibliography[edit]