Launch of Vanguard rocket. (U.S. Navy)
|Function||Satellite launch vehicle|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Height||23.00 m (75 feet)|
|Diameter||1.14 m (3.74 feet)|
|Mass||22,156 lb (10,050 kg)|
|Payload to LEO||9 kg |
|Launch sites||LC-18A, Cape Canaveral|
|First flight||October 23, 1957
(first orbit Vanguard 1: April 17, 1958)
|Last flight||September 18, 1959|
|First stage - Vanguard|
|Thrust||30,303 lbf (134.79 kN)|
|Specific impulse||248 seconds|
|Burn time||2 min 25 s|
|Second stage - Delta|
|Thrust||7,599 lbf (33.80 kN)|
|Specific impulse||261 seconds|
|Burn time||1 min 55 s|
|Third stage - Grand Central or ABL|
|Thrust||2,599 lbf (11.56 kN)|
|Specific impulse||230 seconds|
|Burn time||31 s|
The Vanguard rocket was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1 led the U.S., after the failure of Vanguard TV3, to quickly orbit the Explorer 1 satellite using a Juno I rocket, making Vanguard I the second successful U.S. orbital launch.
Vanguard rockets were used by Project Vanguard from 1957 to 1959. Of the eleven Vanguard rockets which the project attempted to launch, three successfully placed satellites into orbit. Vanguard rockets were an important part of the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
In 1955, the United States announced plans to put a scientific satellite in orbit for the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957–1958. The goal was to track the satellite as it performed experiments. At that time there were three candidates for the launch vehicle: The Air Force's SM-65 Atlas, a derivative of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency's SSM-A-14 Redstone, and a Navy proposal for a three-stage rocket based on the RTV-N-12a Viking sounding rocket.
The Rand Corporation, Air Force and CIA had long pursued the idea of a Reconnaissance Satellite. Such a program was under way, Weapon System 117L, which was top secret compartmented. One problem with a reconnaissance was a matter of legality, was there "freedom of space" or did a nation's airspace end when space is entered? The National Security Council backed the IGY satellite as it would make good cover for WS117L and set a precedent of freedom of space peaceful civilian satellite. At the same time the NSC stressed that the IGY satellite must not interfere with military programs. " The Army's Redstone-based proposal would likely be first ready for a first satellite launch. Its connection with German-born scientist Wernher von Braun, however, was a public-relations risk. In any case, the Atlas and Redstone ballistic missiles were top-priority military projects, which were not to be slowed by pursuing a secondary space launch mission. Milton Rosen's Vanguard was a project at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which was regarded more as a scientific than a military organization. Rosen and Richard Porter (IGY satellite chief and head of the American Rocket Society) both lobbied for the Vanguard and against using the Atlas or von Braun's rockets. They emphasized the non-military goals of the satellite program. Besides the public-relations aspect, a non-military satellite was considered important, because a discussion of whether overflights of foreign countries by satellites were legal or illegal was to be avoided.
In August or September 1955, the DOD Committee on Special Capabilities chose the NRL proposal, named Vanguard, for the IGY project. The Martin company, which had also built the Viking, became prime contractor for the launch vehicle. The Vanguard rocket was designed as a three-stage vehicle. The first stage was a General Electric X-405 liquid-fueled engine (designated XLR50-GE-2 by the Navy), derived from the engine of the RTV-N-12a Viking. The second stage was the Aerojet General AJ10-37 (XLR52-AJ-2) liquid-fueled engine, a variant of the engine in the RTV-N-10 Aerobee. Finally, the third stage was a solid-propellant rocket motor. All three-stage Vanguard flights except the last one used a motor built by the Grand Central Rocket Company. Vanguard had no fins, and the first and second stages were steered by gimbaled engines. The second stage also housed the vehicle's telemetry system, the inertial guidance system and the autopilot. The third stage was spin-stabilized, the spin being imparted by a turntable on the second stage before separation.
The Vanguard's second stage served for decades as the Able and Delta second stage for satellite launch vehicles. The AJ10 engine which made up those stages was adapted into the AJ10-137, which was used as the Apollo Service Module engine. The AJ10-190, adapted from the Apollo spacecraft was used on the Space Shuttle for orbital maneuvers, and will be repurchased for use on NASA's upcoming Orion spacecraft.
The first two flights of the Vanguard program, designated Test Vehicle (TV)-0 and TV-1, were actually the last two remaining RTV-N-12a Viking rockets modified. TV-0, launched on December 8, 1956, primarily tested new telemetry systems, while TV-1 on May 1, 1957 was a two-stage vehicle testing separation and ignition of the solid-fueled upper stage of Vanguard. Vanguard TV-2, launched on October 23, 1957 after several abortive attempts, was the first real Vanguard rocket. The second and third stages were inert, but the flight successfully tested first/second-stage separation and spin-up of the third stage. However, by that time, the Soviet Union had already placed the "Sputnik 1" satellite into orbit, and therefore project Vanguard was more or less forced to launch its own satellite as soon as possible. Therefore, a very small experimental satellite (called the "grapefruit" and weighing only 1.8 kg (4 lb)) was added to TV-3, which was to be the first test of an all-up Vanguard rocket. Although the NRL and Martin tried to emphasize that the TV-3 mission was a pure test flight (and one with several "firsts"), everyone else saw it as the first satellite launch of the Western world, billed as "America's answer to Sputnik". Wernher von Braun angrily said about the Sputnik launch: "We knew they were going to do it. Vanguard will never make it. We have the hardware on the shelf. We can put up a satellite in 60 days".
On 6 December 1957 the US Navy launched Vanguard TV-3 rocket, carrying a 1.3 kg (2.9 lbs) satellite, from Cape Canaveral. It only reached an altitude of 1.2 meters (4 ft), fell and exploded. The satellite was blasted off the top of the rocket where it landed in bushes near the pad and began transmitting signals, leading to New York Journal-American columnist Dorothy Kilgallen remarking "Why doesn't somebody go out there, find it, and shoot it?" The American press called it Kaputnik.
Investigation into the accident concluded that inadequate fuel tank pressure had allowed hot exhaust gases to back up into the injector head and destroy it, causing complete loss of engine thrust. After the failure of TV-3, the backup vehicle, Vanguard TV-3 BU (BU=Backup), was prepared for another attempt. Pad crews hastened to repair the damage done to LC-18A by TV-3's explosion and in the third week of January 1958, the job was completed. TV-3BU was erected on the pad, but continuous delays frustrated the launch attempt. Heavy rains shorted some electrical cables on the ground and necessitated their replacement. The second stage had been also been sitting on the pad with a full load of nitric acid for several weeks, which eventually corroded the fuel tank and valves. It had to be removed and replaced by a different stage. Finally, the launch got under way on February 5. The Vanguard lifted smoothly into the night sky and performed well until 57 seconds into launch, when the booster pitched over almost 40°. The skinny second stage broke in half from aerodynamic stress four seconds later, causing the Vanguard to tumble end-over-end before Range Safety sent the destruct command. Cause of the failure was attributed to a spurious guidance signal that caused the first stage to perform unintended pitch maneuvers. The guidance system was modified to have greater redundancy, also efforts were made to improve quality control. On March 17, TV-4 finally succeeded in orbiting the Vanguard 1 satellite. By that time, however, the Army's Juno (Jupiter-C) had already launched the United States' first satellite. The TV-4 rocket had put the satellite Vanguard 1, to a relatively high orbit of (3966 km (2465 miles) x 653 km (406 mi)) and is currently the oldest human artifact in space. The following four flights, TV-5 and SLV (Satellite Launch Vehicle)-1, -2 and -3 all failed, but on February 17, 1959, SLV-4 launched Vanguard 2 (weighing 10.8 kg (23.7 lb)) into orbit. The SLVs were the "production" Vanguard rockets. SLV-5 and -6 also failed, but the final flight on September 18, 1959 successfully orbited the 23.6 kg (52 lb) Vanguard 3 satellite. That last mission was designated TV-4BU, because it used a remaining test vehicle, which had been upgraded with a new third stage, the Allegheny Ballistics Lab X-248A2 Altair. This more powerful motor enabled the launch of the heavier payload. The combination of the AJ10 liquid engine and X-248 solid motor was also used, under the name Able, as an upper stage combination for Thor and Atlas space launch vehicles.
Vanguard launched 3 satellites out of 11 launch attempts:
- Vanguard TV3 - December 6, 1957 - Failed to orbit 1.36 kg (3 lb) satellite
- Vanguard TV3 Backup - February 5, 1958 - Failed to orbit 1.36 kg (3 lb) satellite
- Vanguard 1 - March 17, 1958 - Orbited 1.47 kg (3.25 lb) satellite
- Vanguard TV5 - April 28, 1958 - Failed to orbit 10.0 kg (22 lb) satellite
- Vanguard SLV-1 - May 27, 1958 - Failed to orbit 10.0 kg (22 lb) satellite
- Vanguard SLV-2 - June 26, 1958 - Failed to orbit 10.0 kg (22 lb) satellite
- Vanguard SLV-3 - September 26, 1958 - Failed to orbit 10.0 kg (22 lb) satellite
- Vanguard 2 - February 17, 1959 - Orbited 9.8 kg (21.6 lb) satellite
- Vanguard SLV-5 - April 13, 1959 - Failed to orbit 10.3 kg (22.7 lb) satellite
- Vanguard SLV-6 - June 22, 1959 - Failed to orbit 10.3 kg (22.7 lb) satellite
- Vanguard 3 - September 18, 1959 - Orbited 22.7 kg (50 lb) satellite
- Stage Number: 1 - Vanguard
- Mass: 7,661 kg
- Empty Mass: 811 kg
- Thrust (vac): 134.7 kN
- Isp: 270 s (2.6 kN·s/kg)
- Burn time: 145 s
- Isp (sea level): 248 s (2.4 kN·s/kg)
- Diameter: 1.14 m
- Length: 12.20 m
- Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
- Engines: General Electric X-405
- Stage Number: 2 - Delta A
- Mass: 2,164 kg
- Empty Mass: 694 kg
- Thrust (vac): 33.8 kN
- Isp: 271 s (2.7 kN·s/kg)
- Burn time: 115 s
- Diameter: 0.84 m
- Length: 5.36 m
- Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH
- Engines: Aerojet AJ10-37
- Stage Number: 3 - Vanguard 3
- Mass: 210 kg
- Empty Mass: 31 kg
- Thrust (vac): 11.6 kN
- Isp: 230 s (2.3 kN·s/kg)
- Burn time: 31 s
- Isp (sea level): 210 s (2.1 kN·s/kg)
- Diameter: 0.50 m
- Length: 2.00 m
- Propellants: Solid
- Engines: Grand Central 33KS2800
- Vanguard 1 Satellite
- Vanguard 2 Satellite
- Vanguard 3 Satellite
- Explorer program
- Sputnik program
- Viking rocket
- Comparison of orbital launchers families
- Comparison of orbital launch systems
- astronautix.com, vanguard
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Scripps-Howard's WASHINGTON DAILY NEWS: SAMNIK IS KAPUTNIK
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