Vietnam War in film

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Viet Cong poster for a 1967 film about the death of war hero Nguyen Van Be (Nguyễn Văn Bé)

This article lists notable films related to the Vietnam War.

Representation of the Vietnamese in film[edit]

In film, people are able to portray people and events to fit the needs of the audience and the intended purpose of the film. However, it is also noted how certain people/communities may be biased for their perspective of said film. According to a study by Martin Novelli, the depictions of the Vietnamese in American war films is often negatively stereotyped. Vietnamese civilians are usually shown as passive victims, prostitutes, or conniving with the enemy, while North Vietnamese or NLF guerilla fighters are frequently drawn as cruel torturers or effeminate cowards, and the ARVN are described as incompetent. In addition, many relevant facts concerning the conception of the war, or America’s subsequent acknowledgement of how the war was a mistake were not properly addressed. Instead, filmmakers focused more on the themes of war compared with educating the populace with hard facts.

In Walsh and Louvre's opinion, "the ideology of such films speaks of several basic and widespread public attitudes towards the war".[1]

Donna Alvah reported that students writing an introductory essay on the war often reflect the perception shared by most Americans born after the war. According to Alvah, students' conceptions of the Vietnam War are "largely gleaned from movies, documentaries, music, and .. relatives who served in the war, or who in any case hold strong opinions about it."[2]

Post-war films[edit]

After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, there was an increase in American films that were more "raw", containing actual battle footage. A FilmReference.com article noted that American filmmakers "appeared more confident to put Vietnam combat on screen for the first time" during that era.[3] These American post-war film representations have generally been more realistic and gritty, such as The Deer Hunter (1978) and Apocalypse Now (1979).[3]

Theatrical films about the Vietnam War[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1964 US A Yank in Viet-Nam Marshall Thompson A USMC pilot is shot down, but meets a female guerrilla; filmed in South Vietnam
1966 US To the Shores of Hell Will Zens A US Marine officer leads a rescue attempt of his brother who is held prisoner by the Viet Cong
1968 US The Green Berets John Wayne,
Ray Kellogg
A tribute to U.S. Special Forces, starring John Wayne, filmed mostly in Georgia[4]
1970 US The Losers Jack Starrett An American motorcycle gang is recruited for a mission into Cambodia
1971 South Vietnam Đất khổ Ha Thuc Can
1971 South Vietnam Người tình không chân dung Hoàng Vĩnh Lộc
1972 North Vietnam Vĩ tuyến 17 ngày và đêm Hải Ninh Life of Vietnamese living on both sides of the 17th parallel that splits Vietnam into North and South
1974 US There Is No 13 William Sachs Surrealist cinema based film involving a young Vietnam War soldier reminiscing about twelve love affairs with the cinematography ending before the subject of the thirteenth romance
1975 North Vietnam Girl from Hanoi Hải Ninh Operation Linebacker II
1978 Hong Kong, US The Boys in Company C Sidney J. Furie A group of Marines go through basic training and a tour of service in Vietnam in 1968
1978 US Go Tell the Spartans Ted Post US military advisers during the early part of the war (1964)
1978 US, UK The Deer Hunter Michael Cimino Three friends from Pennsylvania go off to fight, and come back changed men[4]
1979 Australia The Odd Angry Shot Tom Jeffrey Follows a group of Australian soldiers in Vietnam
1979 Vietnam The Abandoned Field: Free Fire Zone (Cánh đồng hoang) Nguyễn Hồng Sến An "unnerving and compelling .. subjective-camera-eye-view" of life under helicopter fire in the Mekong Delta. The film cuts to an (American) "helicopter-eye view", contrasting painfully with the human tenderness seen earlier.[5]
1979 US Apocalypse Now Francis Ford Coppola A special forces officer is called in to locate and kill a rogue colonel[4] in a retelling of Conrad's Heart of Darkness
1980 Italy The Last Hunter Antonio Margheriti Set in 1973, a US officer goes on a dangerous mission behind enemy lines to blow up an enemy propaganda radio station
1981 UK How Sleep the Brave Lyndon James Swift A group of new soldiers go on a mission in the jungle
1982 Vietnam Ván bài lật ngửa Lê Hoàng Hoa Biopic of the North Vietnamese spy Pham Ngoc Thao
1983 US Streamers Robert Altman Four soldiers awaiting deployment to Vietnam
1984 US Purple Hearts Sidney J. Furie Love story between a surgeon (Ken Wahl) and a nurse (Cheryl Ladd) who are serving in the U.S. Navy during the war
1985 Vietnam, USSR Coordinates of Death [6]
(a.k.a. Target for Death)
Samvel Gasparov,
Suan Tian Nguyen
Stranded Soviet sailors witness American war brutality
1985 US Missing in Action 2: The Beginning Lance Hool U.S. POW breaks out of Vietnamese prison camp.
1986 US Platoon Oliver Stone A new recruit's service in a platoon of soldiers patrolling the Cambodian border[4]
1987 US, Philippines Eye of the Eagle Cirio H. Santiago US officer hunts down rogue GIs.
1987 US Gardens of Stone Francis Ford Coppola Set in 1968-1969, James Caan plays the frustrated sergeant in charge of the Arlington National Cemetery ceremonial guard
1987 UK, US Full Metal Jacket Stanley Kubrick Battle of Hue
Tet Offensive[4]
1987 US Hamburger Hill John Irvin Battle of Hamburger Hill in the Ashau Valley[4]
1987 US Good Morning, Vietnam Barry Levinson Loosely based on the experiences of AFRS radio DJ Adrian Cronauer
1988 US Off Limits Christopher Crowe Two US Criminal Investigation Command agents investigate murders of Vietnamese prostitutes by high-ranking US officers
1988 US Platoon Leader Aaron Norris An inexperienced officer learns the ropes of fighting in Vietnam
1988 US Bat*21 Peter Markle Lt. Col. Iceal Hambleton's experience of survival while MIA
1988 US 1969 Ernest Thompson The film deals with the Vietnam War and the resulting social tensions between those who support and oppose the war in small-town America.
1989 US The Iron Triangle Eric Weston Viet Cong soldier protects captured GI who spared his life
1989 US, Philippines The Siege of Firebase Gloria Brian Trenchard-Smith Marines defend a firebase during the Tet offensive
1989 US 84C MoPic Patrick Sheane Duncan Found footage-style mockumentary follows a US Long-range reconnaissance patrol
1989 Philippines, US Eye of the Eagle 2: Inside the Enemy Carl Franklin US soldier goes to rescue Vietnamese girlfriend who has been kidnapped by superior officer
1989 US The Expendables Cirio H. Santiago Commando trains a group of misfit soldiers for dangerous mission
1989 US Casualties of War Brian De Palma The incident on Hill 192[7]
1989 Hong Kong A Better Tomorrow 3 Tsui Hark A crime story involving the struggle of Chinese mobsters and their family trying to get back to Hong Kong during the fall of Saigon.
1989 US Born on the Fourth of July Oliver Stone Based on the experiences of Ron Kovic, who joins the Marines and is paralyzed and wounded in combat, then turning into a significant protester against the war.[8]
1990 US Air America Roger Spottiswoode Air America pilots uncover U.S. plot to smuggle narcotics
1990 Hong Kong Bullet in the Head John Woo Hong Kong mobsters travel to Vietnam during the war to smuggle illegal goods. They get entangled with both sides in the war.
1991 US Flight of the Intruder John Milius A-6 Intruder pilots go on an unauthorized mission to bomb targets in North Vietnam
1991 US Dogfight Nancy Savoca Dogfight shows the last night of several marines in San Francisco, before they are send to the Vietnam war. Only a short scene of the war itselfs is shown, were several of the marnines die. Later one marine gets back to San Francisco, where he realises that everything has changed, even the behaviour of the society towards the marines.
1991 US For The Boys Mark Rydell Characters Bette Midler and James Caan entertain the troops and experience turmoil
1992 South Korea White Badge Chung Ji-young Story of two South Koreans who served in Vietnam
1993 US, France Heaven & Earth Oliver Stone Based on the experiences of Vietnamese civilian Le Ly Hayslip of the Vietnam war and its aftermath.
1994 US Forrest Gump Robert Zemeckis Title character serves in Vietnam
1995 US The Walking Dead Preston A. Whitmore II In the waning days of the war, a group of Marines are sent to rescue US POWs
1995 US Operation Dumbo Drop Simon Wincer Green Berets bribe Vietnamese villagers with an elephant
1995 US Dead Presidents Albert Hughes Characters serve in Vietnam
2000 US, Germany Tigerland Joel Schumacher US recruits go through basic training before going to Vietnam
2002 US, Germany We Were Soldiers Randall Wallace Battle of Ia Drang
2003 Vietnam Hà Nội 12 ngày đêm Bùi Đình Hạc Operation Linebacker II
2003 South Korea The Classic Kwak Jae-yong A romantic movie set in 1968. Joon-ha joins the South Korean Army and goes to Vietnam.
2004 South Korea R-Point Kong Su-chang South Korean unit is sent out to find missing platoon in this horror film
2005 Vietnam Giải phóng Sài Gòn (Liberate Sai Gon) Fall of Saigon
2008 South Korea Sunny Lee Joon-ik Wife of South Korean serving in Vietnam takes job as singer to be near her husband
2008 Canada, US, Germany 1968 Tunnel Rats Uwe Boll U.S. "Tunnel rats" who go into Viet Cong tunnel complexes
2009 Canada, US, Germany 21 and a Wake-Up Chris McIntyre The film focuses on real people McIntyre knew in the Marines, as well as experiences of Dr. Marvin Wayne, renowned and decorated physician at the 24th Evac in its final year.
2012 US The Sapphires (film) Wayne Blair The Sapphires is about four indigenous Australian women, Gail (Deborah Mailman), Julie (Jessica Mauboy), Kay (Shari Sebbens) and Cynthia (Miranda Tapsell), who are discovered by a talent scout (Chris O'Dowd), and form a music group named The Sapphires, travelling to Vietnam in 1968 to sing for troops during the war.
2013 Japan Number Ten Blues Norio Osada Saigon in February 1975, during the final stage of the Vietnam War, there is another story of love and violence. Japanese businessman Sugimoto (Yūsuke Kawazu) accidentally kills a Vietnamese man.
2014 US X-Men: Days of Future Past Bryan Singer A movie about the Paris Peace Accords.
2014 South Korea Ode to My Father Yoon Je-kyoon The main character and his best friend serve in the Vietnam War.
2017 US The Post (film) Steven Spielberg Set in the early 1970s, The Post depicts the true story of attempts by journalists at The Washington Post to publish the Pentagon Papers, classified documents regarding the 30-year involvement of the United States government in the Vietnam War.

Theatrical films about the Vietnam War POWs[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1987 US The Hanoi Hilton Lionel Chetwynd Mistreatment of U.S. POWs in the Hỏa Lò Prison
2006 US Rescue Dawn Werner Herzog Dieter Dengler's experience as a POW

Theatrical films about the Anti-Vietnam War movement[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1969 US Hail, Hero! David Miller A young man (Michael Douglas in his screen debut) is torn between joining the army or becoming a hippie
1979 US Hair Miloš Forman Film adaptation of the 1968 Broadway musical of the same name about a Vietnam war draftee who meets and befriends a tribe of long-haired hippies on his way to the army induction center
1980 US Return of the Secaucus 7 John Sayles Reunion of anti-war protesters
2007 US Across the Universe Julie Taymor The main character's best friend is drafted to fight in the war

Theatrical films about Vietnam War veterans[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1965 US Motorpsycho Russ Meyer A US motorcycle gang is led by a disturbed veteran
1968 US Targets Peter Bogdanovich A disturbed Vietnam veteran goes on a sniper shooting spree after killing his wife and mother
1972 US The Visitors Elia Kazan Vietnam veterans confront each other over war crime
1973 US Forced Entry Shaun Costello An unnamed and psychotic Vietnam War veteran who returns from the Vietnam War sexually assaults and kills random women who stop at the filling station where he works as an gas station attendant
1974 Canada Deathdream Bob Clark War veteran returns home as a living corpse
1976 US Taxi Driver Martin Scorsese A mentally disturbed Vietnam veteran comes to New York City after the war, and gets a job driving taxicabs due to insomnia. He is unable to fit into society, displays obsessive behavior, and is driven to violence
1976 US Zebra Force Joe Tornatore The film is about a group of Vietnam War veterans who declare war on Los Angeles drug dealers and the Mafia.
1977 US Heroes Jeremy Kagan Amnesiac Vietnam veteran seeks out former comrades
1978 US Coming Home Hal Ashby Homecoming of a Vietnam veteran
1980 US The Exterminator James Glickenhaus Vietnam veteran turns vigilante
1982 US First Blood Ted Kotcheff John Rambo, a highly decorated special forces veteran traumatized by his experiences as a prisoner of war, goes on a rampage in a northwestern U.S. town against law enforcement officers who push him too far.
1983 US Americana (film) David Carradine A down on his luck, former Green Beret captain, freshly discharged from the Vietnam War, drifts into Drury, Kansas.
1985 US Alamo Bay David Carradine Alamo Bay is a 1985 drama film about a Vietnam veteran who clashes with Vietnamese immigrants who move to his fictitious Texas bay hometown.
1986 US Combat Shock Buddy Giovinazzo Vietnam veteran goes insane (Troma film)
1987 Hong Kong Eastern Condors Sammo Hung Lieutenant Colonel Lam is an American army officer given a top-secret mission by the US military. The mission entails entering Vietnam to destroy an old American bunker filled with missiles before the Viet Cong can get to them.
1988 US Braddock: Missing in Action III Aaron Norris Vietnam vet goes back to Vietnam to rescue left behind wife and child
1988 US Above the Law (film) Andrew Davis The main character was recruited into the CIA by Special Agent Nelson Fox and was involved in covert operations on the Vietnamese-Cambodian border during the Vietnam War.
1989 US Jacknife David Jones Vietnam veterans have trouble adjusting to civilian life
1989 US In Country Norman Jewison Daughter of deceased Vietnam vet explores her father's past through her uncle, also a vet
1990 US Jacob's Ladder Adrian Lyne Vietnam vet is haunted by his past
1991 US McBain James Glickenhaus Vietnam veterans reunite to depose a Colombian dictator
1992 US Universal Soldier (1992 film) Roland Emmerich The film tells the story of Luc Deveraux, a former U.S. Army soldier who was killed in the Vietnam War in 1969, and returned to life following a secret military project called the "Universal Soldier" program.
2007 US American Gangster (film) Ridley Scott The film is fictionally based on the criminal career of Frank Lucas, a gangster from La Grange, North Carolina who smuggled heroin into the United States on American service planes returning from the Vietnam War, before being detained by a task force led by detective Richie Roberts.
2009 US Watchmen Zack Snyder Some characters participated are Vietnam War veterans.
2009 US X-Men Origins: Wolverine Gavin Hood The main character is a Vietnam War veteran.
2014 South Korea Obsessed Kim Dae-woo South Korean erotic romance film written and directed by Kim Dae-woo, about a couple having a passionate affair in a military camp under tight surveillance in 1969.
2017 US Kong Skull Island Jordan Vogt-Roberts An expedition to Skull Island was made by a US recon team to explore the odd island.
2017 US The Foreigner Martin Campbell Ngoc Minh Quan, a former Chinese Vietnam War US special forces operator turned London restaurateur, who looks for revenge after his daughter is killed in a bombing.

Theatrical films about the Vietnam War MIAs[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1978 US Good Guys Wear Black Ted Post Former CIA assassin battles duplicitous US government official.
1983 US Uncommon Valor Ted Kotcheff Father organizes a group of Vietnam veterans to go back and rescue his son who is secretly held prisoner in Vietnam
1984 US Missing in Action Joseph Zito Vietnam veteran goes back to Vietnam to free secretly held POWs
1985 US Rambo: First Blood Part II George P. Cosmatos Vietnam veteran goes back to Vietnam to free secretly held POWs

Theatrical films about the Indochina refugee crisis[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1982 Hong Kong Boat People Ann Hui The Fall of Saigon and its aftermath
1984 UK The Killing Fields (film) Roland Joffé The Killing Fields is a 1984 British biographical drama film about the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, which is based on the experiences of two journalists: Cambodian Dith Pran and American Sydney Schanberg.
2001 US Green Dragon Timothy Linh Bui The experiences of Vietnamese refugees in the United States immediately following the end of the war
2004 US The Beautiful Country Hans Petter Moland A Vietnamese boy (Damien Nguyen) goes to the US to search for his father, an American ex-soldier
2005 Vietnam Sống trong sợ hãi (Living in Fear) Bùi Thạc Chuyên A Vietnamese farmer is supporting two families after the end of the war - one in the north, which he abandoned after fleeing during the war, and his new family in the south. To get enough money he sets on to re-cultivate a field full of mines. His life and psyche is changing while he removes each mine by himself.
2007 US Journey from the Fall Ham Tran Vietnamese experience of post-war reeducation camps and life as refugees

Television films about the Vietnam War[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1967 US Wings of Fire (film) David Lowell Rich Doug Sanborn (Ralph Bellamy) runs a small charter company based at a regional airport. His daughter, Kitty (Suzanne Pleshette), a young female pilot wants to be in the Unlimited class at the air races but her male friends stymie her ambitions. Her former boyfriend Taff Malloy (James Farentino) has recently come back from the US Navy and a stint as a pilot in Vietnam.
1998 US A Bright Shining Lie Terry George Experiences of US Lt. Col. John Paul Vann, military adviser to the South Vietnamese. Based on the book by the same name by Neil Sheehan.
2002 US Path to War John Frankenheimer The Vietnam War as seen through the eyes of US President Lyndon B. Johnson and his cabinet members.
2005 US Faith of My Fathers Peter Markle Experiences of US Navy Lieutenant Commander John McCain (later senator) as a POW. Based on the memoir of the same name.
2016 US All the Way (film) Jay Roach All the Way is a 2016 American biographical television drama film based on events of the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson.

Television films about Vietnam War veterans[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1969 US The Ballad of Andy Crocker George McCowan Made for TV film begins with a Vietnam firefight and then deals with a veteran's readjustment problems
1979 US Friendly Fire David Greene Based on actual events explores the questionable death of a Vietnam PFC and families quest seeking the truth about shrapnel affliction.
2001 Canada, US Under Heavy Fire Sidney J. Furie Reunited veterans visit Vietnam 25 years after the war, flashbacks to their battles
2003 US Word of Honor Robert Markowitz A former army officer is charged with war crimes allegedly committed by his unit in Vietnam
2006 US, Canada The Veteran Sidney J. Furie Vietnam veteran and state senator returns to Vietnam 30 years after the war, and is secretly probed for information on missing GI

Documentary films[edit]

Year Country Title Director Events depicted
1965 Canada The Mills of the Gods: Viet Nam Beryl Fox
1967 France The Anderson Platoon Pierre Schoendoerffer Follows a deployed US infantry platoon in Vietnam.
1967 France Far from Vietnam Joris Ivens, William Klein, Claude Lelouch, Agnès Varda, Jean-Luc Godard, Chris Marker and Alain Resnais
1968 US A Face of War Eugene S. Jones Day-to-day activities of active duty Marines.
1969 US In the Year of the Pig Emile de Antonio History of the war.
1970 US Street Scenes Martin Scorsese Follows two demonstrations against the war, interviews with participants and bystanders.
1970 US The World of Charlie Company John Laurence Follows US troops of Charlie Company, 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, of the 1st Cavalry Division.
1971 US Vietnam!, Vietnam! Sherman Beck A United States Information Agency film, narrated by Charlton Heston, was shot on location in Vietnam in October–December 1968 but not released until 1971.
1972 US Winter Soldier Follows the Winter Soldier Investigation.
1974 US Hearts and Minds Peter Davis Interviews with Americans and Vietnamese.
1979 UK Year Zero: The Silent Death of Cambodia David Munro The war in Cambodia and its aftermath under the rule of the Khmer Rouge.
1980 Canada Vietnam: The Ten Thousand Day War
(TV miniseries)
Michael Maclear
(producer)
History of the conflict from the First Indochina War to the Fall of Saigon.
1982 US The Uncounted Enemy George Crile III
(producer)
The film alleges that general William Westmoreland presented false numbers of enemy combatants to the US public.
1983 US Vietnam: A Television History
(TV miniseries)
Based on Karnow's book Vietnam: A History.
1987 US Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam Bill Couturié Based on letters from US soldiers serving in Vietnam.
1989 UK Four Hours in My Lai
(Yorkshire Television documentary)
My Lai Massacre.
1990 US Berkeley in the Sixties Mark Kitchell Anti-war protesters at Berkeley University.
1995 UK Vietnam: The Last Battle David Munro Review of the history of Vietnam of the two decades since the end of the war
1998 US Regret to Inform Barbara Sonneborn The director, a US war widow, goes to Vietnam to explore the loss of her husband.
1999 Vietnam The Sound of the Violin in My Lai (Tiếng vỹ cầm ở Mỹ Lai) Tran Van Thuy My Lai Massacre
2001 The Netherlands First Kill Coco Schrijber The psychology of war is explored through interviews with Vietnam veterans.
2001 US Unfinished Symphony: Democracy and Dissent Bestor Cram, Mike Majoros Follows a three-day protest against the war in Lexington, Massachusetts over Memorial Day weekend in 1971, staged by newly returned war veterans.
2001 US Investigation of a Flame Lynne Sachs Story of the Catonsville Nine, Catholic activists who burned draft files in 1968 to protest against the war.
2002 US Daughter from Danang Gail Dolgin, Vicente Franco US woman, daughter of US soldier and Vietnamese woman goes to Vietnam to meet her biological relatives.
2003 US The Fog of War Errol Morris Interview with Robert S. McNamara, US Secretary of Defense during the war.
2004 US In the Shadow of the Blade Patrick Fries,
Cheryl Fries
Huey helicopter on cross-US tour reunites veterans and veterans' relatives.
2004 US Stolen Honor Carlton Sherwood The film connects the testimony of John Kerry with increased mistreatment of US POWs.
2004 US Going Upriver George Butler U.S. Senator John Kerry's military service and his subsequent participation in the anti-war movement.
2005 France Enemy Image Mark Daniels Examines the impact of televised war reporting, starting with the relatively unrestricted reporting during the Vietnam War.
2005 US Sir! No Sir! David Zeiger Anti-war sentiments within the US armed forces.
2006 Australia The Battle of Long Tan Damien Lay 108 young and mostly inexperienced Australian and New Zealand soldiers fight for survival against an overwhelming enemy force of 2,500.
2007 US The Camden 28 Anthony Giacchino Follows twenty-eight members of the Catholic Left who were arrested in 1971 for attempting to break into and vandalize a draft board.
2007 US Bomb Harvest Kim Mordaunt Aftermath of the bombing of Laos during the war, the problem of large amounts of Unexploded Ordnance in the country.
2008 US Between the Lines Scott Bass, Ty Ponder The impact of the war on US surfing culture
2009 US The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers Judith Ehrlich, Rick Goldsmith About Daniel Ellsberg and his leaking of the Pentagon Papers, a secret US government history of the war.
2011 US Vietnam in HD
(TV miniseries)
Sammy Jackson Better known as the Vietnam Lost Films is a six part documentary of thirteen Americans confronting their experience of war in Vietnam.
2012 US Into Harm's Way Jordan Kronick West Point Class of 1967 and their experiences during college and in the Vietnam War.
2014 US Last Days in Vietnam Rory Kennedy About the evacuation of American and South Vietnamese Citizens.
2017 US The Vietnam War Ken Burns and Lynn Novick History of the war from the anti-colonial struggle against the French to the exit of the Americans in 1973.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Louvre, Alf; Walsh, Jeffrey (1988). Tell me lies about Vietnam : cultural battles for the meaning of the war. Open University Press. 
  2. ^ Bradford, Laurence (7 July 2013). "Pop culture dictates the American version of the Vietnam War". Inside Investor. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Vietnam War: American Cinema After the War, FilmReference.com, retrieved 2009-03-18 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Neale, Stephen (2000). War Films. Genre and Hollywood. Psychology Press. pp. 121–124. ISBN 978-0-415-02606-2. 
  5. ^ "The Abandoned Field-Free Fire Zone (Canh dong hoang)". University of California, Berkeley Art Museum & Pacific Film Archive. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 
  6. ^ IMDb, plus RUSCICO DVD, 2000, ALL region, with menu and subtitles in English, French; subtitles only in German, Spanish, and Italian.
  7. ^ Clarke, 2006. pp. 193–202
  8. ^ Clarke, 2006. pp. 181–192

Further reading[edit]