Christchurch East

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Map showing extent of electorate for the 2008 and 2011 elections

Christchurch East, originally called Christchurch City East, is a current New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created for the 1871 election and was abolished for two period, from 1875–1905 and again from 1946–1996. It was last created for the introduction of the MMP voting system for the 1996 election. The current MP is Poto Williams, a member of the New Zealand Labour Party.

Population centres[edit]

The electorate is based on the eastern part of the City of Christchurch. When the electorate was first formed through the Representation Act 1870, the western boundary of the electorate was Colombo Street. Unlike today, the eastern boundary was away from the coast; rather, the Avon electorate covered the coastal regions.[1]

The electorate is bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean and in the north by the Waimakariri River. Since the 2008 election, the western and southern boundary follows Main North Road, Marshland Road, North Parade, Dudley Creek, the Avon River, Keyes Road and Pages Road, before cutting though the Bromley wastewater treatment plant to Cuthberts Road. The boundary then follows Cuthberts Road, Breezes Road and Bridge Street to the Avon River, before following the Avon through the Avon Heathcote Estuary and out to the Pacific Ocean.[2]

The following suburbs, in alphabetical order, are at least partially located in the electorate: Aranui, Avondale, Bexley, Bottle Lake, Bridgend, Brooklands, Burwood, Chaneys, Dallington, Kainga, Marshland, New Brighton, North New Brighton, Ouruhia, Parklands, Queenspark, Shirley, South New Brighton, Southshore, Spencerville, Stewarts Gully, Styx, Waimairi Beach, and Wainoni.[2] Population loss after the quakes necessitated expansion of the electorate in the 2013 redistribution, with the electorate gaining Mairehau and Shirley from Christchurch Central, Bromley from Port Hills and the remainder of Marshland from Waimakariri.[3]

History[edit]

Christchurch City East was first created for the 1871 election[4] by the Representation Act 1870, which was passed to increase the number of general electorates to 74 from the 61 that were used at the 1866 election. The Representation Act 1870 also disestablished some multi-member electorates, and the three-member City of Christchurch electorate was split up, with one part of it forming the new Christchurch City East electorate.[1]

The first election was contested by Jerningham Wakefield, who had previously represented Christchurch Country in the 1st Parliament (1853–1855), and Andrew Duncan, who was Mayor of Christchurch in 1870. Wakefield won the election and represented the electorate until the end of the electoral term in 1875,[5][6] when Christchurch City East was abolished, replaced by the three-member electorate City of Christchurch.[4]

Christchurch East was re-created for the 1905 election.[4] The election was contested by Thomas Davey (who had been a representative of the City of Christchurch electorate for the Liberal Party since 1902), William Whitehouse Collins (who had previously been in Parliament for the Liberal Party), Henry Toogood[7] (a young engineer who only recently left Canterbury College and who would become one of the founding members of the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand), and Frederick Cooke[8] (a prominent member of the Socialist Party). Davey was successful.[9]

The 1908 election was contested by Davey (the incumbent), Charles Boxshall (who represented the opposition, which at that point had not formed into a political party), James McCombs (who was an Independent Liberal, i.e. he was not part of a formal party), and Frederick Cooke (who had also contested the previous election standing for the Socialist Party). Davey was re-elected, with McCombs coming second.[10][11] The Second Ballot Act 1908 provided for second or runoff ballots between the top two candidates where the top candidate did not get an absolute majority.[12] As Davey had obtained 55.56% of the votes, a second ballot was not required in Christchurch East.[10]

The 1911 election was contested by Davey (the incumbent), Henry Thacker (a prominent medical doctor standing as an Independent Liberal), Hiram Hunter (who stood for the original Labour Party), and Frederick Cooke (who had also contested the two previous election standing for the Socialist Party). The first ballot was won by Thacker, with Davey beating Hunter by only four votes for second place. A second ballot was required, as Thacker had achieved 32.68% of the votes in the first ballot, far short of an absolute majority. The second ballot was won by Davey with a majority of over 17% of the votes.[13]

Davey planned to contest the 1914 election. The Liberal Government had by now been replaced by the Reform Government. At the opening meeting of his campaign, Davey refused to commit himself to a motion of no confidence against the government, which in turn resulted in the meeting refusing to give him a vote of confidence. A week later, he withdrew his nomination.[14][15][16] This left three other candidates in the election: Henry Thacker (who had contested the previous election as an Independent Liberal, but with Davey's withdrawal contested as behalf of the Liberal Party), George Duncan Macfarlane (an auctioneer with no prior political experience who stood for the Reform Party), and Hiram Hunter (who this time contested for the Social Democratic Party, which was the successor to the original Labour Party).[17][18] Thacker was successful and succeeded Davey.[19]

The 1919 election was contested by Thacker (the incumbent, and since May of that year Mayor of Christchurch[20]) and Hiram Hunter (who this time contested for the Labour Party, which had been founded in 1916).[21] Thacker served for two terms until 1922[22] and was Mayor of Christchurch until 1923.[23]

Thacker was defeated in the 1922 election by Tim Armstrong of the Labour Party.[24] The third candidate was W R Devereux, a land agent who stood for the Reform Party.[25][26]

Armstrong successfully contested the 1925 and 1928 elections against D F Dennehy; his challenger stood for the Liberal Party in 1925, and for its successor, the United Party, in 1928.[27][28] Armstrong was challenged by George Frederick Allen of the United Party in 1931, but Armstrong remained successful.[29] Allen was active in local affairs and was the headmaster of the Sumner District High School (1908–1933).[30][31]

Armstrong was challenged in 1935 by S W Richardson, who was the official candidate for the United/Reform Coalition in 1935.[32] In 1938, Armstrong was challenged by K I Armour of the National Party.[33] Armstrong died in office on 8 November 1942 from heart disease.[34]

Armstrong's death triggered the 1943 by-election, which was held on 6 February.[35][36] The by-election was contested by five candidates, including representatives from the Labour Party, the Labour breakaway party Democratic Labour Party and the National Party.[37] The election was won by the Labour candidate, Mabel Howard, and started her long parliamentary career, which included her becoming the first female cabinet minister in 1947.[38] Howard was confirmed later in 1943 in the general election, where her majority increased substantially (by over 17 percentage points).[39]

Christchurch East was abolished in 1946[40] and re-created in 1996 for the MMP-era. Larry Sutherland, who had previously represented Avon, won the 1996 election. Sutherland retired at the 1999 election and Lianne Dalziel was first elected. Dalziel had previously represented Christchurch Central (1990–1996) and spent the next three years as a list MP. She is the current holder of the electorate.[41]

The Christchurch newspaper The Press reported on 20 April 2013 that Lianne Dalziel will challenge Bob Parker for the Christchurch mayoralty.[42] Dalziel maintained that she was not yet committed to standing,[43] and only formally confirmed on 19 June that she will contest the mayoralty. She confirmed that she will resign from Parliament, thus triggering a by-election in the Christchurch East electorate.[44] Dalziel resigned before the official results were announced.[45]

The by-election was since held on 30 November 2013 in the electorate. This was won by Labour's Poto Williams in a convincing victory despite the view that significant population changes since the 2011 Christchurch earthquake made the allegiance to Labour less certain.

Since Tim Armstrong's 1922 election win, the electorate (for as long as it existed) has been held by Labour.[40]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Christchurch East has been represented by seven electorate MPs:

Key

 Independent    Liberal    Labour    National  

Election Winner
1871 election Jerningham Wakefield
(Electorate abolished 1875–1905, see City of Christchurch)
1905 election Thomas Davey
1908 election
1911 election
1914 election Henry Thacker
1919 election
1922 election Tim Armstrong
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election
1943 by-election Mabel Howard
1943 election
(Electorate abolished 1946–1996)
1996 election Larry Sutherland
1999 election Lianne Dalziel
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election
2011 election
2013 by-election Poto Williams

List MPs[edit]

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Christchurch East electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
2008 election Aaron Gilmore
2011 election

Election results[edit]

2013 by-election[edit]

The following table shows final results of the by-election:[46]

Christchurch East by-election, 2013

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the by-election.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list prior to the by-election.
Yellow background denotes the winner of the by-election, who was a list MP prior to the by-election.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Poto Williams 8,414 61.30 +5.75
National Matthew Doocey 3,577 26.06 -10.44
Green David Moorhouse 954 6.95 +2.14
Conservative Leighton Baker 494 3.60 +1.74
Independent Sam Park 78 0.57
Legalise Cannabis Paula Lambert 59 0.43 -0.48
ACT Gareth Veale 58 0.42
Independent Adam Holland 31 0.23
Independent Ian Gaskin 20 0.15
Democratic Jenner Lichtwark 20 0.15
Informal votes 21 0.15
Turnout 13,726
Labour hold Majority 4,837 35.24 +16.20


2011 election[edit]

General election 2011: Christchurch East[47]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 15,559 55.54 +2.61 9,100 31.65 -13.62
National Aaron Gilmore 10,225 36.50 +0.55 13,252 46.10 +10.40
Green Mojo Mathers 1,347 4.81 -0.62 3,359 11.68 +4.45
Conservative Leighton Baker 522 1.86 +1.86 617 2.15 +2.15
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell 254 0.91 -0.32 145 0.50 +0.16
United Future Johnny Miller 108 0.39 -0.22 160 0.56 -0.39
NZ First   1,801 6.26 +2.34
ACT   101 0.35 -1.58
Māori   84 0.29 -0.22
Mana   63 0.22 +0.22
Alliance   28 0.10 -0.08
Democratic   22 0.08 +0.01
Libertarianz   17 0.06 +0.02
Informal votes 509 228
Total Valid votes 28,015 28,977
Labour hold Majority 5,334 19.04 +2.06

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 39,708[48]

2008 election[edit]

General election 2008: Christchurch East[49]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 17,969 52.92 15,585 45.27
National Aaron Gilmore 12,204 35.94 12,289 35.70
Green Mojo Mathers 1,843 5.43 2,489 7.23
Progressive Elspeth Sandys 575 1.69 696 2.02
Legalise Cannabis Paula Lambert 417 1.23 117 0.34
Kiwi Tony Le Cren 378 1.11 269 0.78
United Future Maretta Solomon 204 0.60 326 0.95
Alliance Paul Piesse 119 0.35 62 0.18
Independent Sevaschan Sam Park 114 0.34
Workers Party Paul Hopkinson 90 0.27 26 0.08
Democratic Nick McIlraith 40 0.12 24 0.07
NZ First   1,352 3.93
ACT   664 1.93
Bill and Ben   210 0.61
Māori   176 0.51
Family Party   68 0.20
Pacific   54 0.16
Libertarianz   14 0.04
RAM   5 0.01
RONZ   1 0.00
Informal votes 267 202
Total Valid votes 33,953 34,427
Labour hold Majority 5,765 16.98

2005 election[edit]

General election 2005: Christchurch East[50]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 20,969 60.31 18,893 53.44
National David Round 8,996 25.88 9,851 27.86
Green Mary McCammon 1,698 4.88 1,948 5.51
United Future Dianne Wilson 1,205 3.47 1,176 3.33
Progressive Karen Silcock 926 2.66 926 2.62
ACT John Peters 401 1.15 277 0.78
Legalise Cannabis Kevin O'Connell 299 0.86 101 0.29
Alliance Lynda Boyd 167 0.48 98 0.28
Direct Democracy Kyle Chapman 63 0.18 13 0.04
Anti-Capitalist Alliance Paul Hopkinson 43 0.12
NZ First   1,694 4.77
Destiny   170 0.48
Māori   97 0.27
Christian Heritage   54 0.15
Democratic   18 0.05
Libertarianz   13 0.04
Family Rights   7 0.02
99 MP   6 0.02
RONZ   6 0.02
One NZ   5 0.01
Informal votes 424 186
Total Valid votes 34,787 35,353
Labour hold Majority 11,973 34.44

2002 election[edit]

General election 2002: Christchurch East[51]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 19,784 63.92 +7.12 16,142 51.29 +4.46
National Stephen Johnston 4,920 15.90 4,368 13.88 -10.39
Green Mary McCammon 1,557 5.03 2,068 6.57 +1.70
United Future Paul Duxbury 1,532 4.95 2,394 7.61
ACT John Peters 841 2.72 1,212 3.85 +0.35
Progressive David Culverhouse 834 2.69 1,171 3.72
Christian Heritage Judith Phillips 577 1.86 -0.52 441 1.40 -1.00
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell 512 1.65 -0.50 222 0.71 -0.69
Alliance Colin Pounder 315 1.02 466 1.48 -9.90
ACAP Philip Ferguson 79 0.26
NZ First   2,532 8.05 +5.81
ORNZ   430 1.37
One NZ   15 0.05
Mana Māori   8 0.03 +0.00
NMP   3 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 389 102
Total Valid votes 30,951 31,472
Labour hold Majority 14,864 48.02 +13.11

1999 election[edit]

General election 1999: Christchurch East[52][53]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Lianne Dalziel 18,157 56.80 15,084 46.83 +10.38
National John Knox 6,995 21.88 7,816 24.26 -2.21
Alliance Paul Piesse 2,127 6.65 3,665 11.38 -6.11
Green Jacqui Wood 1,296 4.05 1,568 4.87
Christian Heritage Judith Phillips 761 2.38 774 2.40
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell 688 2.15 449 1.39 -0.54
Future NZ Chantelle Stiles 669 2.09 456 1.42
ACT Alan Beecham 667 2.09 1,127 3.50 0.47
NZ First Margaret Silverlock 528 1.65 719 2.23 -6.52
Natural Law Warwick Jones 80 0.25 58 0.18 0.06
United NZ   143 0.44 +0.04
Libertarianz   131 0.41 +0.40
South Island   73 0.23
Animals First   71 0.22 +0.04
McGillicuddy Serious   36 0.11 -0.05
One NZ   18 0.06
Mana Māori   11 0.03 +0.02
Mauri Pacific   5 0.02
People's Choice   4 0.01
Republican   2 0.01
Freedom Movement 1 0.00
NMP   1 0.00
Informal votes 513 269
Total Valid votes 31,968 32,212
Labour hold Majority 11,162 34.92

1996 election[edit]

General election 1996: Christchurch East[54][55][56]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Larry Sutherland 11,174 35.17 11,675 36.44
National Sue McKenzie 8,216 25.86 8,480 26.47
Alliance Marie Venning 7,305 22.99 5,601 17.48
NZ First Lem Pearse 2,970 9.35 2,805 8.76
Legalise Cannabis Tim Shadbolt 1,368 4.31 618 1.93
ACT Jeffrey Buchanan 569 1.79 971 3.03
McGillicuddy Serious Phil Clayton 105 0.33 51 0.16
Natural Law Sean O'Connor 61 0.19 38 0.12
Christian Coalition   1,494 4.66
United NZ   128 0.40
Animals First   59 0.18
Progressive Greens   48 0.15
Green Society 17 0.05
Advance New Zealand 14 0.04
Superannuitants & Youth 13 0.04
Ethnic Minority Party 8 0.02
Asia Pacific United 4 0.01
Mana Māori   4 0.01
Conservatives 3 0.01
Libertarianz   3 0.01
Te Tawharau 1 0.00
Informal votes 360 93
Total Valid votes 31,768 32,035
Labour win new seat Majority 2,958 9.31

1943 election[edit]

General election, 1943: Christchurch East[39][57]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Mabel Howard 8,911 64.39 +17.11
National R G Brown 3,374 24.38 -0.21
Democratic Labour H G Schou 1,277 9.23 -17.50
Real Democracy F Whiley 278 2.01
Majority 5,537 40.01 -11.48
Informal votes 213 1.52
Registered electors 14,835
Turnout 14,053 87.77 +22.76

1943 by-election[edit]

Christchurch East by-election, 1943[58][59]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Mabel Howard 4,559 47.27 -28.47
Democratic Labour Horace Herring 2,578 26.73
National Melville Lyons 2,371 24.59 +0.33
Independent Lincoln Efford 114 1.18
Independent Owen McKee 22 0.23
Majority 1,981 20.54 -30.95
Registered electors 14,835
Turnout 9,644 65.01 -26.42

1938 election[edit]

General election, 1938: Christchurch East[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 10,561 75.74 +2.25
National K I Armour 3,382 24.26 +1.49
Majority 7,179 51.49 +0.76
Informal votes 73 0.52 -0.61
Registered electors 15,330
Turnout 14,016 91.43

1935 election[edit]

General election, 1935: Christchurch East[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 8,299 73.49 +9.16
United/Reform Sydney Richardson[60][61] 2,571 22.77 -12.90
Independent B Ahlfeld 422 3.74
Majority 5,728 50.73 +22.07
Informal votes 129 1.13

1931 election[edit]

General election, 1931: Christchurch East[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 7,196 64.33 +3.93
United George Frederick Allen 3,990 35.67 -3.93
Majority 3,206 28.66 +7.87

1928 election[edit]

General election, 1928: Christchurch East[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 6,564 60.40 -2.64
United D F Dennehy 4,304 39.60 +2.64
Majority 2,260 20.79 -5.28
Informal votes 488 4.30

1925 election[edit]

General election, 1925: Christchurch East[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 6,902 63.04 +15.83
Liberal D F Dennehy 4,047 36.96 +1.57
Majority 2,855 26.08 +5.00

1922 election[edit]

General election, 1922: Christchurch East[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 4,535 47.21 +7.75
Liberal Henry Thacker 3,400 35.39 -25.14
Reform W R Devereux 1,671 17.40
Majority 1,135 11.82 -9.26

1919 election[edit]

General election, 1919: Christchurch East[62]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Henry Thacker 5,572 60.54 +7.01
Labour Hiram Hunter 3,632 39.46 +10.65
Majority 1,940 21.08 -3.64
Informal votes 216 2.29 +1.39
Registered electors 11,666
Turnout 9,420 80.75 -7.47

1914 election[edit]

General election, 1914: Christchurch East[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Henry Thacker 4,093 53.53 +20.85
Social Democrat Hiram Hunter 2,203 28.81 -2.08
Reform George Duncan Macfarlane 1,350 17.66
Majority 1,890 24.72 +22.99
Informal votes 70 0.91 -0.43
Registered electors 8,747
Turnout 7,716 88.21 3.79

1911 election[edit]

General election, 1911: Christchurch East, first ballot[13][63]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Liberal Henry Thacker 2,492 32.68
Liberal Thomas Davey 2,360 30.95 -24.61
Labour (original) Hiram Hunter 2,356 30.89
Socialist Frederick Cooke 418 5.48 -2.57
Majority 132 1.73 -24.87
Informal votes 103 1.33
Registered electors 9,155
Turnout 7,729 84.42 -0.24
General election, 1911: Christchurch East, second ballot[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Davey 4,042 58.55 -24.61
Independent Liberal Henry Thacker 2,861 41.45
Majority 1,181 17.11 -24.87
Informal votes 33 0.48
Registered electors 9,155
Turnout 6,936 75.76

1908 election[edit]

General election, 1908: Christchurch East, first ballot[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Davey 3,479 55.56 +13.94
Independent Liberal James McCombs 1,813 28.95
Socialist Frederick Cooke 504 8.05 +6.61
Opposition Charles Boxshall 466 7.44
Majority 1,666 26.60 +17.65
Registered electors 7,427
Turnout 6,262 84.31 -0.35

1905 election[edit]

General election, 1905: Christchurch East[64]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Davey 2,625 41.61
New Liberal Henry Toogood 2,060 32.66
Liberal William Whitehouse Collins 1,532 24.29
Socialist Frederick Cooke 91 1.44
Majority 565 8.96
Informal votes 124 1.93
Registered electors 7,597
Turnout 6,432 84.66

1871 election[edit]

General election, 1871: Christchurch East[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Jerningham Wakefield 169 52.32
Independent Andrew Duncan 154 47.68
Majority 15 4.64

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Representation Act 1870 (33 and 34 Victoriae 1870 No 15)". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Electorate Boundaries". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  3. ^ "Proposed Electoral Districts November 2013". Elections NZ. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 156.
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 145.
  6. ^ a b "Return of Mr E. J. Wakefield for Christchurch East". The Star (826). 19 January 1871. p. 2. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  7. ^ "Toogood, Henry Featherston, (1879–1962)". Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  8. ^ McAloon, Jim. "Frederick Riley Cooke". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved December 2011. 
  9. ^ "Parliamentary Candidates". The Press LXII (12364). 30 November 1905. p. 5. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c "The General Election, 1908". National Library. 1909. p. 18. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Christchurch East". The Press LXIV (13272). 13 November 1908. p. 6. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  12. ^ McLintock, A. H. (1966). "Second Ballot System (1908–13)". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. p. 8. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  14. ^ "Reform and Party Politics". Auckland Star LXIV (13272). 26 November 1914. p. 4. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  15. ^ "Christchurch East". The Press L (15135). 26 November 1914. p. 8. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  16. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 192.
  17. ^ "The Christchurch East seat". The Press L (15135). 26 November 1914. p. 6. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Christchurch East". The Press L (15147). 10 December 1914. p. 8. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  19. ^ a b "The General Election, 1914". National Library. 1915. p. 20. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "Thacker's Triumph" (725). NZ Truth. 10 May 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  21. ^ "Canterbury Seats". Evening Post. XCVIII (139). 10 December 1919. p. 5. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  22. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  23. ^ "Chairmen and mayors". Christchurch: Christchurch City Council. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  24. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
  25. ^ "General Election". The Evening Post CIII (124). 29 May 1922. p. 8. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  26. ^ a b "South Island Seats". Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle. XVIII (909). 12 December 1922. p. 2. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "South Island". Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle XXI (1055). 10 November 1925. p. 1. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  28. ^ a b "The Official Count". The Evening Post CVI (116). 21 November 1928. p. 12. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "Final Returns". The Evening Post CXII (140). 10 December 1931. p. 11. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  30. ^ "In Canterbury". Auckland Star LXII (277). 23 November 1931. p. 11. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  31. ^ "Welcome to Sumner School". Sumner School. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  32. ^ a b "Election Results". The Evening Post CXX (136). 5 December 1935. p. 5. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  33. ^ a b "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. p. 2. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  34. ^ McAloon, Jim. "Armstrong, Hubert Thomas". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  35. ^ "Split vote". The Evening Post. CXXXV (14). 18 January 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  36. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 115.
  37. ^ "Five candidates". The Evening Post. CXXXV (18). 22 January 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  38. ^ McAloon, Jim. "Howard, Mabel Bowden 1894–1972". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  39. ^ a b "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. p. 2. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  40. ^ a b Wilson 1985, p. 261.
  41. ^ "Hon Lianne Dalziel". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  42. ^ "Dalziel invites Johnson to join mayoral race". The Press (Christchurch). 20 April 2013. p. A1. 
  43. ^ "Johnson declines Dalziel ticket". The Press (Christchurch). 22 April 2013. p. A1. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  44. ^ Cairns, Lois (19 June 2013). "Heavyweights fight for city". The Press. p. A1. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  45. ^ Small, Vernon (27 July 2013). "Shearer is running of out time". The Press (Christchurch). p. A21. 
  46. ^ "Christchurch East By-Election Official Results". Electoral Commission. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  47. ^ "Official Count Results – Christchurch East". Electoral Commission. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  48. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
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References[edit]

  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 

External links[edit]