Electoral history of the Tea Party movement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Tea Party movement is an American political movement that advocates strict adherence to the United States Constitution,[1] reducing U.S. government spending and taxes,[2][3] and reduction of the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit.[2]

In the 2010 midterm elections, The New York Times identified 138 candidates for Congress with significant Tea Party support, and reported that all of them were running as Republicans. According to a calculation on an NBC blog, of the candidates that were backed by a Tea Party group, or identified themselves as a Tea Party member, 50% were elected to the Senate and 31% to the House.

2010 election[edit]

In the 2010 midterm elections, The New York Times identified 138 candidates for Congress with significant Tea Party support, and reported that all of them were running as Republicans—of whom 129 were running for the House and 9 for the Senate.[4] The Wall Street Journal–NBC News poll in mid October showed 35% of likely voters were Tea-party supporters, and they favored the Republicans by 84% to 10%.[5] The first Tea Party candidate to be elected into office is believed to be Dean Murray, a Long Island businessman, who won a special election for a New York State Assembly seat in February 2010.[6]

According to a calculation on an NBC blog, 32% of the candidates that were backed by the Tea Party, or identified themselves as a Tea Party member, won the election.[7] In the primaries for Colorado, Nevada and Delaware the Tea-party backed Senate Republican nominees defeated "establishment" Republicans that had been expected to win their respective Senate races, but went on to lose in the general election to their Democrat opponents.[8] The three Senate nominees were seen by many in America and the media as either amateurs or too far-out there to be electable as their positions on certain aspects were viewed as extreme.[9] Several of the Tea Party-endorsed candidates won victories against established Republicans in primaries, such as Alaska, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Nevada, New York, South Carolina, and Utah.[10][11]

There were allegations of Democratic candidates planting "fake" Tea Party candidates in Florida,[42][43] Michigan,[43][44] New Jersey,[43][45] and Pennsylvania.[43][46]

2012 election[edit]

For the 2012 election, four of the 16 Tea Party candidates won a seat on the Senate, and Tea Party Caucus founder Michele Bachmann was re-elected to the House.[47] The media, such as ABC and Bloomberg, commented that Tea Party candidates did less well in 2012 than in 2010.[48][49]

In February 2011, the Tea Party Patriots organized and hosted the American Policy Summit in Phoenix, Arizona. The 1,600 attendees were polled regarding their preference for a 2012 presidential candidate. Herman Cain, the first of the 2012 candidates to form a presidential exploratory committee, won the poll with 22%. Runners up were Tim Pawlenty (16%), Ron Paul (15%) and Sarah Palin (10%). Ron Paul won the Summit's online poll.[50]

In September 2011, CNN and Tea Party Express co-hosted a Republican primary debate among presidential candidates that featured questions from various Tea Party groups.[51]

  • In April 2012, Sen. Orrin Hatch, seeking renomination, received less than 60% of the vote of the Utah state Republican convention, forcing a primary election.[55] Hatch easily defeated the Tea Party candidate Dan Liljenquist [56]
  • With an endorsement from Sarah Palin and the help of the Tea Party, Nebraska's State Sen. Deb Fischer pulled off an upset victory in the 2012 Republican primary for the Senate.[59] Her Republican opponents, Attorney General of Nebraska Jon Bruning, and State Treasurer Don Stenberg, each spent well in excess of $1 million, where as Fischer spent $100,000, augmented by twice that much in SuperPAC spending from Chicago Cubs part-owner Joe Ricketts. Fischer then defeated Democratic challenger former Sen. Bob Kerrey in a landslide in the November election.[60]
  • Tea party candidate for Senate Ted Cruz got enough of the primary vote in Texas to force a run-off vote against establishment GOP candidate Lieutenant Governor of Texas David Dewhurst in May 2012.[61] Cruz defeated Dewhurst in the runoff election with a 14% margin of victory.[62] Cruz defeated Democratic challenger Paul Sadler, 57 percent to 41 percent.[63]
  • The "grass-roots activists who identify to a large extent with the leaderless tea party movement" played a part in Scott Walker's election to Governor of Wisconsin in 2010 as well as his recall election victory in 2012.[64][65] A FOX News exit poll showed Tea Party support was a key part of Walker's win in 2012, just as it was in 2010.[66]
  • In Atlanta, the Tea Party partnered with the NAACP and the Sierra Club to defeat the $7.2 billion Transportation Investment Act in June 2012.[67] The act had the support of both Democratic and Republican "establishment" politicians. The act was supported with $8 million used to sell the project to the public, while the Tea Party had only $15,000.00 to oppose it. With concerns that much of the act would do little to improve Atlanta's transportation problems, it was defeated with a 63% "no" vote.
  • In Pennsylvania, Tea Party activists and FreedomWorks pushed for a law that would allow businesses to provide student tuition grants for school-choice in return for tax credits. The law was signed by Gov. Tom Corbett on June 30.[68]
  • In Florida, former veterinarian and Tea Party supporter Ted Yoho defeated 12-term GOP Rep. Cliff Stearns in the GOP primary in August[82] Yoho easily defeated Democrat J.R. Gaillot, 64.8 percent to 32.4 percent in the general election.[83]
  • Also in Florida, Tea Party favorite Allen West lost to Democratic challenger Patrick Murphy. After demanding a recount,[84] West finally conceded the election to Murphy on November 20, 2012.[85]
  • In Illinois, Tea Party Representative Joe Walsh lost to Democrat Lt. Colonel Tammy Duckworth, a 20-year veteran of the military who earned a Purple Heart, an Air Medal and an Army Commendation Medal after losing both of her legs in 2004, when her helicopter was hit by a rocket-propelled grenade in Iraq.[86]
  • In Indiana, Tea Party politician U.S. Representative Mike Pence was elected Governor and provided with Republican super majorities in both the state's House and Senate.[87]

2014 election cycle: Tea Party shifts focus to ground game/GOTV[edit]

The Washington Post said in July 2012 that the Tea Party "is no longer the rising tsunami it appeared to be in 2010. Largely gone are the disorderly rallies, colonial-era costumes and fixations on fringe issues, such as the provenance of the president's birth certificate. Instead, the movement has retooled into a loosely organized network of field operations that, as in Texas, pushes Republicans toward more strident conservative positions and candidates, while supplying ground troops across the country for candidates and big-money conservative groups, such as the Club for Growth and Americans for Prosperity."[88]

Tea Party members now tell stories of mailing literature from their laundry rooms, manning phone banks, knocking on doors,[88] and driving over 34,000 miles in their cars to build support for legislation.[68] The Tea Party Patriots now offer free, on-demand, online grassroots training programs.[89] The Tea Party has partnered with seemingly unlikely groups, such as the NAACP and the Sierra Club.[67]

Ground game and Get Out The Vote (GOTV) efforts[edit]

Tea Party ground game/GOTV before 2012[edit]

Scott Brown on the campaign trail.

The Tea Party began life as a protest movement, not as an organization that works on political ground games or Get Out The Vote (GOTV) efforts.[citation needed] One of the first national signs of the Tea Party's efforts to organize voters came with the election of Scott Brown in the contest to fill the remaining two-year term of the late Sen. Edward M. Kennedy.[citation needed] Tea Party activists nationwide made a mass pilgrimage to the Bay State to support his unlikely campaign and ultimate win over Democrat Martha Coakley.[90] Democrats have said as late as September 2010 that the Tea Party could not match their ground game and was mostly hype. The Democrats have the advantage in better organization, an older volunteer organization and personal connections between volunteers and voters.[91]

On November 2, 2010, Fox News reported that the Democrats did not dispute expectations that they would lose the House, and that their vaunted campaign operation faced a less polished ground game infused with the energy of the new Tea Party.[92] The Tea Party helped deliver to Democrats what President Obama called a "shellacking" in the mid-term elections.[93] On November 10, 2010, FreedomWorks announced the national rollout of "FreedomConnect", which they touted as a "grassroots action center that will revolutionize the ways in which FreedomWorks members, 9/12ers and tea party groups across the country communicate and organize in 2011 and beyond".[94]

Challenge of the ground game for the Tea Party in the 2012 election cycle[edit]

Scott Walker at Marquette University conference, 2007

The ground game was considered to be a major challenge for Tea Party candidates in several important contests in 2012, including Wisconsin's recall election of Gov. Scott Walker[95][96] and the Texas GOP Senate primary race between "establishment" candidate Lt. Gov. David Dewhurst and Tea Party favorite Ted Cruz.[97]

Early in the election cycle, Democratic allies had expressed confidence in the strength of their own ground game. In September 2011, Teamsters President Jimmy Hoffa delivering a speech to introduce President Obama to the gathered crowd, said "We got to keep an eye on the battle that we face: The war on workers. And you see it everywhere, it is the Tea Party.... We're going to win that war.... President Obama, this is your army.... We are ready to march. Let's take these sons of bitches out and give America back to an America where we belong."[98] Similarly, Organized Labor in Wisconsin hoped its ground game would give it the edge.[99] According to Karl Rove, Democratic Party Chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz also boasted on CNN in May that the Wisconsin recall would be the "dry run we need of our massive, significant dynamic grass-roots presidential campaign".[100]

When challenging GOP "establishment" opponents, the Tea Party faced opposing ground games of various size and sophistication. In Texas, Lt. Gov. David Dewhurst hired "ground game expert" Kevin Lindley, who had run Gov. Rick Perry's campaigns,[101] while in Indiana Richard Lugar no longer lived in the state and developed a reputation for being out of touch with voters there.[102]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Liptak, Mark (March 13, 2010). "Tea-ing Up the Constitution". The New York Times (Washington, D.C.). Retrieved October 31, 2010. "It is, of course, hard to say anything definitive about the Tea Party movement, a loose confederation of groups with no central leadership. But if there is a central theme to its understanding of the Constitution, it is that the nation's founders knew what they were doing and that their work must be protected." 
  2. ^ a b Gallup: Tea Party's top concerns are debt, size of government The Hill, July 5, 2010
  3. ^ Somashekhar, Sandhya (September 12, 2010). Tea Party DC March: "Tea party activists march on Capitol Hill". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  4. ^ Kate Zernike, "Tea Party Set to Win Enough Races for Wide Influence" The New York Times, October 14, 2010
  5. ^ Jonathan Weisman, "GOP in Lead in Final Lap" The Wall Street Journal, October 20, 2010
  6. ^ a b Malcolm Andrew (February 18, 2010). "Dean Murray, first elected Tea Party activist, joins N.Y. Legislature Monday". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 11, 2010. 
  7. ^ Alexandra Moe (3 Nov 2010). "Just 32% of Tea Party candidates win — First Read". firstread.nbcnews.com. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Barack Obama, the Tea Party, and the 2010 Midterm Elections; Gary C. Jacobson; University of California, San Diego; pg. 3
  9. ^ E. Thomas McClanahan (September 1, 2012). "Commentary: Todd Akin answered Claire McCakill's prayers | Guest columns | Fort Worth, Arling". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Retrieved November 8, 2012. 
  10. ^ G.O.P. Braces for More Discontent in Primaries; The New York Times; September 13, 2010
  11. ^ Stunning Primary Season Reaches A Stunning End; NPR, September 14, 2010
  12. ^ Powell, Scott S. (January 19, 2010). "Scott Brown: the tea party's first electoral victory". CSMonitor.com. Retrieved April 24, 2010. 
  13. ^ Johnson, Kirk (May 8, 2010). "Utah Delegates Oust Three-Term G.O.P. Senator From Race". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2010. 
  14. ^ Burr, Thomas (May 11, 2010). "Democrat Dodd says Bennett's defeat will be Senate's loss". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
  15. ^ "Utah Republican Sen. Bob Bennett Ousted in Re-Election Bid". Fox News. April 7, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  16. ^ Harris, Paul; MacAskill, Ewen (November 3, 2010). "US midterm election results herald new political era as Republicans take House". The Guardian (London). 
  17. ^ Kylibertynow's Blog says: (May 19, 2010). "Super Tuesday Results: Tea Party's Rand Paul (The son of Ron Paul) wins Republican primary in Kentucky while Senator Specter Loses against Joe Sestak in Pennsylvania". Zimvi.com. Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  18. ^ Radnofsky, Louise GOP's Tim Scott Pulls Ahead in S.C. House Primary, The Wall Street Journal, June 9, 2010.
  19. ^ Scott, Thurmond in GOP Runoff in SC's 1st District ABC News, June 8, 2010
  20. ^ Weigel, David Black Republican headed for congressional runoff in South Carolina, The Washington Post, June 9, 2010.
  21. ^ S. Carolina Candidate Shrugs Off History's Lure The New York Times, June 25, 2010
  22. ^ If Republican Tim Scott Wins in South Carolina, We All Win The Root, June 22, 2010
  23. ^ "An interview with South Carolina's Tim Scott: A black congressional candidate who thinks the Tea Party— not CBC— might be his kind of caucus" The Daily Caller, July 27, 2010
  24. ^ Brown, Robbie (June 9, 2010). "S.C. Candidate Challenges Status Quo". The New York Times. 
  25. ^ Haley, Scott win in S.C. Republican races MSNBC, June 23, 2010
  26. ^ Tacopino, Joe (June 9, 2010). "GOP primaries: Sarah Palin helps South Carolina's Nikki Haley and Calif.'s Carly Fiorina win big". Daily News (New York). Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  27. ^ McKinley, Jesse (November 3, 2010). "In California, Boxer Wins Senate Race, and Brown Is Leading for Governor". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2010. 
  28. ^ With Tea Party Support, Angle Scores in Nevada GOP Senate Primary. Fox News; June 9, 2010.
  29. ^ a b Rose, Rachel (November 3, 2010). "Tea Party offers GOP a mixed bag". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Tea Party Movement Buoyed by Joe Miller's Win in Alaska". US News and World Report. September 8, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010. 
  31. ^ Brusk, Steve (December 27, 2010). "Miller won't contest Murkowski certification; pursues federal suit". CNN. 
  32. ^ Karen Tumulty. Christine O'Donnell's big win in Delaware sends message to Republican establishment The Washington Post; September 16, 2010
  33. ^ Christine O'Donnell celebrates shock Tea Party triumph in Delaware. The Guardian; April 15, 2010.
  34. ^ Cameron, Carl (September 15, 2010). "Tea Party-Backed O'Donnell Upsets Castle in Delaware GOP Race". Fox News. Retrieved September 18, 2010. 
  35. ^ Chase, Randall (September 15, 2010). "O'Donnell in spotlight after Del. primary victory". The Beaver County Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 18, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Tea Party-backed GOP governor hopeful Carl Paladino fighting for $1.4 million tax break". Daily News (New York). September 20, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  37. ^ "Long Islanders put Paladino to test as their cup of tea", The Buffalo News, September 12, 2010
  38. ^ "Marco Rubio, from exile to tea party hero" The Washington Post, November 4, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  39. ^ Buck defeats Norton in bruising GOP primary for Senate seat The Denver Post, August 11, 2010
  40. ^ Tea Party Pick Ken Buck Wins Colorado Republican Senate Primary Politics Daily, August 10, 2010
  41. ^ "Bennet beats Buck. Narrow U.S. Senate race comes down to just around 15,000 votes". The Denver Daily News. November 4, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  42. ^ Kane, Muriel (June 8, 2010). "Republicans claim 'Florida Tea Party' is a Democratic front". The Raw Story. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  43. ^ a b c d McMorris-Santoro, Evan (September 27, 2010). "Tea Party Fakers? Dems Blamed For Co-Opting 'Tea Party' Label To Split Conservative Vote". TPMDC. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  44. ^ Mulvihill, Geoff (October 8, 2010). "Dems Planted NJ Tea-Party House Candidate". Associated Press. Retrieved October 11, 2010. [dead link]
  45. ^ Farrell, Joelle (August 5, 2010). "Pennsylvania tea-party activists, GOP, and Democrats distance themselves from Jim Schneller". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  46. ^ Ian Gray (7 Nov 2012). "Tea Party Election Results: Conservative Movement Of 2010 Takes Pounding In 2012". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  47. ^ Elizabeth Hartfield (27 June 2012). "Tea Party Candidates Losing Steam in 2012 - ABC News". abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  48. ^ Elizabeth Dwoskin (7 Nov 2012). "Has the Tea Party Lost Its Mojo? - Businessweek". businessweek.com. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  49. ^ Travis, Shannon (February 27, 2011), "Herman Cain wins Tea Party presidential live straw poll at Phoenix summit", political ticker ... (CNN), retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  50. ^ West, Paul (Sep 13, 2011). "Republicans jab at Perry during 'tea party' debate; The front-runner comes under fire in the most contentious GOP forum to date". Los Angeles Times. p. 1. 
  51. ^ "2012 Election Results Map by State — Live Voting Updates". Politico.Com. Retrieved November 8, 2012. 
  52. ^ Pittman, David. Obama Re-Elected, Congress Stays Divided. MedPage Today. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  53. ^ "IL— District 16 - R Primary Race". Our Campaigns. Mar 20, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012. 
  54. ^ Johnson, Kirk. Utah's Hatch Will Face a Primary for Senate. The New York Times. April 21, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  55. ^ Hatch survives Utah primary challenge USA Today. June 27, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  56. ^ Kane, Paul. Richard Lugar loses primary nomination to conservative challenger Richard Mourdock. The Washington Post. May 8, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  57. ^ Fikac, Peggy (November 7, 2012). "Indiana Election Results 2012: Donnelly beats Mourdock in Senate race; Pence wins governors race". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  58. ^ Investors. "Deb Who?" Belies Liberals' Charges Of GOP "War On Women". Investors.com. May 16, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  59. ^ KerneyHub.com Deb Fischer never doubted her chances. KerneyHub.com. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  60. ^ Hartman, Rachel Rose. Tea partier Ted Cruz forces David Dewhurst into Texas Senate runoff. Yahoo! News. May 29, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  61. ^ Tea Party-Backed Cruz Wins Texas GOP Senate Race. RealClearPolitics. August 1, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  62. ^ Ted Cruz sounds off on Hispanic vote after historic Senate win. CBS News. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  63. ^ Did tea party put Scott Walker over the top in Wisconsin recall? The Christian Science Monitor. June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  64. ^ Reuters Wire Report. UPDATE 8-Wisconsin's Walker makes history surviving recall election Reuters. June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  65. ^ Exit Poll: Tea Party Key to Walker Win. Fox Nation. June 5, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  66. ^ a b How tea party and its unlikely allies nixed Atlanta's transit tax The Christian Science Monitor. August 1, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  67. ^ a b Tea party evolves, achieves state policy victories NBC News. August 12, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  68. ^ Tea Party-backed Rep. Akin wins Missouri GOP Senate primary to take on McCaskill. Fox News. August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  69. ^ Missouri Primary Upset: Todd Akin Defeats Self-Funder, Palin-Backed Rival in GOP Contest ABC News. August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
  70. ^ Analysis: Todd Akin can blame his own words for Senate race loss. Kansas City Star. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  71. ^ Romney shakes the race with pick of Ryan The Washington Post. August 11, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  72. ^ Largest tea party PAC lauds Ryan selection CNN. August 11, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  73. ^ Tea Party Patriots Statement on Selection of Paul Ryan as the Vice-Presidential Nominee The Tea Party Patriots. August 11, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  74. ^ Palin On Paul Ryan: A Lot Of Us "Will Have His Back". Fox News. August 12, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  75. ^ Tea Party Groups Enthused by Ryan Pick Newsmax. August 11, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  76. ^ NJGOP, Tea Party United Behind Paul Ryan Pick Save Jersey. August 12, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  77. ^ The Paul Ryan VP Pick Tea Party WDC. August 11, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  78. ^ "OFFICIAL 2012 PRESIDENTIAL GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS General Election Date: 11/06/2012". Federal Election Commission. 17 January 2013. p. 3. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  79. ^ Wins a Clear Victory, but Balance of Power Is Unchanged in Washington The New York Times. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  80. ^ Tommy Thompson Wins Wisconsin's GOP Senate Primary ABC OTUS News. August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012
  81. ^ Tea party's Yoho wins upset in Fla. The Miami Herald. August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012
  82. ^ Ted Yoho Declares His Victory 'A Win for the People' Sunshine State News. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012
  83. ^ Allen West trails in Florida but won't concede defeat Chicago Tribune. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012
  84. ^ "Allen West concedes to Patrick Murphy". Politico. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  85. ^ Rep. Joe Walsh gets the boot The Washington Post. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012
  86. ^ Republicans Mike Pence, Brian Bosma can rule weakened Democrats IndyStar.com. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012
  87. ^ a b Blackmon, Douglas (July 30, 2012). "Tea party retools as network of field operatives, keeps pushing GOP rightward". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  88. ^ TEA PARTY TRAINING POWERED BY THE LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE The Tea Party Patriots. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
  89. ^ Van Sack, Jessica (January 19, 2010). "Amazing Senate battle heads to the finish line". Boston Herald. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  90. ^ Dickerson, John (September 2, 2010). "Obama Unleashed". Slate. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
  91. ^ "Control of Congress at Stake on Election Day". FOX News. November 2, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
  92. ^ Jackson, David (November 4, 2010). "Obama's 'shellacking' – how badly will it bruise his agenda". USA Today. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
  93. ^ Bodnar, Jacqueline (November 16, 2010). "FreedomWorks Launches Tea Party Action Center "FreedomConnect" In Ohio". FreedomWorks. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
  94. ^ Carey, Nick (June 1, 2012). "Wisconsin recall tests conservative's ground game.". NBCNews.com. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  95. ^ Hamby, Peter (June 1, 2012). "Walker's fate in Wisconsin comes down to ground game.". CNN.com. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  96. ^ Fikac, Peggy (July 23, 2012). "Ground games will be key for Cruz, Dewhurst.". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  97. ^ Crabtree, Susan (September 5, 2011). "Hoffa: 'Let's Take These Sons Of Bitches Out!'". TPMDC. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  98. ^ "Anti-union Wisconsin governor faces June 5 recall". nwLaborPress.org. May 29, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  99. ^ Fikac, Peggy (June 6, 2012). "Rove: Wisconsin and the GOP Ground Game.". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  100. ^ Root, Jay (July 13, 2011). "Risks For Perry In Senate Race". Texas Weekly. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
  101. ^ "In Richard Lugar defeat, a tea party road map for revamping Washington?". Christian Science Monitor. May 9, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]