Allen West (politician)
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 22nd district
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013
|Preceded by||Ron Klein|
|Succeeded by||Lois Frankel|
|Born||Allen Bernard West
February 7, 1961 
|Spouse(s)||Angela M. Graham-West|
|Residence||Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, US|
|Alma mater||University of Tennessee (B.A., political science, 1983)
Kansas State University (M.A., political science, 1986)
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (Master of Military Arts and Sciences in political theory, military history and operations, 1997)
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1982–2004|
|Commands||2nd Battalion, 20th Field Artillery, 4th Infantry Division|
|Battles/wars||Operation Desert Storm
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Meritorious Service Medal
Army Commendation Medal
Army Achievement Medal
West was born in Georgia and joined the United States Army in 1983. He was deployed to Kuwait in 1991 and Iraq in 2003. In 2003 West was charged in an incident that involved the beating and simulated execution of an Iraqi Police officer. West was fined $5000, and allowed to retire as a lieutenant colonel after an Article 32 hearing and accepting a Non-judicial punishment.  The alternative to retirement was to face a Court Martial for assault, with a sentence of 11 years.
After leaving the military he and his family moved to Florida where he taught high school for a year and worked for a defense contractor, part of his time spent in Afghanistan as a civilian adviser to the Afghan National Army.
Redistricting due to the 2010 census resulted in West switching to Florida's 18th congressional district for the 2012 House elections. He lost by 2,146 votes to Democratic candidate Patrick Murphy. After a recount extended Murphy's lead, the original results were certified and West conceded to Murphy on November 20, 2012. In Florida's 22nd district, his former district, West was succeeded by Democratic Representative Lois Frankel on January 3, 2013.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Military career (1983–2004)
- 3 Post-military career (2004–2007)
- 4 U.S. House of Representatives
- 5 Work with Fox News
- 6 Work with Pajamas Media
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Electoral history
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Early life and education
Allen Bernard West was born in Atlanta, Georgia, to Elizabeth (1931–1994) and Herman West, Sr. (1920–1986) on February 7, 1961. His father and older brother were both career military officers; West's father served in World War II, and his brother served in Vietnam. His mother was a civilian employee of the United States Marine Corps. Although both of his parents were registered Democrats, West has remarked that they raised him "very conservatively."
In the tenth grade, West joined the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps program and entered the United States Army in 1983 when he graduated from the University of Tennessee. West is the third of four consecutive generations in his family to serve in the US armed forces. He later received a master's degree in political science from Kansas State University. He also earned a master of military arts and sciences degree from the US Army Command and General Staff Officer College in political theory and military history and operations.
Military career (1983–2004)
West entered active duty on November 1, 1983, at Fort Sill, Oklahoma where he completed the Field Artillery Officer's Basic Course (FACBOC). He then proceeded to airborne training at Fort Benning, Georgia where he received his Parachutist Badge. West's first assignment was as an airborne infantry fire support officer and platoon leader, as well as Battalion Training Officer for 4th Battalion, 325th Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division in Vicenza, Italy under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth R. Needham. In 1987, West was promoted to captain and attended the Field Artillery Officer's Advanced Course. Following graduation, West took command of B Battery, 6th Field Artillery Regiment, 1st Infantry Division. He served as the battalion task force fire support officer for 2d Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment. As a member of the 1st Infantry Division he deployed for Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm.
After redeployment from Kuwait, West served as an Army ROTC Instructor at Kansas State University from 1991 to 1994, becoming the U.S. Army ROTC Instructor of the Year in 1993. In January 1995 he was assigned to the 2nd Infantry Division Support Command as the assistant operations/combat plans officer. West was promoted to major before he attended the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in 1997. Upon completion, he became the operations officer for the 18th Field Artillery Brigade before being assigned as executive officer of 1st Battalion, 377th Field Artillery Regiment. Afterwards, West served as an army exchange officer at the II Marine Expeditionary Force at Camp Lejeune from 1999 to 2002 and was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
The culminating assignment of Lieutenant Colonel West's career was his assumption of command of the 2d Battalion, 20th Field Artillery Regiment, 4th Infantry Division on June 6, 2002. He deployed with his unit during the Iraq War in 2003 and continued to command his battalion until he was relieved of command by the Army following a use-of-force incident concerning an Iraqi policeman; he subsequently retired in 2004.
West's awards and decorations include the Bronze Star; Meritorious Service Medal (two Oak Leaf Clusters); Army Commendation Medal (three Oak Leaf Clusters, one Valor Device); Army Achievement Medal (one Oak Leaf Cluster); Valorous Unit Award; Air Assault Badge; and the Master Parachutist Badge.
Iraq interrogation incident
While serving in Taji, Iraq, West received information from an intelligence specialist about a plot to ambush his unit. The alleged plot reportedly involved Yahya Jhodri Hamoodi, an Iraqi police officer. West had his men detain Hamoodi. Soldiers testified that in the process of detaining Hamoodi, he appeared to reach for his weapon and needed to be subdued. Hamoodi was beaten by four soldiers from the 2/20th Field Artillery Battalion on the head and body. West then fired his pistol near Hamoodi's head, after which Hamoodi provided West with names and information, which Hamoodi later described as "meaningless information induced by fear and pain." At least one of these suspects was arrested as a result, but no plans for attacks or weapons were found. West said "At the time I had to base my decision on the intelligence I received. It's possible that I was wrong about Mr. Hamoodi."
West was charged with violating Articles 128 (assault) and 134 (general article) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice. During a hearing held as part of an Article 32 investigation in November 2003, West stated, "I know the method I used was not right, but I wanted to take care of my soldiers." The charges were ultimately referred to an Article 15 proceeding rather than court-martial, at which West was fined $5,000. Lieutenant Colonel West accepted the judgment and retired with full benefits in the summer of 2004. Asked if he would act differently under similar circumstances, West testified, "If it's about the lives of my soldiers at stake, I'd go through hell with a gasoline can." At his hearing, West said that there were no ambushes against American forces in Taji until he was relieved of his leadership post a month later. After West's retirement he received more than 2,000 letters and e-mails offering him moral support. A letter supporting West was signed by 95 members of Congress and sent to the Secretary of the Army.
Post-military career (2004–2007)
After retiring from the Army, West and his family moved to Florida. He taught US history and coached track and field at Deerfield Beach High School for a year. He then spent two years working for Military Professional Resources Inc. (MPRI), a defense contractor. While with MPRI, West served in Kandahar, Afghanistan. In that capacity, he was an adviser to the Afghan National Army.
U.S. House of Representatives
In 2006, E. Clay Shaw, Jr. was defeated by Democrat Ron Klein in Florida's 22nd Congressional district, which leaned Republican since its establishment in 1993. Allen West entered politics in 2008 to regain the lost House seat, challenging freshman incumbent Klein. West received the Republican nomination without opposition. However, he lost to Klein by a margin of 9.4% of the votes. The official results were Klein with 169,041 votes (54.7%), West with 140,104 votes (45.3%), and write-in candidate Michael Prysner with 6 votes.
West spoke at the Conservative Political Action Conference on February 20, 2010, and was endorsed by former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin. West was one of 32 African-American Republican candidates for Congress in 2010. He said he supported the Tea Party movement and rejected the notion that the movement was motivated by racism, saying the accusation was a creation of liberal critics and the news media. West has been described as a "tea party star" became a member of the congressional Tea Party Caucus in February 2011. West defeated incumbent Ron Klein by a margin of 8.8%. West, along with newly elected Tim Scott, were the first African-American Republicans in Congress since J.C. Watts retired in 2003. West raised $5.4 million for his campaign, while his incumbent opponent raised $2.5 million. According to West, "...over 97 percent of our donations have come from individual contributions."
West raised more than $1.5 million in the 2011 second quarter to support his 2012 reelection bid. The National Journal's Cook Political Report in 2011 named West one of the top 10 Republicans most vulnerable to redistricting in 2012.
On February 1, 2012, West announced that he would run for reelection from the new 18th Congressional District, which consists of a majority of the previous 16th Congressional District. This came in the wake of Representative Tom Rooney switching from the 16th Congressional District to the 17th; a move that was considered likely to dramatically improve West's chances of reelection, although it was still a competitive race. He received a primary challenge from Martin County Sheriff Robert Crowder. West did not debate Crowder and said "debating an uninformed opponent would waste voters’ time". Incumbent West defeated Crowder in a landslide, receiving 74.4% of the vote.
His general election opponent was Democrat Patrick Murphy, a political newcomer and a Republican until 2011. The campaign featured several negative ads, including one released by American Sunrise PAC that was extremely critical of West's policies and depicted him in violent cartoon action against several individuals. West issued a statement condemning the ad, stating that it "plays on stereotypes" with the goal of diverting Americans from more pressing matters at hand such as high unemployment. He claimed the ad was released by the family of his opponent. The campaign manager of his opponent, said the ad was from a third party and therefore held no liability for it. After primary opponent Crowder endorsed Murphy, a spokesman of the West campaign said "Crowder is a Democrat and a sore loser. I’m shocked he waited this long. Perhaps Crowder hopes to continue cozying up to local Democrats so he can be their nominee against Allen West in 2014."
Initial vote counts showed Murphy defeating West by a narrow margin of 2,000 votes. West did not concede, citing irregularities in St. Lucie County where some early ballots may have been counted twice. Florida state election officials unofficially certified Murphy as the winner, A partial recount of early ballots cast between November 1 and 3, 2012 in St. Lucie County slightly decreased the margin separating the candidates, and the West campaign sought further recounts. West said that if the final results show a loss, he would not cling to his title as a member of Congress, but wanted to ensure a fair election was carried out, raising the potential of a protracted legal battle. As of the November 18 state deadline, the St. Lucie County election officials had not completed a recount of all of the early ballots, and so the previously submitted vote count which showed Murphy as the winner by 2146 votes was submitted to the state election officials. The West campaign conceded the election on November 20, 2012.
|“||There are those who will hate your own country, America, regardless of the self-evident truths. To you I say that life just does not get any better than the 'Land of the all night IHOP' … and if you truly hate America so much, you are also free to find another home. There is surely an illegal immigrant who will be happy in yours.||”|
West's rhetoric won him both support and condemnation from differing groups along the American political spectrum. Members of the conservative movement viewed him as a "torch bearer" and "conservative icon," with Sarah Palin and Ted Nugent both suggesting him for vice president, and Glenn Beck supporting him for president. In January 2013, U.S. Representatives Paul Broun (R-Georgia) and Louie Gohmert (R-Texas) both voted for West as Speaker of the House, even though he was no longer a member of Congress. Some of his statements include calling President Barack Obama "an abject failure", ordering both pro-Palestinian demonstrators and the views of "chicken men" Democrats to "get the hell out" of the United States, opining that drivers with Obama bumper stickers are "a threat to the gene pool", and pronouncing that African American Democrats are trying to keep African Americans "on the plantation", while casting himself as the "modern-day Harriet Tubman" ferrying them to rescue. In a critical summation of West's style, Mother Jones opined that "[for West] every sentence is a proxy war in the larger struggle between patriots and the 'people in this world that just have to have their butts kicked.'"
In January 2011, West joined House Foreign Affairs Committee chairwoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL) in condemning the official flying of a Palestine Liberation Organization flag in Washington D.C. West said that the raising of the flag is "an attempt to legitimize an organization with a known history of terrorist actions". In February, West described Michael Ledeen as one of his "foreign policy heroes", and implored his followers to read Saul Alinsky's Rules for Radicals to "understand what they're up against." Other authors West has cited in helping him shape his worldview include philosopher John Stuart Mill and Union Army General William Tecumseh Sherman, known for the proclamation that "war is hell".
West attempted to cast his work overseas in historical terms, theorizing that America is following in the footsteps of Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours, or the 300 Spartan Hoplites at the Battle of Thermopylae, in defending Western civilization against Muslim threats from the Middle East. In speaking on what he believed to be Islam's proclivity for violence, West remarked that "Something happened when Mohammed enacted the Hijra and he left Mecca and he went out to Medina, it became violence." In lieu of this view, in February 2011, West cited the threat of "radical Islamic terrorists" as his motivation for voting to extend provisions of the Patriot Act; He voted against another extension in May 2011. When asked during an interview with The Shalom Show how he would work with others "like Keith Ellison, who supports Islam," West stated that Ellison, a Minnesota representative and practicing Muslim, represents the "antithesis of the principles upon which this country was established." West later argued that his initial comment was misconstrued. He said the comments were "not about his Islamic faith, but about his continued support of the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR)." In a Boynton Beach Town Hall meeting, West told the Miami leader of CAIR that "I will always defend your right to practice a free religion under the First Amendment, but what you must understand, if I am speaking the truth, I am not going to stop speaking the truth. The truth is not subjective."
On July 19, 2011, West sent an email to Democratic representative and Democratic National Committee chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz in response to comments directed at him in a speech the congresswoman made on the floor of the House of Representatives after West had departed the chamber. West's email, which he copied to members of House Democratic and Republican leadership, characterized Wasserman as "the most vile, unprofessional, and despicable member of the US House of Representatives", said that she was "not a lady" and asked that she focus, instead, on her own congressional district. This is a long-standing dispute that West says "dates back to the disgusting protest you ordered at my campaign headquarters, October 2010 in Deerfield Beach."
At town hall meeting in Palm City, Florida on April 11, 2012, West was asked by a man in the audience, "What percentage of the American legislature do you think are card carrying Marxists or International Socialists?" West responded that he believed "there's about 78 to 81 members of the Democrat Party that are members of the Communist Party." When asked to name them, he replied "It's called the Congressional Progressive Caucus."
- Committee on Armed Services
- Committee on Small Business
Work with Fox News
On May 16, 2013, Fox News announced it had hired former Florida Representative Allen West as a contributor to offer political commentary during the network's daytime and prime time shows. In a statement, Executive Vice President of Programming Bill Shine said, "Representative West’s congressional and military experience along with his fearless approach to voicing key issues will provide a valuable point of view to the FOX News lineup."
Work with Pajamas Media
In September of 2013, West was ousted from his position as director of programming for Next Generation.TV, a subsidiary of Pajamas Media, amid reports that he had made sexist and anti-semitic statements to a female staffer at the company. 
West married Angela M. Graham on December 24, 1989. She holds a Ph.D. in education from Kansas State University, and received a gubernatorial appointment to the board of trustees of Florida Atlantic University. They have two teenage daughters and reside in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida.
|2008 22nd Congressional District of Florida Elections|
|Democratic||Ron Klein (incumbent)||169,041||54.7|
|2010 22nd Congressional District of Florida Elections|
|Democratic||Ron Klein (incumbent)||97,051||45.7|
|2012 18th Congressional District of Florida Elections|
|Republican||Allen West (incumbent)||164,370||49.6|
- "Top 50 House Nonincumbents by Contributions from Individuals January 1, 2009 – June 30, 2009". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- "Guide to the New Congress". CQ Roll Call accessdate=November 24, 2010. November 4, 2010.
- "About Allen West". Allen West for Congress. September 1, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2011.[dead link]
- Weiner, Rachel. Allen West hired as Fox News contributor, Washington Post, May 17, 2013.
- "Minority candidates rack up poll history". London Morning Star. November 3, 2010. Archived from the original on November 5, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010. "In Florida Allen West is the first black Republican to have been elected to Congress from Florida since the 1870s."
- Murphy, Tim. "Allen West's Rise From the Florida Fever Swamps: A Short, Strange Trip into the Belly of the Anti-Shariah Beast", Mother Jones, July/August 2012.
- "Allen West concedes to Patrick Murphy". Politico. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- Allen West family genealogy site. Ancestry.com. Accessed July 4, 2012.
- Man, Anthony (December 4, 2010). "Allen West: from controversy to Congress". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 4, 2011.
- "Lieutenant Colonel Allen West profile at". American Greatness. AmericanGreatness.org. November 23, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- "Iraq: The Inside Story By Lieutenant Colonel Allen West". OpinionBug.com. October 16, 2004. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "The Struggle for Iraq: How Colonel Risked His Career By Menacing Detainee and Lost". nytimes.com. May 27, 2004. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
- "Once a Soldier... Always a Soldier". Legislative Agenda. Association of the United States Army. 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Sontag, Deborah; Fisher, Ian (May 27, 2004). "The Struggle For Iraq: Interrogations; How Colonel Risked His Career By Menacing Detainee and Lost". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010. "In western Broward County, where Lt. Col. Allen B. West, 43, is preparing to start life over as a high school social studies teacher..."
- "U.S. Officer Fined for Harsh Interrogation Tactics". CNN. December 12, 2003. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007.
- Man, Anthony (December 5, 2010). "Allen West: Fiery freshman hopes to shake up Washington". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "Allen B West is US House Republican Candidate for Florida's 22nd District". Maggiesnotebook.com. April 3, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- Taylor, Jessica (February 12, 2011). "The Meteoric Rise of Allen West". National Journal (Atlantic Media). Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Bennett, George (March 30, 2010). "Sarah Palin promotes Allen West's challenge of Democratic U.S. Rep. Ron Klein". Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011. "On her Facebook page, former GOP vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin is supporting Republican congressional candidate Allen West...."
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (May 4, 2010). "Black Hopefuls Pick This Year in G.O.P. Races". The New York Times (Arthur O. Sulzberger). Retrieved November 3, 2010. "Among the many reverberations of President Obama's election...."
- Sherman, Amy. "Allen West makes waves, earns tea-party raves". MiamiHerald.com. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- "Allen West joins congressional Tea Party Caucus". Weblogs.sun-sentinel.com. February 7, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- NPR It's All Politics, James, Frank , Black GOP Lawmakers Face Tricky Relations With Democrats, January 4, 2011.
- Isenstadt, Alex. "Allen West rakes in $1.6M". Politico.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- "Congressional Elections: Florida District 22 Race: 2010 Cycle". OpenSecrets. Archived from the original on November 16, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- "Rep. Allen West scores $1.5M haul in second quarter". Allen West Nation. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- "Allen West rakes in $1.6M". Politico.com. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- "Broward Politics: Congressman Allen West reports huge fundraising quarter, takes in $1.5 million". Weblogs.sun-sentinel.com. July 11, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- David Wasserman and Julia Edwards (April 15, 2011). "Top 10 Republicans Most Vulnerable to Redistricting". Cook Political Report. National Journal. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- "CBS News Political Hot Sheet for February 1, 2012". CBS. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- Allen West (July 3, 2012). "Allen West commentary: Debating uninformed opponent would waste voters’ time". Palm Beach Post. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Jennifer Bendery (August 9, 2012). "Campaign Ad Shows Allen West Punching Women In The Face". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- Florida's West refuses to relinquish seat in Congress to Murphy - Yahoo! News
- Fla. certifies victory for Dem Murphy, West refuses to concede - The Hill's Blog Briefing Room
- Isenstadt, Alex, "Allen West digs in", Politico, 11/12/12.
- Stapleton, Christine (November 18, 2012). "Murphy declares victory when St. Lucie board misses noon deadline; West considers challenge". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- "Florida Election Officials Miss Tally Deadline in House Race". The New York Times (The Associated Press). November 18, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- Wing, Nick. Allen West Pulls Votes For Speaker Of The House, Despite No Longer Serving In Congress, The Huffington Post, January 3, 2013.
- Wallman, Brittany (January 19, 2011). "New congressman Rep. Allen West denounces raising of PLO flag". Sun Sentinel Blogs. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
- West, Allen (February 15, 2011). "Busy Week Culminates with Closing Speech to CPAC". Red Country. Retrieved February 16, 2011. "I had the chance to spend time with constituents at the showing of the film "Iranium" and was able to see one of my foreign policy heroes, Mr. Michael Ledeen."
- Man, Anthony (February 15, 2011). "Allen West catches some flak for supporting Patriot Act provisions". Broward County Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Congressman Allen West Votes "NO" on Patriot Act Renewal". The Shark Tank. May 27, 2011.
- Herb, Jeremy (January 24, 2011). "Rep. West: Ellison "antithesis" of country's founding principles". Minneapolis Star Tribune. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- Hooper, Molly (February 13, 2011). "Some in Black Caucus embrace GOP member, but others say they're 'leery'". The Hill. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- CAmia, Catalina (February 2, 2011). "GOP Rep. Allen West draws fire for Muslim comments". USA Today. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- Man, Anthony (July 19, 2011). "Wassserman Schultz critical of Allen West on federal budget-cutting measure". Sun Sentinel.
- Smith, Ben (July 19, 2011). "Allen West tirade: Wasserman-Schultz 'vile...despicable...not a Lady'". Politico.
- "Florida Reps. Allen West, Debbie Wasserman Schultz clash". Los Angeles Times. July 20, 2011.
- Florida Rep Labels Congressional Democrats as Communists by CNN, April 11, 2012
- Derby, Kevin (December 20, 2010). "Florida's New Republicans in Congress Get Committee Assignments". Sunshine State News. Retrieved December 20, 2010. "Incoming Republican U.S. Rep. Allen West, who defeated Democrat U.S. Rep. Ron Klein in November, is headed to the House Armed Services Committee – a natural fit for West, a retired Army officer who served in Iraq."
- Southall, Ashley (January 5, 2011). "Republican Allen West Joins Congressional Black Caucus". New York Times. Archived from the original on January 20, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2011. "The all-Democrat Congressional Black Caucus welcomed its first Republican member in 14 years on Wednesday, with the swearing-in of Representative Allen B. West of Florida."
- Fox News Hires Former US Rep Allen West Briebart News May 16, 2013
- "FAU - Angela Graham-West". Florida Atlantic University. 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- West, Allen (December 28, 2010). "Allen West's Final Wrap Up For 2010". allenwest2012. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
- West, Allen (June 11, 2012). "Rep. Allen West moves to Palm Beach Gardens". TCpalm. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Allen West Joins Troopathon Effort to Support Troops with Care Packages". Move On America. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Allen West.|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Allen West (politician)|
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Biography, voting record, and interest group ratings at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- Rep. Allen West on The George Jarkesy Show
- Babbin, Jed. Failure of Command – The case of Lt. Col. Allen B. West, National Review, December 4, 2003
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 22nd congressional district
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013