Ernst Boris Chain
|Sir Ernst Boris Chain|
Ernst Boris Chain (1945)
19 June 1906|
|Died||12 August 1979
|Institutions||Imperial College London
University of Cambridge
University of Oxford
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
|Alma mater||Friedrich Wilhelm University|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, 1945|
Sir Ernst Boris Chain, FRS (19 June 1906 – 12 August 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin.
Life and career 
Chain was born in Berlin, the son of Margarete (née Eisner) and Michael Chain, who was a chemist and industrialist dealing in chemical products. His family was Jewish. His father immigrated from Russia to study chemistry abroad and his mother was from Berlin. In 1930, he received his degree in chemistry from Friedrich Wilhelm University. After the Nazis came to power, Chain knew that he, being Jewish, would no longer be safe in Germany. He left Germany in 1933 and moved to England.
He began working on phospholipids at Fitzwilliam House, Cambridge University under the direction of Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins. In 1935, he accepted a job at Oxford University as a lecturer in pathology. During this time he worked on a range of research topics, including snake venoms, tumour metabolism, lysozymes, and biochemistry techniques.
In 1939, he joined Howard Florey to investigate natural antibacterial agents produced by microorganisms. This led him and Florey to revisit the work of Alexander Fleming, who had described penicillin nine years earlier. Chain and Florey went on to discover penicillin's therapeutic action and its chemical composition. He also theorized the structure of penicillin, which was confirmed by X-ray crystallography done by Dorothy Hodgkin. For this research, Chain, Florey, and Fleming received the Nobel Prize in 1945.
Towards the end of World War II, Chain learned his mother and sister had perished in the war. After World War II, Chain moved to Rome, to work at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Superior Institute of Health). He returned to Britain in 1964 as the founder and head of the biochemistry department at Imperial College London, where he stayed until his retirement, specialising in fermentation technologies. He was knighted soon after in 1969.
He was a lifelong friend of Professor Albert Neuberger, whom he met in Berlin in the 1930s.
In 1948, he married Anne Chain, sister of Max Beloff and Nora Beloff. In his later life, his Jewish identity became increasingly important to him. He became a member of the board of governors of the Weizmann Institute of Science at Rehovot in 1954, and later a member of the executive council. He raised his children securely within the Jewish faith, arranging much extracurricular tuition for them. His views were expressed most clearly in his speech ‘Why I am a Jew’ given at the World Jewish Congress Conference of Intellectuals in 1965.
See also 
- Abraham, Edward (1983). "Ernst Boris Chain. 19 June 1906-12 August 1979". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 29: 42–26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1983.0003. JSTOR 769796.
- E. P. Abraham (2004). "‘Chain, Sir Ernst Boris (1906–1979)". The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30913.
- Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (2000). "Ernst Chain--Nobel Prize for work on penicillin". Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic 75 (9): 882. PMID 10994820.
- Raju, T. N. (1999). "The Nobel chronicles. 1945: Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955); Sir Ernst Boris Chain (1906-79); and Baron Howard Walter Florey (1898-1968)". Lancet 353 (9156): 936. PMID 10094026.
- Notter, A. (1991). "The difficulties of industrializing penicillin (1928-1942) (Alexander Fleming, Howard Florey, Ernst Boris Chain)". Histoire des sciences medicales 25 (1): 31–38. PMID 11638360.
- Abraham, E. P. (1980). "Ernst Chain and Paul Garrod". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 6 (4): 423–424. PMID 7000741.
- Mansford, K. R. (1979). "Sir Ernst Chain, 1906-1979". Nature 281 (5733): 715–717. doi:10.1038/281715a0. PMID 399328.
- Abraham, E. P. (1979). "Obituary: Sir Ernst Boris Chain". The Journal of antibiotics 32 (10): 1080–1081. PMID 393682.
- "Sir Ernst Chain". British medical journal 2 (6188): 505. 1979. PMC 1595985. PMID 385104.
- "Ernst Boris Chain". Lancet 2 (8139): 427. 1979. PMID 89493.
- Wagner, W. H. (1979). "In memoriam, Dr. Ernst Boris Chain". Arzneimittel-Forschung 29 (10): 1645–1646. PMID 391241.
- A biography at Nobel Museum site
-  Weintraub, B. (2003). Ernst Boris Chain (1906-1979) and Penicillin; Chemistry in Israel, Bull. Isr. Chem. Soc., Issue 13, Aug. 2003, p 29-32.