David Baltimore

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
David Baltimore
Dr. David Baltimore2.jpg
David Baltimore in 2013
Born (1938-03-07) March 7, 1938 (age 76)
New York City, New York, USA
Nationality United States
Fields Biology
Institutions Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Rockefeller University
California Institute of Technology
Alma mater Swarthmore College
Rockefeller University
Known for Reverse transcriptase
Baltimore classification
Notable awards NAS Award in Molecular Biology (1974)
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1975)
Spouse Alice S. Huang (m. 1968; 1 child)

David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist, university administrator, and Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine. He served as president of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) from 1997 to 2006, and is currently the President Emeritus and Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology at Caltech. He also served as president of Rockefeller University from 1990 to 1991, and was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2007. Dr. Baltimore has profoundly influenced international science, including key contributions to immunology, virology, cancer research, biotechnology, and recombinant DNA research, through his accomplishments as a researcher, administrator, educator, and public advocate for science and engineering. He was awarded the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1999. [1]

Biography[edit]

Early years[edit]

Baltimore in the 1970s

Baltimore was born to Gertrude (Lipschitz) and Richard Baltimore in New York City. Raised in the Queens neighborhoods of Forest Hills and Rego Park, Queens, he moved with his family to suburban Great Neck, New York while he was in second grade because his mother felt that the city schools were inadequate. His father had been raised as an Orthodox Jew and his mother was an atheist, and Baltimore observed Jewish holidays and would attend synagogue with his father through his Bar Mitzvah.[2] He graduated from Great Neck High School in 1956, and credits his interest in biology to a high-school summer spent at the Jackson Laboratory's Summer Student Program in Bar Harbor, Maine.[3][4] He earned a BA at Swarthmore College in 1960, and received his Ph.D. at Rockefeller University in 1964. After postdoctoral fellowships at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Albert Einstein College of Medicine and a non-faculty research position at the Salk Institute, he joined the MIT faculty in 1968. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1974.[5]

Career[edit]

In 1975, at the age of 37, he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Howard Temin and Renato Dulbecco. The citation reads, "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell." At the time, Baltimore's greatest contribution to virology was his discovery of reverse transcriptase (RTase or RT). Reverse transcriptase is essential for the reproduction of retroviruses such as HIV and was also discovered independently, and at about the same time, by Mizutani and Temin.[6]

Also in 1975, Baltimore was an organizer of the Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA. In 1982, Baltimore was appointed the founding director of MIT's Whitehead Institute, where he remained through June 1990.

In 1981, Baltimore and Vincent Racaniello, a post-doctoral fellow in his laboratory, used recombinant DNA technology to generate a plasmid encoding the genome of poliovirus, an animal RNA virus. The plasmid DNA was introduced into cultured mammalian cells and infectious poliovirus was produced.[7] The infectious clone, DNA encoding the genome of a virus, is a standard tool used today in virology. Other important breakthroughs from Baltimore's lab include the discovery of the transcription factor NF-κB and the recombination activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2.

Baltimore became president of Rockefeller University in New York City on July 1, 1990. After resigning on December 3, 1991, Baltimore remained on the Rockefeller University faculty and continued research until spring of 1994. He then rejoined the MIT faculty.

Baltimore has influenced national policy concerning recombinant DNA research and the AIDS epidemic. He has trained many doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows, several of whom have gone on to notable and distinguished research careers. Baltimore is a member of The Jackson Laboratory's Board of Trustees, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists' Board of Sponsors, the National Academy of Sciences USA (NAS), the NAS Institute of Medicine (IOM), Amgen, Inc. Board of Directors, the BB Biotech AG Board of Directors, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) AIDS Vaccine Research Committee (AVRC), and numerous other organizations and their boards.

Baltimore is a member of the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Advisory Board[8] and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences

Imanishi-Kari case[edit]

Main article: Thereza Imanishi-Kari

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Thereza Imanishi-Kari, a scientist who was not in Baltimore's laboratory but in a separate, independent laboratory at MIT, was implicated in a case of scientific fraud. The case received extensive news coverage and a Congressional investigation. The case was linked to Baltimore's name because of his scientific collaboration with and later his strong defense of Imanishi-Kari against accusations of fraud.

In 1986, while a Professor of Biology at MIT and Director at Whitehead, Baltimore co-authored a scientific paper on immunology with Thereza Imanishi-Kari (an Assistant Professor of Biology who had her own laboratory at MIT) as well as four others.[9] A postdoctoral fellow in Imanishi-Kari's laboratory, Margot O'Toole, who was not an author, reported concerns about the paper, ultimately accusing Imanishi-Kari of fabricating data in a cover-up. Baltimore, however, refused to retract the paper.

O'Toole soon dropped her challenge, but the NIH, which had funded the contested paper's research, began investigating, thanks to the insistence of Walter W. Stewart, a self-appointed fraud buster, and Ned Feder, his lab head at the NIH.[10] Representative John Dingell (D-MI) also aggressively pursued it, eventually calling in U.S. Secret Service (USSS; U.S. Treasury) document examiners.[11]

Around October 1989, when Baltimore was appointed president of Rockefeller University, around a third of the faculty opposed his appointment because of concerns about his behaviour in the Imanishi-Kari case. He had to visit every laboratory, one by one, to hear those concerns directly from each group of researchers.[10]

In a draft report dated March 14, 1991 and based mainly on USSS forensics findings, NIH's fraud unit, then called the Office of Scientific Integrity (OSI), accused Imanishi-Kari of falsifying and fabricating data. It also criticized Baltimore for failing to embrace O'Toole's challenge.[citation needed] Less than a week later, the report was leaked to the press.[12] Baltimore and three co-authors then retracted the paper; Imanishi-Kari and Moema H. Reis did not sign the retraction.[13] In the report, Baltimore admitted that he was "too willing to accept" Imanishi-Kari's explanations, and felt he "did too little to seek an independent verification of her data and conclusions."[14] Baltimore publicly apologized for not taking a whistle-blower's charge seriously.[15]

Amid concerns raised by negative publicity in connection with the scandal, Baltimore resigned as president of Rockefeller University[16] and rejoined the MIT Biology faculty.[17]

In July 1992, the US Attorney for the District of MD, who had been investigating the case, announced he would bring neither criminal nor civil charges against Imanishi-Kari.[18] In October 1994, however, OSI's successor, the Office of Research Integrity (ORI; HHS) found Imanishi-Kari guilty on 19 counts of research misconduct, basing its conclusions largely on Secret Service analysis of laboratory notebooks.

An HHS appeals panel began meeting in June 1995 to review all charges in detail. In June 1996, the panel ruled that the ORI had failed to prove even one of its 19 charges. After throwing out much of the documentary evidence gathered by the ORI, the panel dismissed all charges against Imanishi-Kari. As their final report stated, the HHS panel "found that much of what ORI presented was irrelevant, had limited probative value, was internally inconsistent, lacked reliability or foundation, was not credible or not corroborated, or was based on unwarranted assumptions." It did conclude that "The Cell paper as a whole is rife with errors of all sorts ... [including] some which, despite all these years and layers of review, have never previously been pointed out or corrected. Responsibility ... must be shared by all participants." Neither OSI nor ORI ever accused Baltimore of research misconduct.[19][20] The reputations of Stewart and Feder, who had pushed for the investigation, were very damaged.[20]

Baltimore has been both defended and criticized for his actions in this matter.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27] In 1993, Yale University mathematician Serge Lang strongly criticized Baltimore's behavior.[28] Historian of science Daniel Kevles, writing after the exoneration of Imanishi-Kari, recounted the affair in his 1998 book, The Baltimore Case.[29][30] Horace Freeland Judson also gives a critical assessment of Baltimore's actions in The Great Betrayal: Fraud In Science.[31] Baltimore has also written his own analysis.[32]

Caltech[edit]

From left: JPL Director Charles Elachi, La Canada-Flintridge Mayor Greg Brown, Baltimore and JPL Deputy Director Eugene Tattini (2006).

On May 13, 1997, Baltimore was appointed president of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).[33] He began serving in the office 15 October 1997 and was inaugurated 9 March 1998.[34]

During Baltimore's tenure at Caltech, United States President Bill Clinton awarded Baltimore the National Medal of Science in 1999 for his numerous contributions to the scientific world. In 2004, Rockefeller University gave Baltimore its highest honor, Doctor of Science (honoris causa).[35]

In October 2005, Baltimore resigned the office of the president,[36] saying, "This is not a decision that I have made easily, but I am convinced that the interests of the Institute will be best served by a presidential transition at this particular time in its history..."[37] Former Georgia Tech Provost Jean-Lou Chameau succeeded Baltimore as president of Caltech.[38] Baltimore remains the Millikan Professor of Biology at Caltech and is an active member of the Institute's community.

Soon after Baltimore's resignation, and at his request, Caltech began investigating the work Luk van Parijs had conducted while a postdoc in Baltimore's laboratory.[39] Van Parijs first came under suspicion at MIT, for work done after he had left Baltimore's lab. After van Parijs had been fired by MIT, his doctoral supervisor also noted problems with work van Parijs did at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, before leaving Harvard to go to Baltimore's lab.[40] Concluding in March 2007, the Caltech investigation found van Parijs alone committed research misconduct and that four papers co-authored by Baltimore, van Parijs, and others required correction.[41]


Academy Family at The Salk Institute (1965-1967)[edit]

Name Years Working in the Lab Position in Lab Current Title Institution
Dr. Marc Girard 1966 - 1967 Visiting Scientist Retired
Dr. Michael Jacobson 1967 - 1969 Graduate Student Executive Director Center for Science in the Public Interest
Dr. Alice Huang 1968 - 1970 PostDoc Senior Faculty Associate California Institute of Technology

Academy Family at the MIT (1968-1982)[edit]

Name Years Working in the Lab Position in Lab Current Title Institution
Dr. Charles Cole, Jr. 1968 - 1973 Graduate Student, PostDoc Principal Investigator Dartmouth Medical School
Dr. David Rekosh 1968 - 1972 Graduate Student Professor University of Virginia School of Medicine
Dr. Martha Stampfer 1968 - 1972 Graduate Student Senior Scientist Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Dr. Kenneth Manly 1969 - 1971 PostDoc Research Staff Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Dr. Robert Taber, Jr. 1969 - 1972 PostDoc Emergency Physician Lourdes Medical Center
Dr. Ian Molineux 1979 - 1972 PostDoc Professor in Molecular Genetics & Microbiology The University of Texas At Austin
Dr. Lydia Villa-Komaroff 1970 - 1975 Graduate Student CSO Cytonome, Inc
Dr. Eckard Wimmer 1970 - Visiting Professor Distinguish Professor Stony Brook University
Dr. Hung Y. Fan 1971 - 1973 PostDoc Professor U.C. Irvine
Dr. Naomi Guttman-Bass 1971 - 1976 Graduate Student Professor Hebrew University
Dr. Deborah Spector 1971 - 1975 Graduate Student Principal Investigator U.C. San Diego
Dr. Inder M. Verma 1971 - 1974 PostDoc Professor The Salk Institute
Dr. Peter Besmer 1972 - 1980 PostDoc Faculty Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Dr. Ellen Rothenberg 1972 - 1977 Graduate Student Professor California Institute of Tecchnology
Dr. William Haseltine 1973 - 1976 PostDoc Chairman and President The Access Health International
Dr. Martinez Hewlett 1973 - 1976 PostDoc Professor The University of Arizona
Dr. Nancy Hopkins 1973 - 1974 PostDoc Professor Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Dr. Paul Jolicoeur 1973 - 1976 PostDoc Professor The Clinical Research Institute of Montreal
Dr. David Knipe 1973 - 1976 Graduate Student Professor Harvard Medical School
Dr. Ronald P. McCaffrey 1973 - 1977 Visiting Scientist Retired
Dr. Amos Panet 1973 - PostDoc Professor The Hebrew University
Dr. Naomi Rosenberg 1973 - 1980 PostDoc Professor Tufts University School of Medicine
Dr. Patrick Chung-Shu Kung 1974 - 1977 PostDoc CSO The T-Cell Sciences
Dr. Udy Olshevsky 1974 - 1976 PostDoc Researcher Israel Institute for Bio. Research
Dr. Paula Traktman 1974 - 1981 Graduate Student Professor The Medical College of Wisconsin
Dr. James Flanegan 1975 - 1978 PostDoc Professor University of Florida
Dr. Victor Ambros 1976 - 1979 Graduate Student Professor University of Massachusetts
Dr. Alfred Bothwell 1976 - 1982 PostDoc Professor Yale Medical School
Dr. Vincenzo Enea 1976 - 1979 PostDoc Director of Preclinical Affairs The Enzo Therapeutics, Inc.
Dr. Ralf Filip Pettersson 1976 - 1978 PostDoc Director of the Stockholm Branch The Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
Dr. John K. Rose 1976 - 1978 PostDoc Professor Yale University School of Medicine
Dr. Anthony Shield 1976 - 1979 Graduate Student Professor The Karmanos Cancer Institute
Dr. Edward Siden 1976 - 1980 PostDoc Professor Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Dr. Owen N. Witte 1976 - 1980 PostDoc Principal Investigator The Howard Hughes Medical Institute/UCLA
Dr. Frederick Alt 1977 - 1982 PostDoc Principal Investigator The Children's Hospital
Dr. Eli Gilboa 1977 - 1980 PostDoc Professor Duke University
Dr. Lennart Philipson 1977 - 1978 visiting Professor Professor The Skirball Institute
Dr. Leland F. Velicer 1977 - 1978 Visiting Sccientist Professor Michigan State University
Dr. Margaret Baron 1978 - 1981 Graduate Student Professor The Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Dr. Nigel Crawford 1978 - 1984 Graduate Student Professor U.C. San Diego
Dr. Asim Dasgupta 1978 - 1981 PostDoc Professor U.C. Los Angeles
Dr. Douglas Faller 1978 - 1979 PostDoc Professor Boston University
Dr. Stephen Goff 1978 - 1981 PostDoc Professor Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Dr. Sudha W. Mitra 1978 - 1981 PostDoc Researcher Merck Research Labs
Dr. Susanna Lewis 1979 - 1985 Graduate Student Sr. Scientist The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute
Dr. Vincent Racaniello 1979 - 1982 PostDoc Professor Columbia University
Dr. Varda Rotter 1979 - 1981 PostDoc Professor The Weizmann Institute of Science
Dr. Charles B. Shoemaker 1979 - 1981 PostDoc Professor Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine
Dr. Michael Boss 1980 - 1982 PostDoc Chief Business Officer The Xanthus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Dr. James Champoux 1980 - 1981 Visiting Scientist Professor University of Washington
Dr. Marie Chow 1980 - 1985 PostDoc Professor University of Arkansas
Dr. Dennis Loh 1980 - 1984 PostDoc Principal Investigator The Hoffman-La Roche Inc.
Dr. Richard Mulligan 1980 - 1981 PostDoc co-Chief The Children's Hospital
Dr. Ron Prywes 1980 - 1984 Graduate Student Professor Columbia University
Dr. Jean Yin Jen Wang 1980 - 1983 PostDoc Associate Director of Basic Research U.C. San Diego School of Medicine
Dr. Stephen Desiderio 1981 - 1984 PostDoc Professor Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Dr. J. Gordon Foulkes 1981 - 1984 PostDoc Managing Director The Rivervest Ventures
Dr. Yoram Groner 1981 - 1982 Visiting Scientist Principal Investigator The Weizmann Institute
Dr. Fred D. Ledley 1981 - 1983 PostDoc Director at Center for Integration of Science and Industry Bentley University
Dr. Cary Queen 1981 - 1982 PostDoc President The Galaxy Biotech
Dr. Douglas Rice 1981 - 1984 PostDoc Professor Duke University Medical Center
Dr. Nancy Andrews 1982 - 1985 Graduate Student Dean and Vice Chancellor Duke University
Dr. Yehudit Bergman 1982 - 1984 PostDoc Professor Hebrew University
Dr. Harris Bernstein 1982 - 1987 Graduate Student Principal Investigator NIDDK, National Institutes of Health
Dr. Rudolf Grosschedl 1982 - 1986 PostDoc Professor The Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigentics, Freiburg
Dr. Ned Landau 1982 - 1986 Graduate Student Professor The New York University School of Medicine
Dr. Richard mann 1982 - 1986 Graduate Student Professor Columbia University
Dr. Peter Sarnow 1982 - 1986 PostDoc Professor Stanford University
Dr. Ranjan Sen 1982 - 1986 PostDoc Sr. Investigator NIA, National Institutes of Health
Dr. Nancy Speck 1982 - 1986 PostDoc Principal Investigator UPenn
Dr. Tai Te Wu 1982 - visiting Scientist Professor Northwestern University

Academy Family at the Whitehead Institute (1983-1989)[edit]

Name Years Working in the Lab Position in Lab Current Title Institution
Dr. Yinon Ben-Neria 1983 - 1986 PostDoc Professor Hebrew University
Dr. Karla Kirkegaard 1983 - 1986 PostDoc Professor Stanford University
Dr. Bernard Mathey-Prevot 1983 - 1987 PostDoc Professor Duke University School of Medicine
Dr. Shiv Pillai 1983 - 1988 PostDoc Professor Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center
Dr. David Weaver 1983 - 1987 PostDoc Professor Harvard Medical School
Dr. Jonathan Braun 1984 - 1985 PostDoc Professor U.C.L.A. School of Medicine
Dr. Dan Silver 1984 - 1992 Graduate Student Professor Dana Farber Cancer Institute
Dr. Louis Staudt 1984 - 1988 PostDoc Principal Investigator NCI, National Institutes of Health
Dr. Andre Bernards 1985 - 1988 PostDoc Professor Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center
Dr. Brygida Bersse 1985 - 1988 PostDoc Professor Boston University
Dr. George Daley 1985 - Graduate Student Professor Harvard Medical School
Dr. Peter Jackson 1985 - 1990 Graduate Student Professor Genentech, Inc.
Dr. Michael Lenardo 1985 - 1989 PostDoc Principal Investigator NIAID, National Institutes of Health
Dr. Ricardo Martinez 1985 - 1989 PostDoc Sr. Research Advisor Eli Lilly and Company
Dr. Gary Nabel 1985 - 1987 visiting Scientist Director VRC, NIAID, National Institutes of Health
Dr. Jacqueline Pierce 1985 - 1989 PostDoc Drug Development Program Manager Millennium Pharmaceuticals
Dr. David Schtz 1985 - 1991 Graduate Student Professor Yale University Medicine School
Dr. Allen Silverstone 1985 - 1992 visiting Scientist Professor State University of NY, Upstate Medical Center
Dr. Nahum Sonenberg 1985 - 1986 Visiting Scientist Professor McGill University
Dr. David Parker 1986 - 1987 Visiting Scientist Professor Oregon Health Sciences University
Dr. Maggie Rosa 1986 - Visiting Scientist Professor Gloucester Education Foundation
Dr. Didier Trono 1986 - 1990 PostDoc Professor EOFC
Dr. Mark Feinberg 1987 PostDoc VP Merck Vaccines and Infectious Diseases
Dr. Cornelis Murre 1987 - 1990 PostDoc Professor U.C. San Diego
Dr. Marjorie Oettinger 1987 Graduate Student Professor Massachusetts General Hospital
Dr. Anna Voronova 1987 - 1991 PostDoc Consultant AV Consulting, LLC
Dr. Takashi Fujita 1988 - 1993 PostDoc Professor Laboratory of molecular Genetics
Dr. Mark Schlissel 1988 - 1991 PostDoc Professor U.C. Berkeley
Dr. Sankar Ghosh 1989 - 1991 PostDoc Professor Yale University Medical School
Dr. Hsiou-Chi Liou 1989 PostDoc Professor Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Dr. Patrick Matthias 1989 PostDoc Professor Friedrick Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
Dr. Garry Nolan 1989 - 1993 PostDoc Professor Stanford University
Dr. Roger Pomerantz 1989 - 1990 Visiting Scientist Professor Thomas Jefferson University
Dr. Kalle Saksela 1989 PostDoc Professor University of Helsinki
Dr. Martin Scott 1989 - 1997 PostDoc Senior Research Fellow Merck

Academy Family at the Rockefeller foundation (1990-1993)[edit]

Name Years Working in the Lab Position in Lab Current Title Institution
Dr. Bruce Mayer 1990 - 1993 PostDoc Professor University of Connecticut Health Center
Dr. Warren Pear 1991 - 1996 PostDoc Professor UPenn
Dr. Amer Beg 1992 - 1996 PostDoc Professor L. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute at USF
Dr. Ben Chen 1992 - 1998 Graduate Student Professor MIT
Dr. Ruibao Cheng 1992 - 1994 PostDoc Professor U.C.L.A., Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center
Dr. Christopher Roman 1992 - 1998 PostDoc Professor State University of NY, Brooklyn
Dr. William Sha 1992 - 1996 PostDoc Professor U.C. Berkeley
Dr. Bruce Horwitz 1993 - 1996 PostDoc Professor Brigham and Women's Hospital

Academy Family at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1994-1996)[edit]

Name Years Working in the Lab Position in Lab Current Title Institution
Dr. Howard Chang 1994 - 1998 Graduate Student Professor Stanford University School of Medicine
Dr. Kathy Collins 1994 - 1998 PostDoc Professor University of Michigan
Dr. Joshy Jacob 1994 - 1998 PostDoc Professor Emory University
Dr. Anthony Koleske 1994 - 1998 PostDoc Professor Yale University
Dr. Yang Xu 1994 - 1995 PostDoc Professor U.C. San Diego
Dr. Xiaolu Yang 1994 - 1998 PostDoc Professor UPenn
Dr. Sara Cherry 1995 - 2000 Graduate Student Professor UPenn School of Medicine
Dr. George Cohen 1995 - 1999 PostDoc Professor Harvard University
Dr. Rajesh Gandhi 1995 - 1999 PostDoc MD Massachusetts General Hospital
Dr. Ilana Stancovski 1995 - 1999 PostDoc Director Turio Ltd
Dr. Eric Brown 1996 - 2003 PostDoc Professor UPenn School of Medicine
Dr. Nir Hacohen 1996 - 1998 PostDoc Professor Harvard Medical School
Dr. Alex Hoffmann 1996 - 2003 PostDoc Professor U.C. San Diego
Dr. Roya Khosravi-Far 1996 - 1999 PostDoc Professor Harvard University Medical School
Dr. Carlos Lois 1996 - 2002 PostDoc Professor MIT
Dr. Joel Pomerantz 1997 - 2003 PostDoc Professor Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Dr. Zhou SongYang 1996 PostDoc Professor Baylor University

Academy Family at the California Institute of Technology (1997-Present)[edit]

Name Years Working in the Lab Position in Lab Current Title Institution
Dr. Luk Van Parijs 1997 - 2000 PostDoc Professor MIT
Dr. Mollie Meffert 1998 - 2004 PostDoc Professor Johns Hopkins University
Dr. Xiao-Geng Qin 1998 - 2003 PostDoc Professor University of Texas
Dr. Mark Boldin 1999 - 2008 PostDoc Professor California Institute of Technology
Dr. Thomas Leung 1999 - 2005 PostDoc Resident in Dermatology stanford University
Dr. Wange Lu 1999 - 2005 PostDoc Professor KSC Keck School of Medicine
Dr. Matthew Porteus 1999 - 2003 PostDoc Professor University of Texas Southwestern
Dr. Lili Yang 1999 - 2013 PostDoc Professor Eli & Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine & Stem Cell Research
Dr. Rafael Casellas 2002 - 2003 Research Sr. Investigator NIAMS, National Institutes of Health
Dr. Markus Covert 2004 - 2006 PostDoc Professor Stanford University
Dr. Konstantin Taganov 2004 - 2008 PostDoc Staff Scientist EMD Millipore
Dr. Xin Luo 2005 - 2011 PostDoc Professor Virginia Tech
Dr. Ryan O'Connell 2006 - 2011 PostDoc Professor University of Utah
Dr. Dinesh Rao 2006 - 2011 Graduate Student Professor David Geffen School of Medicine
Dr. Jesse Bloom 2007 - 2011 PostDoc Professor Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Dr. Aadel Chaudhuri 2007 - 2011 Graduate Student Resident MD Scripps Mercy Hospital
Dr. Alex Sigal 2007 PostDoc Professor Kwazulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis & HIV
Dr. Thomas Su 2007 - 2009 Visiting Scientist MD, Dermatology Private Practice of Michael Novak
Dr. Kenneth Yu 2007 - 2012 Graduate Student MD, Training Keck School of Medicine, USC
Dr. Alejandro Balazs 2007 - 2013 PostDoc Professor The Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard
Dr. Daniel Kahn 2008 - 2011 Visiting Scientist Professor David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA
Dr. Param Ramakrishnan 2008 - 2013 PostDoc Professor Case Western Reserve University
Dr. Alex So 2008 PostDoc PostDoc Fellow California Institute of Technology
Geoffrey Lovely 2008 Graduate Graduate Student California Institute of Technology
Dr. Michael Bethune 2009 PostDoc PostDoc Fellow California Institute of Technology
Jocelyn Kim 2009 Graduate Student Graduate Student California Institute of Technology
Dr. Jimmy Zhao 2009 PostDoc Medical Student David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA
Dr. Devdoot Majumdar 2010 PostDoc PostDoc Fellow California Institute of Technology
Arnav Mehta 2010 Graduate Student Graduate Student California Institute of Technology
Vanessa Jonsson 2010 Graduate Student Graduate Student California Institute of Technology
Rachel Galimidi 2010 Graduate Student Graduate Student California Institute of Technology
Dr. Shuai Jiang 2012 PostDoc PostDoc Fellow California Institute of Technology
Dr. Mati Mann 2012 PostDoc PostDoc Fellow California Institute of Technology
Dr. Rajan Kulkarni 2012 Visiting Scientist Visiting Research Scholar California Institute of Technology
Dr. Alok Joglekar 2013 PostDoc PostDoc Fellow California Institute of Technology

Personal life[edit]

Baltimore was married in 1968 to Dr. Alice S. Huang. They have one daughter.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.researchamerica.org/baltimore_david
  2. ^ David Baltimore - Interviewed by Sara Lippincott; October - November 2009, California Institute of Technology. Accessed February 21, 2013. "But she was also committed to her family and to my father's right to have his religion, and we celebrated the major holidays, we fasted on Yom Kippur, and I walked with my father to the shul, which was a long walk from where we lived."
  3. ^ Nobel Prize autobiography. Nobelprize.org (1938-03-07). Retrieved on 2012-02-17.
  4. ^ Kerr, Kathleen. "They Began Here", Newsday. Accessed 23 Oct 2007. "David Baltimore, 1975 Nobel laureate and one of the nation's best-known scientists, is a good case in point. The 60-year-old Baltimore, who graduated from Great Neck High School in 1956..."
  5. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  6. ^ Judson, Horace F (2003-10-20). "No Nobel Prize for Whining". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  7. ^ Racaniello V, Baltimore D (1981). "Cloned poliovirus complemenatry DNA is infectious in mammalian cells". Science 214 (453): 916–919. Bibcode:1981Sci...214..916R. doi:10.1126/science.6272391. PMID 6272391. 
  8. ^ Advisors. Usasciencefestival.org. Retrieved on 2012-02-17.
  9. ^ Weaver D, Reis MH, Albanese C, Costantini F, Baltimore D, Imanishi-Kari T (April 1986). "Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene". Cell 45 (2): 247–59. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90389-2. PMID 3084104.  (Retracted, see PMID 2032282)
  10. ^ a b Philip Weiss (29 October 1989), "Conduct Unbecoming?", New York Times 
  11. ^ "Fraud in NIH Grant Programs," 12 April 1988; "Scientific Fraud," 4 & 9 May 1989; and "Scientific Fraud (Part 2)," 14 May 1990 (transcript includes 30 April 1990 hearing on R. Gallo's NIH lab)
  12. ^ Philip J. Hilts, "Crucial Data Were Fabricated In Report Signed by Top Biologist" (New York Times, 21 March 1991, pp. A1, B10)
  13. ^ Weaver D, Albanese C, Costantini F, Baltimore D (May 1991). "Retraction: altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene". Cell 65 (4): 536. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90085-D. PMID 2032282. 
  14. ^ http://www.gatewaycoalition.org/files/gateway_project_moshe_kam/resource/DBCre/bosg6may91.html
  15. ^ http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1991-08-02/news/1991214028_1_hadley-scientific-misconduct-misconduct-cases
  16. ^ Hall SS (December 1991). "David Baltimore's final days". Science 254 (5038): 1576–9. Bibcode:1991Sci...254.1576H. doi:10.1126/science.1749930. PMID 1749930.  or here [1]
  17. ^ Natalie Angier, "Embattled Biologist Will Return to M.I.T." (New York Times, 19 May 1992, P. C5)
  18. ^ Malcolm Gladwell, "Prosecutors Halt Scientific Fraud Probe; Researcher Baltimore Claims Vindication, Plans to 'Unretract' Paper" (Washington Post, 14 July 1992, P. A3);
    Hamilton DP (July 1992). "U.S. attorney decides not to prosecute Imanishi-Kari". Science 257 (5068): 318. Bibcode:1992Sci...257..318H. doi:10.1126/science.1321499. PMID 1321499. 
  19. ^ 1996 HHS report exonerating Imanishi-Kari. Hhs.gov. Retrieved on 2012-02-17.
  20. ^ a b "The public skirmish over the reputations of Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor David Baltimore and Tufts University researcher Thereza Imanishi-Kari has been formally ended by a report deeply embarrassing to the government". Boston Globe. 1996. 
  21. ^ Foreman, Judy (23 May 1988). "Baltimore Speaks Out on Disputed Study in Letter Sent to Colleagues Around the Nation; He Calls for Protection Against ‘threats’ to Scientific Freedom". Boston Globe. p. 31. 
  22. ^ Larry Thompson, "Science Under Fire; Behind the Clash Between Congress and Nobel Laureate David Baltimore" (Washington Post "Health" journal, 5(19): 12–6 (9 May 1989))
  23. ^ "This spectacle of damaged reputation was not just unseemly, but difficult to reconcile with the 51-year-old Baltimore's prominence and achievements". NYT Magazine. 1989. 
  24. ^ Foreman, J. (17 April 1991). "MIT Institute Used Funds Wrongly". Boston Globe. p. 1. 
  25. ^ Horace Freeland Judson (2004). The Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science. Orlando: Harcourt. 
  26. ^ Kevles, Daniel J. (May 27, 1996). "Annals of Science: The Assault on David Baltimore". New Yorker. 
  27. ^ Trono D (2001). "Ahead of the Curve: David Baltimore's Life in Science". Nature Medicine 7 (7): 767. doi:10.1038/89868. 
  28. ^ Lang S (1993). "Questions of scientific responsibility: the Baltimore case". Ethics Behav 3 (1): 3–72. doi:10.1207/s15327019eb0301_1. PMID 11653082. 
  29. ^ Kevles, Daniel J. (1998). The Baltimore Case: A Trial of Politics, Science, and Character. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31970-9. 
  30. ^ Gunsalus, C.K. (21 January 1999). "Review of Kevles' "The Baltimore Case..."". New England Journal of Medicine 340 (3): 242. doi:10.1056/nejm199901213400320. 
  31. ^ Judson, Horace F. (2004). The Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science. New York: Harcourt. ISBN 978-0151008773. 
  32. ^ David Baltimore, 1989 (updated 2003). Issues.org (2003-07-09). Retrieved on 2012-02-17.
  33. ^ Caltech Media Relations, "Nobel Prize-winning Biologist David Baltimore Named President of the California Institute of Technology," 13 May 1997, photos & links; Richard Saltus, "MIT Laureate to Lead Caltech: Baltimore Weathered Data Dispute", Boston Globe, 14 May 1997, p. A3; Robert Lee Hotz, "Prominent Biology Nobelist Chosen to Head Caltech; Controversial and outspoken scientist David Baltimore says his appointment reflects school's desire for bigger role in nation's scientific debates." Los Angeles Times, 14 May 1997, pp. A1, 22, 23; "A Luminary of Science for Caltech's Presidency; Nobelist Baltimore has the needed background and clout." LA Times, 15 May 1997, p. B8; R.L. Hotz, "Biomedicine's Bionic Man". LA Times Magazine, 28 September 1997, pp. 10–13, 34–5
  34. ^ Caltech Media Relations, "New Caltech President To Be Honored with Formal Inauguration, Birthday Festschrift," 23 February 1998
  35. ^ Bhattacharjee, Y. (25 June 2004). "The Balance of Justice". Science 304 (5679): 1901. doi:10.1126/science.304.5679.1901a. 
  36. ^ LATimes.com, "Caltech President Baltimore Announces Retirement," 3 October 2005; R.L. Hotz, "Caltech President Who Raised School's Profile to Step Down". LA Times, 4 October 2005, p. A1
  37. ^ Caltech Media Relations, "Baltimore to Retire as Caltech President; Will Remain at Institute as Biology Professor," 3 October 2005 [2]
  38. ^ Caltech Media Relations, "Caltech Presidential Inauguration — A Student Affair," 30 April 2007 [3]
  39. ^ Lois E. Beckett, "MIT Professor Fired for Faking Data; MIT biologist and HMS grad may also have falsified data in work at Harvard" (Harvard Crimson, 31 October 2005) [4]
  40. ^ Bombardieri, Marcella; Cook, Gareth (October 29, 2005). "More doubts raised on fired MIT professor". Boston Globe. 
  41. ^ Reich, E.S. (24 November 2007). "Scientific misconduct report still under wraps". New Scientist (2361): 16. 

External links[edit]

  1. Baltimore D (June 1970). "RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of RNA tumour viruses". Nature 226 (5252): 1209–11. Bibcode:1970Natur.226.1209B. doi:10.1038/2261209a0. PMID 4316300. 
  2. Temin HM, Mizutani S (June 1970). "RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus". Nature 226 (5252): 1211–3. Bibcode:1970Natur.226.1211T. doi:10.1038/2261211a0. PMID 4316301.