|- Total||1,325 km2 (512 sq mi)|
|- Total (2010 est.)||365,000|
|TBA (council NOC)|
Sir Menzies Campbell QC
Fife ([ˈfəif]; Scottish Gaelic: Fìobha) is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. It was once one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib, and is still commonly known as the Kingdom of Fife within Scotland.
It is a lieutenancy area, and was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was very occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents and maps compiled by English cartographers and authors. A person from Fife is known as a Fifer.
Fife was a local government region divided into three districts: Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the district councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council.
Fife is Scotland's third largest local authority area by population. It has a resident population of just under 360,000, almost a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy and Glenrothes. Kirkcaldy is Fife's largest town by population (48,108 in 2006), followed by Dunfermline (45,462 in 2006) and then Glenrothes (38,927 in 2006).
Legend has it that the Pictish realm was divided into seven sub-kingdoms or provinces, one of which became Fife. The name is recorded as Fib in A.D. 1150 and Fif in 1165. It was often associated with Fothriff.
Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, as the leaders of Scotland gradually moved southwards away from their ancient strongholds around Scone. Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey. The Abbey replaced Iona as the final resting place of Scotland's royal elite, with Robert I amongst those to be buried there.
The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, and was reserved the right of crowning the nation's monarchs, reflecting the prestige of the area.
A new royal palace was gradually constructed at Falkland, formerly the stronghold of Clan MacDuff, and was used by successive monarchs of the House of Stuart, who favoured Fife for its rich hunting grounds.
King James VI of Scotland described Fife as a "beggar's mantle fringed wi gowd", the golden fringe being the coast and its chain of little ports with their thriving fishing fleets and rich trading links with the Low Countries. Wool, linen, coal and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past. The distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the previously thatched roofs.
In 1598, King James VI employed a group of 12 men from Fife, who became known as the Fife adventurers, to colonise the Isle of Lewis in an attempt to begin the "civilisation" and de-gaelicisation of the region. This endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the native population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie, the clan chief of the Mackenzies.
Fife became a centre of heavy industry in the 19th century. Coal had been mined in the area since at least the 12th century, but the number of pits increased ten-fold as demand for coal grew in the Victorian period. Previously rural villages such as Cowdenbeath rapidly swelled into towns as thousands moved to Fife to find work in its mines. The opening of the Forth and Tay rail bridges linked Fife with Dundee and Edinburgh and allowed the rapid transport of goods. Modern ports were constructed at Methil, Burntisland and Rosyth. Kirkcaldy became the world centre for the production of linoleum. Postwar Fife saw the development of Scotland's second new town, Glenrothes. Originally to be based around a coal mine, the town eventually attracted a high number of modern Silicon Glen companies to the region. Fife Council and Fife Constabulary also centre their operations in Glenrothes.
There are notable historical buildings in Fife, some of which are managed by the National Trust for Scotland or Historic Scotland. They include Dunfermline Abbey (the last resting place of Scottish royalty), the palace in Culross, Ravenscraig Castle in Kirkcaldy, Dysart Harbour area, Balgonie Castle near Coaltown of Balgonie, Falkland Palace (hunting palace of the Scottish Kings), Kellie Castle near Pittenweem, Hill of Tarvit (a historical house), St. Andrews Castle, St. Andrews Cathedral and St. Rule's Tower.
Fife is represented by five Constituency Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) and four Members of Parliament (MPs) who are sent to Holyrood and the Westminster Parliament respectively. Since the 2010 General Election, three of the MPs constituencies have been held by Labour (Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath, represented by former Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Dunfermline West, and Glenrothes); the other (North East Fife) is held by Sir Menzies Campbell for the Liberal Democrats. One of the MSPs constituencies is held by Labour the newly created Cowdenbeath and four by Scottish National Party: Fife Mid and Glenrothes, Kirkcaldy, Dunfermline, North East Fife
Glenrothes is Fife's Administrative Capital containing the headquarters of Fife Council and of Police Scotland's P Division (formerly Fife Constabulary). Council meetings take place in Fife House (formerly known as Glenrothes House) in the town centre. The west wing of the building was built by the Glenrothes Development Corporation (GDC) as their offices in 1969, which was later used as the headquarters of Fife Regional Council. Since the last Scottish election in 2012, Fife Council has been run as a minority by Labour party, claiming a total of 35 seats, with support of Tory and independent councillors. Alex Rowley was elected leader of Fife Council. Labour and the other parties form the opposition.
Fife is a peninsula in eastern Scotland bordered on the north by the Firth of Tay, on the east by the North Sea and the Firth of Forth to the south. The route to the west is partially blocked by the mass of the Ochil Hills. Almost all road traffic into and out of Fife has to pass over one of three bridges, south on the Forth Road Bridge, west on the Kincardine Bridge or north-east via the Tay Road Bridge, the exception being traffic headed north on the M90. Tolls were abolished on the Tay Road Bridge and Forth Road Bridge on 11 February 2008.
There are extinct volcanic features, such as the Lomond Hills which rise above rolling farmland, and Largo Law, a volcanic plug in the east. At 522 metres (1,713 ft), the West Lomond is the highest point in Fife. The coast has fine but small harbours, from the industrial docks in Burntisland and Rosyth to the fishing villages of the East Neuk such as Anstruther and Pittenweem. The large area of flat land to the north of the Lomond Hills, through which the River Eden flows, is known as the Howe of Fife.
North of the Lomond Hills can be found villages and small towns in a primarily agricultural landscape. The areas in the south and west of Fife, including the towns of Dunfermline, Glenrothes, Kirkcaldy and the Levenmouth region are lightly industrial and more densely populated. The only areas which could claim to be heavily industrial are Rosyth, around the naval dockyard and perhaps the Mossmorran Natural Gas Liquids fractionation plant on the outskirts of Cowdenbeath.
The east corner of Fife, generally that east of a line between Leven and St Andrews is recognised throughout Scotland as the East Neuk (or corner) of Fife, small settlements around sheltered harbours, with distinctive vernacular "Dutch" or corbie (crow) stepped gabled and stone-built architecture – an area much sought after as second homes of the Edinburgh professional classes since the Forth Road Bridge was built. The fishing industry on which the East Neuk settlements were built has declined in recent years with the main fishing fleet now operating from Pittenweem and the harbour in Anstruther being used as a marina for pleasure craft.
Towns and villages 
Cupar took over as county town from Crail in the early 13th century. Glenrothes is now the administrative centre, after the decision to locate the headquarters of the newly established Fife Regional Council in 1975. Fife's three major towns are Kirkcaldy, Dunfermline and Glenrothes. According to the 2006 estimate, Kirkcaldy is the largest settlement, with a population of 48,108. The largest settlement in terms of area is Glenrothes. The next sizeable towns by population are St Andrews, Dalgety Bay, Rosyth, Methil and Cowdenbeath. The rest of Fife includes smaller towns such as Inverkeithing, Kincardine, Anstruther, Lochgelly, Burntisland, Leven, Newburgh, Tayport and Cupar, and villages such as Springfield, Kinglassie, Kinghorn, Elie, Auchtertool, Crossgates, Ballingry and Auchtermuchty.
The county was formerly divided into parishes, often but not always based on a town or village:
- Anstruther Easter
- Anstruther Wester
- Arngask (Perthshire)
- Culross (Perthshire)
- Ferry Port On Craig
- Inverkeithing & Rosyth
- Kilrenny (Cellardyke)
- St Andrews & St Leonards
- St Monance (and Abercrombie)
Fife contains 4,961 listed buildings and 48 conservation areas. Domestic sites of importance include Falkland Palace, Kellie Castle, Dunfermline Palace, St Andrews Castle, Culross Palace and Kirkcaldy's Ravenscraig Castle. Fife has a number of ecclesiastical sites of historical interest. St Andrews Cathedral was home to the powerful Archbishopric of St Andrews, and later became a centre of the Scottish Reformation, while Dunfermline Abbey was the last resting place of a number of Scottish kings. Balmerino and Culross abbeys were both founded in the 13th century by the Cistercians, while a century before Lindores Abbey was founded by the Tironensians outside Newburgh; all were highly important sites.
The Stanza Poetry Festival and Fife Festival of Music are events of national cultural importance. The Byre Theatre in St Andrews and Adam Smith Theatre in Kirkcaldy are both highly regarded as touring venues, the latter also being the base of the grand opera company Fife Opera.
Fife Craft Association is the largest craft association in Fife, and organises art and craft events throughout the year in various venues in Fife. They also showcase local artists and crafters every Saturday at the Rothes Halls in Glenrothes.
Notable Fifers 
- Robert Adam, architect
- Stuart Adamson, musician (Big Country)
- Ian Anderson, musician, frontman of Jethro Tull
- Iain Banks, writer
- Jim Baxter, footballer
- Guy Berryman, bassist from the band Coldplay
- Andrew Christine, tabloid cartoonist
- Sir Ernley Blackwell, lawyer and civil servant
- Edith Bowman, BBC Radio 1/6 DJ
- Gordon Brown, former British Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer; current MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath
- Scott Brown (Scottish footballer), Scotland and Celtic F.C footballer
- Gregory Burke, playwright
- Andrew Carnegie, industrialist and philanthropist
- Jim Clark, two-times Formula One World Drivers' Champion
- James Clephan, Lieutenant on board HMS Spartiate during the Battle of Trafalgar
- Kenneth Cranham, actor
- Barbara Dickson, singer and actress
- Philip Charles Durham, sailor and captain of HMS Defiance at Trafalgar
- John Forbes (British Army officer), named the city of Pittsburgh
- Shirley Henderson, actress
- Bob Howie and Dave Howie, rugby players
- William McEvoy, Served in the Scot's Guards
- King Creosote, musician
- Deborah Knox, Olympic Gold medallist
- Craig Levein, Scottish former professional footballer and manager
- Jackie Leven, singer/songwriter
- Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, 16th-century writer
- Douglas Mackinnon, director
- Val McDermid, writer
- Aileen Paterson, author/illustrator
- Ian Rankin, writer
- David Rollo, rugby player
- Craig Russell (British author), writer
- Dougray Scott, actor
- Alexander Selkirk, seafarer and inspiration for Robinson Crusoe
- Sir Jimmy Shand, accordion player
- Adam Smith, philosopher and economist
- Jordan Smith, actor
- Lawrence Storione, miner and anarchist organiser
- Michaela Tabb, first female snooker referee to appear on the Crucible
- John Thomson (footballer), former Celtic F.C goalkeeper
- KT Tunstall, musician
- Jack Vettriano, artist
- Sir David Wilkie, painter
- James Wilson, signer of US Declaration of Independence, appointed by George Washington to first Supreme Court
- James Yorkston, musician
- Jocky Wilson, darts player
- Ken McNaught, Footballer, Former Aston Villa F.C Centre Back, 1982 European Cup Winner
- Willie McNaught, Scottish Footballer, Former Raith Rovers F.C Defender
- Ricky Williamson, Founder and Project Manager of Fife Youth Radiowww.fyr.org.uk
- Kevin Kirby, Furnace Console Expert
As for senior sports teams, in football Dunfermline Athletic, Cowdenbeath and Raith Rovers play in the First Division and East Fife play in the Second Division. Both Dunfermline and East Fife are in relegation play-offs to a lower division.
Fife is also home to eight rugby union clubs, University of St Andrews RFC, the oldest rugby club in Fife, Dunfermline RFC, Fife Southern RFC, based in Rosyth, Glenrothes RFC, Howe of Fife RFC, based in Cupar, Kirkcaldy RFC,Madras RFC,Waid Academy RFC and one rugby league club, Fife Lions.
Fife has a number of Highland Dancing Schools and have competitions throughout the year. Highland dancers wear kilts and jackets, the boys can wear trousers or a kilt. Braemar and Cowal are the two biggest competitions.
Locally published newspapers include the Fife Free Press in Kirkcaldy; the Dunfermline Press in Dunfermline; the Glenrothes Gazette in Glenrothes, the East Fife Mail in Leven; and the St Andrews Citizen in St Andrews. DC Thompson publishes North East Fife and South Fife Editions of the Dundee Courier & Advertiser, and the Counties Edition of the Evening Telegraph is sold in Fife.
The only Fife-based radio station is Kingdom FM. There is also however a community radio station that broadcasts during the evenings and is run by youths for youths its called Fife Youth Radio www.fyr.org.uk and was founded and is run by Ricky Williamson. Other local radio stations Radio Tay and Edinburgh's 97.3 Forth One broadcast to the northern and southern parts of the region respectively.
Christopher Bowes of the Pirate Metal band Alestorm formed a Power Metal band in 2012 known as Gloryhammer. Their first album entitled Tales from the Kingdom of Fife, due for release in March 2013, is set in a fictitious medieval version of Fife, mentioning towns within the region, such as Dundee, Anstruther and Cowdenbeath. 
See also 
- Abbeys and priories in Scotland
- Castles in Scotland
- Duke of Fife
- Earl of Fife
- Fire and Rescue Authority (Scotland)
- Historic houses in Scotland
- List of places in Fife
- Museums in Scotland
- The site record for Clatchard Craig at RCAHMS
- Excavation Summary by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
- "Alphabetical List of Members of Parliament". Parliament UK. Retrieved 2009-07-11.[dead link]
- "BBC election 2011". BBC News.
- Ferguson A History of Glenrothes p.91.
- "Population Estimates for Towns and Villages in Fife" (PDF). Fife Council. March 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-17.[dead link]
- "Fife's listed buildings". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "Fife Craft Association at http://www.walkaboutcrafts.com/fca.htm". Walkaboutcrafts.com. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Fife (Scotland).|
- Fife at the Open Directory Project
- Knowfife Dataset
- Fife Direct
- Fife Today
- Kingdom of Fife Tourist Board
- The Fife Post
- Fife Coastal Path
- Fife Youth Radio
- Kingdom FM
- Pupils in Fife report on issues that are important to them for Radiowaves
- Fife Community Portal
- FifeLink – an online community for Fife
- National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE (selection of archive films relating to Fife)