Free Democratic Party of Switzerland
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|Free Democratic Party|
|German name||Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei (FDP)|
|French name||Parti radical-démocratique (PRD)|
|Italian name||Partito liberale-radicale svizzero (PLR)|
|Romansh name||Partida liberaldemocrata svizra (PLD)|
|Dissolved||January 1, 2009|
|Succeeded by||FDP.The Liberals|
|International affiliation||Liberal International|
|European affiliation||European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party|
|Politics of Switzerland
Swiss Federal Council
Council of States (members)
National Council (members)
The Free Democratic Party (German: Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei, French: Parti radical-démocratique, Italian: Partito liberale-radicale svizzero, Romansh: Partida liberaldemocrata svizra) was a liberal and classical liberal political party in Switzerland. It was one of the major parties in Switzerland until its merger with the smaller Liberal Party, to form FDP.The Liberals on 1 January 2009.
The FDP was formed in 1894 from the Radicals, who had dominated Swiss politics since the 1830s, standing in opposition to the Catholic conservatives, and who from the creation of the federal state in 1848 until 1891 formed the federal government.
The FDP remained dominant until the introduction of proportional representation in 1919. From 1945 to 1987, it alternated with the Social Democratic Party to be the largest party. In 1959, the party took two seats in the magic formula. The party declined in the 1990s and 2000s (decade), as it was put under pressure by the Swiss People's Party. In response, the party formed closer relations with the smaller Liberal Party, leading to their formal merger in 2009.
The elements liberal, radical and 'free-thinking' (German: freisinnig) in the party's name originate from the conflicts during the period of Restoration (Switzerland) between the Catholic-conservative cantons and the liberal cantons. This conflict led to the foundation of the Swiss federal state in 1848 after the victory of the Protestant-liberal cantons in the Sonderbund war.
From 1848 until 1891, the Federal Council was composed entirely of Radicals. The radical movement of the restoration was radical, and stood in opposition to the conservative Catholic Conservative Party. They were otherwise heterogeneous, including and classical liberal 'Liberals', federalist 'Radicals', and social liberal 'Democrats': placing the radical movement on the 'left' of the political spectrum. It was not until the rise of the Social Democratic Party in the early 20th century that the FDP found itself on the centre-right.
The FDP was the dominant party until the 1919 election, when the introduction of proportional representation led to a leap in the representation of the Social Democrats. In 1959, the Free Democrats joined the other major parties in agreeing the 'magic formula' to divide up the seats of the Federal Council, with the FDP permanently receiving two of the seven seats.
After the federal election 2003 FDP and Liberal Party formed a common faction in the Federal Assembly. In June 2005, they strengthened their cooperation by founding Radical and Liberal Union They merged on 1 January 2009 to form FDP.The Liberals.
In 2003, it held 36 mandates (out of 200) in the Swiss National Council (first chamber of the Swiss parliament); 14 (out of 46) in the second chamber and 2 out of 7 mandates in the Swiss Federal Council (executive body). By 2005, it held 27,2% of the seats in the Swiss Cantonal governments and 19,7% in the Swiss Cantonal parliaments (index "BADAC", weighted with the population and number of seats). At the last legislative elections, 22 October 2007, the party won 15.6% of the popular vote and 31 out of 200 seats.
List of party Presidents
|1st||Gottisheim, Christian Friedrich !Christian Friedrich Göttisheim||Basel-Stadt||1894–1896|
|2nd||Brenner, Ernst !Ernst Brenner||Basel-Stadt||1896–1897|
|3rd||Stossel, Johannes !Johannes Stössel||Zurich||1897–1898|
|4th||Hirter Johann !Johann Hirter||Bern||1898–1903|
|5th||Scherrer, Paul !Paul Scherrer||Basel-Stadt||1904–1906|
|6th||Bissegger, Walter !Walter Bissegger||Zurich||1907–1910|
|7th||Decoppet, Camille !Camille Decoppet||Vaud||1911–1912|
|8th||Bonjour, Felix !Félix Bonjour||Vaud||1912–1913|
|9th||Lohner, Emil !Emil Lohner||Bern||1914–1918|
|10th||Schopfer, Robert !Robert Schöpfer||Solothurn||1919–1923|
|11th||Meyer, Albert !Albert Meyer||Zurich||1923–1929|
|12th||Schupbach, Hermann !Hermann Schüpbach||Bern||1929–1934|
|13th||Beguin, Ernest !Ernest Béguin||Neuchâtel||1934–1940|
|14th||Wey, Max !Max Wey||Luzern||1940–1948|
|15th||Pini, Aleardo !Aleardo Pini||Ticino||1948–1954|
|16th||Dietschi, Eugen !Eugen Dietschi||Basel-Stadt||1954–1960|
|17th||Celio, Nello !Nello Celio||Ticino||1960–1964|
|18th||Glasson, Pierre !Pierre Glasson||Fribourg||1964–1968|
|19th||Schmitt, Henri !Henri Schmitt||Geneva||1968–1974|
|20th||Honegger, Fritz !Fritz Honegger||Zurich||1974–1977|
|21st||Richter, Yann !Yann Richter||Neuchâtel||1978–1984|
|22nd||Hunziker, Bruno !Bruno Hunziker||Aargau||1984–1989|
|23rd||Steinegger, Franz !Franz Steinegger||Uri||1989–2001|
|24th||Buhrer, Gerold !Gerold Bührer||Schaffhausen||2001–2002|
|25th||Langenberger, Christiane !Christiane Langenberger||Vaud||2002–2004|
|26th||Schweiger, Rolf !Rolf Schweiger||Zug||2004|
|28th||Kleiner, Marianne !Marianne Kleiner||Appenzell Innerrhoden||2004–2005|
|28th||Pelli, Fulvio !Fulvio Pelli||Ticino||2005–2009|
- Switzerland: Selected Issues (EPub). International Monetary Fund. 10 June 2005. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-1-4527-0409-8. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
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- Erik Lundsgaarde (5 December 2012). The Domestic Politics of Foreign Aid. Routledge. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-0-415-65695-5. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
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- Jan-Erik Lane; Svante O. Ersson (1999). Politics and Society in Western Europe. SAGE Publications. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-0-7619-5862-8. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- "New alliance counters left-right polarisation - swissinfo".
- "Nationalrat 2007".
- fdp.ch in German
- prd.ch in French
- plrt.ch in Italian
- Young Liberals Switzerland official site of the youth branch, called jungfreisinnige schweiz (in German/French)