Hammer throw

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Scottish hammer throw illustration from Frank R.Stockton's book "Round-about Rambles in Lands of Fact and Fancy"
The traditional Highland games version of event
The contemporary version of the Hammer Throw
World Athletics Championships 2007 in Osaka - Victory Ceremony for Hammer Throw with winner Ivan Tsikhan (middle)
American John Flanagan in the hammer throw competition at the Summer Olympics 1908 in London

The hammer throw is one of the four throwing events in regular track and field competitions, along with the discus throw, shot put and javelin.

History[edit]

With roots dating back to the 15th century, the contemporary version of the hammer throw is one of the oldest of Olympic Games competitions, first included at the 1900 games in Paris, France (the second Olympiad of the modern era). Its history since the late 1960s and legacy prior to inclusion in the Olympics have been dominated by European and Eastern European influence, which has had an impact on interest in the event in other parts of the world.

The hammer evolved from its early informal origins to become part of the Scottish Highland games in the late 18th century, where the original version of the event is still contested today. It is believed that, like many Highland games events, the origin of the hammer throw is tied to a prohibition by King Edward I of England against Scotsmen possessing weapons during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

In the absence of weapons of war, the Scots turned to alternative methods of military training. The Highland Games became a more formalized event after the Highland Clearances of the late 18th century, which were an agricultural revolution that involved forced displacement of commoners in the Scottish Highlands by the aristocracy.

While the men's hammer throw has been part of the Olympics since 1900, the International Association of Athletics Federations did not start ratifying women's marks until 1995. Women's hammer throw was first included in the Olympics at the 2000 summer games in Sydney, Australia, after having been included in the World Championships a year earlier.

Competition[edit]

The men's hammer weighs 16 pounds (7.257 kg) and measures 3 feet 11 34 inches (121.5 cm) in length and the women's hammer weighs 8.82 lb (4 kg) and 3 feet 11 inches (119.5 cm) in length.[1] Like the other throwing events, the competition is decided by who can throw the implement the farthest.

Although commonly thought of as a strength event, technical advancements in the last 30 years have evolved hammer throw competition to a point where more focus is on speed in order to gain maximum distance.

The throwing motion involves two swings from stationary position, then three or four rotations of the body in circular motion using a complicated heel-toe movement of the foot. The ball moves in a circular path, gradually increasing in velocity with each turn with the high point of the ball toward the sector and the low point at the back of the circle. The thrower releases the ball from the front of the circle.

As of 2014 the men's hammer world record is held by Yuriy Sedykh, who threw 86.74 m (284 ft 634 in) at the 1986 European Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, West Germany on 30 August.

As of 2014 the world record for the women's hammer is held by Anita Włodarczyk, who threw 79.58 m (261 ft 1 in) in Berlin, Germany on 31 August 2014.

All-time top 10[edit]

Men[edit]

  • Updated January 2014
Rank Mark Athlete Location Date
1 86.74 m (284 ft 634 in)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS) Stuttgart 30 August 1986
2 86.73 m (284 ft 612 in)  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR) Brest 3 July 2005
3 86.04 m (282 ft 314 in)  Sergey Litvinov (URS) Dresden 3 July 1986
4 84.90 m (278 ft 612 in)  Vadim Devyatovskiy (BLR) Minsk 21 July 2005
5 84.86 m (278 ft 434 in)  Koji Murofushi (JPN) Prague 29 June 2003
6 84.62 m (277 ft 714 in)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR) Seville 6 June 1992
7 84.48 m (277 ft 134 in)  Igor Nikulin (URS) Lausanne 12 July 1990
8 84.40 m (276 ft 1034 in)  Jüri Tamm (URS) Banská Bystrica 9 September 1984
9 84.19 m (276 ft 212 in)  Adrián Annus (HUN) Szombathely 10 August 2003
10 83.68 m (274 ft 614 in)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN) Zalaegerszeg 19 September 1998

Women[edit]

  • Updated September 2014
Rank Mark Athlete Location Date
1 79.58 m (261 ft 1 in)  Anita Włodarczyk (POL) Berlin 31 August 2014
2 79.42 m (260 ft 634 in)  Betty Heidler (GER) Halle 21 May 2011
3 78.80 m (258 ft 614 in)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS) Moscow 16 August 2013
4 78.69 m (258 ft 2 in)  Aksana Miankova (BLR) Minsk 18 July 2012
5 77.68 m (254 ft 1014 in)  Zheng Wang (CHN) Chengdu 29 March 2014
6 77.33 m (253 ft 814 in)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN) Incheon 28 Sept 2014
7 77.26 m (253 ft 512 in)  Gulfiya Khanafeyeva (RUS) Tula 12 June 2006
8 77.13 m (253 ft 012 in)  Oksana Kondrateva (RUS) Zhukovskiy 30 June 2013
9 76.90 m (252 ft 312 in)  Martina Hrašnová (SVK) Trnava 16 May 2009
10 76.83 m (252 ft 034 in)  Kamila Skolimowska (POL) Doha 11 May 2007

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
 John Flanagan (USA)  Truxton Hare (USA)  Josiah McCracken (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 John Flanagan (USA)  John DeWitt (USA)  Ralph Rose (USA)
1908 London
details
 John Flanagan (USA)  Matt McGrath (USA)  Con Walsh (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Matt McGrath (USA)  Duncan Gillis (CAN)  Clarence Childs (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Patrick Ryan (USA)  Carl Johan Lind (SWE)  Basil Bennett (USA)
1924 Paris
details
 Fred Tootell (USA)  Matt McGrath (USA)  Malcolm Nokes (GBR)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Pat O'Callaghan (IRL)  Ossian Skiöld (SWE)  Edmund Black (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Pat O'Callaghan (IRL)  Ville Pörhölä (FIN)  Peter Zaremba (USA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Karl Hein (GER)  Erwin Blask (GER)  Fred Warngård (SWE)
1948 London
details
 Imre Németh (HUN)  Ivan Gubijan (YUG)  Robert Bennett (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 József Csermák (HUN)  Karl Storch (GER)  Imre Németh (HUN)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Harold Connolly (USA)  Mikhail Krivonosov (URS)  Anatoli Samotsvetov (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Vasily Rudenkov (URS)  Gyula Zsivótzky (HUN)  Tadeusz Rut (POL)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Romuald Klim (URS)  Gyula Zsivótzky (HUN)  Uwe Beyer (EUA)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Gyula Zsivótzky (HUN)  Romuald Klim (URS)  Lázár Lovász (HUN)
1972 Munich
details
 Anatoliy Bondarchuk (URS)  Jochen Sachse (GDR)  Vasiliy Khmelevskiy (URS)
1976 Montreal
details
 Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Aleksey Spiridonov (URS)  Anatoliy Bondarchuk (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Jüri Tamm (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Juha Tiainen (FIN)  Karl-Hans Riehm (FRG)  Klaus Ploghaus (FRG)
1988 Seoul
details
 Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Jüri Tamm (URS)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Andrey Abduvaliyev (EUN)  Igor Astapkovich (EUN)  Igor Nikulin (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Balázs Kiss (HUN)  Lance Deal (USA)  Oleksandr Krykun (UKR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Nicola Vizzoni (ITA)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR)
2004 Athens
details
 Koji Murofushi (JPN) Not awarded[2]  Eşref Apak (TUR)
2008 Beijing
details
 Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Vadim Devyatovskiy (BLR)[3]  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)[3]
2012 London
details
 Krisztián Pars (HUN)  Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Koji Murofushi (JPN)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
2000 Sydney
details
 Kamila Skolimowska (POL)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Kirsten Münchow (GER)
2004 Athens
details
 Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Yunaika Crawford (CUB)
2008 Beijing
details
 Aksana Miankova (BLR)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2012 London
details
 Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Betty Heidler (GER)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Zdzisław Kwaśny (POL)
1987 Rome  Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Jüri Tamm (URS)  Ralf Haber (GDR)
1991 Tokyo  Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Igor Astapkovich (URS)  Heinz Weis (GER)
1993 Stuttgart  Andrey Abduvaliyev (TJK)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN)
1995 Gothenburg  Andrey Abduvaliyev (TJK)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN)
1997 Athens  Heinz Weis (GER)  Andriy Skvaruk (UKR)  Vasiliy Sidorenko (RUS)
1999 Seville  Karsten Kobs (GER)  Zsolt Németh (HUN)  Vladislav Piskunov (UKR)
2001 Edmonton  Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Koji Murofushi (JPN)  Ilya Konovalov (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)  Adrián Annus (HUN)  Koji Murofushi (JPN)
2005 Helsinki  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)  Vadim Devyatovskiy (BLR)  Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)
2007 Osaka  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)  Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Libor Charfreitag (SVK)
2009 Berlin  Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Aleksey Zagornyi (RUS)
2011 Daegu  Koji Murofushi (JPN)  Krisztián Pars (HUN)  Primož Kozmus (SLO)
2013 Moscow  Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Krisztián Pars (HUN)  Lukáš Melich (CZE)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1999 Seville  Mihaela Melinte (ROU)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Lisa Misipeka (ASA)
2001 Edmonton  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Bronwyn Eagles (AUS)
2003 Saint-Denis  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Manuela Montebrun (FRA)
2005 Helsinki  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)
2007 Osaka  Betty Heidler (GER)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2009 Berlin  Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Betty Heidler (GER)  Martina Hrašnová (SVK)
2011 Daegu  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Betty Heidler (GER)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2013 Moscow  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Anita Wlodarczyk (POL)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)

Season's bests[edit]

Men[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Location
1971 76.40 m (250 ft 734 in)  Walter Schmidt (FRG) Lahr
1972 75.88 m (248 ft 1114 in)  Anatoliy Bondarchuk (URS) Kiev
1973 75.20 m (246 ft 812 in)  Anatoliy Bondarchuk (URS) Moscow
1974 76.66 m (251 ft 6 in)  Aleksey Spiridonov (URS) Munich
1975 79.30 m (260 ft 2 in)  Walter Schmidt (FRG) Frankfurt
1976 78.86 m (258 ft 812 in)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS) Sochi
1977 77.60 m (254 ft 7 in)  Karl-Hans Riehm (FRG) Gelsenkirchen
1978 80.32 m (263 ft 6 in)  Karl-Hans Riehm (FRG) Heidenheim
1979 79.82 m (261 ft 1012 in)  Sergey Litvinov (URS) Leipzig
1980 81.80 m (268 ft 414 in)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS) Moscow
1981 80.56 m (264 ft 312 in)  Klaus Ploghaus (FRG) Obersühl
1982 83.98 m (275 ft 614 in)  Sergey Litvinov (URS) Moscow
1983 84.14 m (276 ft 012 in)  Sergey Litvinov (URS) Moscow
1984 86.34 m (283 ft 3 in)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS) Cork
1985 84.08 m (275 ft 10 in)  Jüri Tamm (URS) Budapest
1986 86.74 m (284 ft 634 in)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS) Stuttgart
1987 83.48 m (273 ft 1012 in)  Sergey Litvinov (URS) Karl-Marx-Stadt
1988 85.14 m (279 ft 334 in)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS) Moscow
1989 82.84 m (271 ft 914 in)  Heinz Weis (FRG) Berlin
1990 84.48 m (277 ft 134 in)  Igor Nikulin (URS) Lausanne
1991 84.26 m (276 ft 514 in)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR) Reims
1992 84.62 m (277 ft 714 in)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR) Seville
1993 82.78 m (271 ft 7 in)  Andrey Abduvaliyev (UZB) Nitra
1994 83.36 m (273 ft 534 in)  Andrey Abduvaliyev (UZB) Budapest
1995 83.10 m (272 ft 712 in)  Andrey Abduvaliyev (UZB) Tashkent
1996 82.52 m (270 ft 834 in)  Lance Deal (USA) Milan
1997 83.04 m (272 ft 514 in)  Heinz Weis (GER) Frankfurt
1998 83.68 m (274 ft 614 in)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN) Zalaegerszeg
1999 82.78 m (271 ft 7 in)  Karsten Kobs (GER) Dortmund
2000 82.58 m (270 ft 11 in)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR) Stayki
2001 83.47 m (273 ft 10 in)  Koji Murofushi (JPN) Toyota
2002 83.43 m (273 ft 812 in)  Aleksey Zagornyi (RUS) Adler
2003 84.86 m (278 ft 434 in)  Koji Murofushi (JPN) Prague
2004 84.46 m (277 ft 1 in)  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR) Minsk
2005 86.73 m (284 ft 612 in)  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR) Brest
2006 82.95 m (272 ft 112 in)  Vadim Devyatovskiy (BLR) Stayki
2007 83.63 m (274 ft 412 in)  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR) Osaka
2008 84.51 m (277 ft 3 in)  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR) Grodno
2009 82.58 m (270 ft 11 in)  Primož Kozmus (SLO) Celje
2010 80.99 m (265 ft 812 in)  Koji Murofushi (JPN) Rieti
2011 81.89 m (268 ft 8 in)  Krisztián Pars (HUN) Szombathely
2012 82.81 m (271 ft 8 in)  Ivan Tsikhan (BLR) Brest
2013 82.40 m (270 ft 4 in)  Krisztián Pars (HUN) Dubnica
2014 83.48 m (273 ft 1012 in)  Pawel Fajdek (POL) Warsaw

Women[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Place
1988 58.94 m (193 ft 414 in)  Carol Cady (USA) Los Gatos
1989 61.50 m (201 ft 914 in)  Yelena Pichugina (URS) Frunze
1990 61.96 m (203 ft 314 in)  Larisa Baranova (URS) Adler
1991 64.44 m (211 ft 5 in)  Alla Davydova (URS) Adler
1992 65.40 m (214 ft 634 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Bryansk
1993 64.64 m (212 ft 034 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Krasnodar
1994 67.34 m (220 ft 11 in)  Svetlana Sudak (BLR) Minsk
1995 68.16 m (223 ft 714 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Moscow
1996 69.46 m (227 ft 1012 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Sydney
1997 73.10 m (239 ft 934 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Munich
1998 73.80 m (242 ft 112 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Tolyatti
1999 76.07 m (249 ft 634 in)  Mihaela Melinte (ROM) Rüdlingen
2000 75.68 m (248 ft 312 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Tula
2001 73.62 m (241 ft 614 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Adler
2002 73.07 m (239 ft 834 in)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS) Annecy
2003 75.14 m (246 ft 614 in)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB) Savona
2004 75.18 m (246 ft 734 in)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB) Havana
2005 77.06 m (252 ft 934 in)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS) Moscow
2006 77.80 m (255 ft 234 in)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS) Tallinn
2007 77.30 m (253 ft 714 in)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS) Adler
2008 77.32 m (253 ft 8 in)  Aksana Miankova (BLR) Minsk
2009 77.96 m (255 ft 914 in)  Anita Włodarczyk (POL) Berlin
2010 78.30 m (256 ft 1012 in)  Anita Włodarczyk (POL) Bydgoszcz
2011 79.42 m (260 ft 634 in)  Betty Heidler (GER) Halle
2012 78.69 m (258 ft 2 in)  Aksana Miankova (BLR) Minsk
2013 78.80 m (258 ft 614 in)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS) Moscow
2014 79.580 m (261 ft 1 in)  Anita Włodarczyk (POL) Berlin

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hammer Throw - Introduction". IAAF. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  2. ^ 2004 Olympic Hammer Throw Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
  3. ^ a b Engeler, Elaine (June 10, 2010). "CAS Reinstates Medals for Hammer Throwers". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-06-15. 

External links[edit]