Heptathlon

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Athletics
Heptathlon
Olympics 2008 - Heptathlon winners.jpg
Heptathletes at Beijing 2008
Women's records
World Jackie Joyner-Kersee 7291 pts (1988)
Olympic Jackie Joyner-Kersee 7291 pts (1988)

A heptathlon is a track and field combined events contest made up of seven events.[1] The name derives from the Greek hepta (seven) and athlon (contest).[1] A competitor in a heptathlon is referred to as a heptathlete.

There are two heptathlons – the women's heptathlon and the men's – composed of different events. The men's heptathlon is older and is held indoors, while the women's is held outdoors and was introduced in the 1980s, first appearing in the Olympics in 1984.

Women's heptathlon[edit]

Tatyana Chernova, Jessica Ennis and Lilli Schwarzkopf racing in the final 800 m event at the 2012 Olympic heptathlon

Women's heptathlon is the combined event for women contested in the Athletics program of the Olympics and in the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The IAAF World Combined Events Challenge determines a yearly women's heptathlon champion. The women's outdoor heptathlon consists of the following events, with the first four contested on the first day, and the remaining three on day two:

The heptathlon has been contested by female athletes since the early 1980s, when it replaced the pentathlon as the primary women's combined event contest (the javelin throw and 800 m were added).[citation needed] It was first contested at the Olympic level in the 1984 Summer Olympics. In recent years some women's decathlon competitions have been conducted, consisting of the same events as the men's competition in a slightly different order, and the IAAF has begun keeping records for it, but the heptathlon remains the championship-level combined event for women. Ganna Melnichenko is the current World Champion, winning in Moscow in 2013. Jessica Ennis representing Great Britain, is the 2012 Olympic Gold Medallist.

There is also a Tetradecathlon, which is a double heptathlon, consisting of 14 events, seven events per day.

Point system[edit]

The heptathlon scoring system was devised by Dr Karl Ulbrich, a Viennese mathematician. The formulae are constructed so that, for each event, a designated "standard" performance (for example, approximately 1.82 m for the high jump) scores 1000 points.[2] Each event also has a minimum recordable performance level (e.g. 0.75 m for the high jump), corresponding to zero points. The formulae are devised so that successive constant increments in performance correspond to gradually increasing increments in points awarded.

Event a b c
200 metres 4.99087 42.5 1.81
800 metres 0.11193 254 1.88
100 metres hurdles 9.23076 26.7 1.835
High jump 1.84523 75.0 1.348
Long jump 0.188807 210 1.41
Shot put 56.0211 1.50 1.05
Javelin throw 15.9803 3.80 1.04

The events are split into three groups, and the scores are calculated according to the three formulae:[3]

Running events (200 m, 800 m and 100 m hurdles):
P = a \cdot (b - T)^c
Jumping events (high jump and long jump):
P = a \cdot (M - b)^c
Throwing events (shot put and javelin):
P = a \cdot (D - b)^c

P is for points, T is for time in seconds, M is for height or length in centimeters and D is length in meters. a, b and c have different values for each of the events (see table).

Benchmarks[edit]

The following table shows the minimum benchmark levels required to earn 1000 points in each event of the heptathlon:

Event Required for 1000pts Units
100 m hurdles 13.85 Seconds
High jump 1.82 Metres
Shot put 17.07 Metres
200 m 23.80 Seconds
Long jump 6.48 Metres
Javelin throw 57.18 Metres
800 m 2:07.63 Minutes

Women's world records compared to heptathlon bests[edit]

Nataliya Dobrynska in the Osaka World Athletics Championships 2007 women's heptathlon
World records (WR) compared to heptathlon bests (HB)
Event Type Athlete Record Score Difference in points scored Notes/Ref
100 m hurdles
WR Yordanka Donkova 12.21 s 1246 97.37%
HB Jessica Ennis 12.54 s 1195 −51 [4]
High jump
WR Stefka Kostadinova 2.09 m 1359 94.26%
HB Tia Hellebaut 1.97 m 1198 −161
Shot put
WR Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m 1378 76.49%
HB Austra Skujytė 17.31 m 1016 −362 [5]
200 m
WR Florence Griffith Joyner 21.34 s 1251 95.70%
HB Jackie Joyner Kersee 22.30 s 1150 −101
Long jump
WR Galina Chistyakova 7.52 m 1351 96.68%
HB Jackie Joyner Kersee 7.27 m 1264 −87
Javelin[note 1]
WR Barbora Spotakova 72.28 m 1295 78.80% current 1999 model
HB Barbora Spotakova 60.90 m 1072 −223 current 1999 model[6]
WR Petra Felke 80.00 m 1448 80.80% old model
HB Tessa Sanderson 64.64 m 1145 −303 old model
800 m
WR Jarmila Kratochvilova 1:53.28 1224 92.97%
HB Nadine Debois 2:01.84 1087 −137
Total World record 9104
Heptathlon bests 7982

Men's heptathlon[edit]

Heptathlon podium at the European Athletics Indoor Championships 2009 in Turin

The other version is an indoor competition, normally contested only by men. It is the men's combined event in the IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics. The men's indoor heptathlon consists of the following events, with the first four contested on the first day, and remaining three on day two:

The scoring is similar for both versions. In each event, the athlete scores points for his/her performance in each event according to scoring tables issued by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).[7] The athlete accumulating the highest number of points wins the competition.

Benchmarks[edit]

The following table shows the minimum benchmark levels required to earn 1000 points in each event of the heptathlon:

Event Required for 1000pts Units
60 m 6.68 Seconds
Long jump 7.76 Metres
Shot put 18.40 Metres
High jump 2.21 Metres
60 m hurdles 7.69 Seconds
Pole vault 5.29 Metres
1000 m 149.00 Seconds

Men's world records compared to heptathlon bests[edit]

World records (WR) compared to heptathlon bests (HB)
Event Type Athlete Record Score Difference in points scored Ref
60 m
WR Maurice Greene 6.39 s 1111
HB Chris Huffins 6.61 s 1026 -85
Long jump
WR Mike Powell 8.95 m 1312
HB Ashton Eaton 8.16 m 1102 -166 [8]
Shot put
WR Randy Barnes 22.66 m 1266
HB Aleksey Drozdov 17.17 m 924 -342
High jump
WR Javier Sotomayor 2.43 m 1223
HB Derek Drouin 2.30 m 1091 -132 [9]
60 m hurdles
WR Colin Jackson 7.30 s 1101
HB Ashton Eaton 7.60 s 1022 -79
Pole vault
WR Sergey Bubka 6.15 m 1281
HB Alex Averbukh 5.60 m 1100 -181
1000 m
WR Wilson Kipketer 2:14.96 1172
HB Curtis Beach 2:23.63 1064 -108
Total World record 8422
Heptathlon bests 7329 -1093

All-time top 25 athletes[edit]

Women[edit]

Carolina Klüft in the Osaka World Athletics Championships 2007 women's heptathlon
Rank Score Athlete Venue Date
1 7291  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Seoul 1988-09-24
2 7032  Carolina Klüft (SWE) Osaka 2007-08-26
3 7007  Larisa Turchinskaya (URS) Bryansk 1989-06-11
4 6985  Sabine Braun (GER) Götzis 1992-05-31
5 6955  Jessica Ennis-Hill (GBR) London 2012-08-04
6 6946  Sabine John (GDR) Potsdam 1984-05-06
7 6942  Ghada Shouaa (SYR) Götzis 1996-05-26
8 6935  Ramona Neubert (GDR) Moscow 1983-06-19
9 6889  Eunice Barber (FRA) Arles 2005-06-05
10 6880  Tatyana Chernova (RUS) Daegu 2011-08-30
11 6859  Natalya Shubenkova (URS) Kiev 1984-06-21
12 6858  Anke Behmer (GDR) Seoul 1988-09-24
13 6847  Irina Belova (RUS) Barcelona 1992-08-02
14 6832  Lyudmila Blonska (UKR) Osaka 2007-08-26
15 6831  Denise Lewis (GBR) Gotzis 2000-07-30
16 6803  Jane Frederick (USA) Talence 1984-09-16
17 6778  Nataliya Dobrynska (UKR) Barcelona 2010-07-31
18 6765  Yelena Prokhorova (RUS) Tula 2000-07-23
19 6750  Ma Miaolan (CHN) Beijing 1993-09-12
20 6741  Heike Drechsler (GER) Talence 1994-09-11
21 6735  Hyleas Fountain (USA) Des Moines 2010-06-26
22 6703  Tatyana Blokhina (RUS) Talence 1993-09-11
23 6702  Chantal Beaugeant (FRA) Gotzis 1988-06-19
24 6695  Jane Flemming (AUS) Auckland 1990-01-28
25 6683  Jennifer Oeser (GER) Barcelona 2010-07-31

Men[edit]

World record holder Ashton Eaton competing at the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships
Rank Score Athlete Venue Date
1 6645  Ashton Eaton (USA) Istanbul 2012-03-10
2 6476  Dan O'Brien (USA) Toronto 1993-03-14
3 6438  Roman Šebrle (CZE) Budapest 2004-03-07
4 6424  Tomáš Dvořák (CZE) Ghent 2000-02-26
5 6418  Christian Plaziat (FRA) Genoa 1992-02-29
6 6415  Sebastian Chmara (POL) Valencia 1998-03-01
7 6412  Lev Lobodin (RUS) Moscow 2003-02-08
8 6374  Erki Nool (EST) Maebashi 1999-03-07
9 6372  Eelco Sintnicolaas (NED) Gothenburg 2013-03-03
10 6371  Bryan Clay (USA) Valencia 2008-03-09

Medalists[edit]

Women's Olympic medalists[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Glynis Nunn (AUS)  Jackie Joyner (USA)  Sabine Everts (FRG)
1988 Seoul
details
 Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)  Sabine John (GDR)  Anke Behmer (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)  Irina Belova (EUN)  Sabine Braun (GER)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Ghada Shouaa (SYR)  Natallia Sazanovich (BLR)  Denise Lewis (GBR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Denise Lewis (GBR)  Yelena Prokhorova (RUS)  Natallia Sazanovich (BLR)
2004 Athens
details
 Carolina Klüft (SWE)  Austra Skujytė (LTU)  Kelly Sotherton (GBR)
2008 Beijing
details
 Nataliya Dobrynska (UKR)  Hyleas Fountain (USA)  Tatyana Chernova (RUS)
2012 London
details
 Jessica Ennis (GBR)  Lilli Schwarzkopf (GER)  Tatyana Chernova (RUS)

Women's World Championships medalists[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Ramona Gohler-Neubert (GDR)  Sabine Mobius-Paetz (GDR)  Anke Vater (GDR)
1987 Rome  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)  Larisa Nikitina (URS)  Jane Frederick (USA)
1991 Tokyo  Sabine Braun (GER)  Liliana Nastase (ROU)  Irina Belova (URS)
1993 Stuttgart  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)  Sabine Braun (GER)  Svetlana Buraga (BLR)
1995 Gothenburg  Ghada Shouaa (SYR)  Svetlana Moskalets (RUS)  Rita Inancsi (HUN)
1997 Athens  Sabine Braun (GER)  Denise Lewis (GBR)  Remigija Nazarovienė (LTU)
1999 Seville  Eunice Barber (FRA)  Denise Lewis (GBR)  Ghada Shouaa (SYR)
2001 Edmonton  Yelena Prokhorova (RUS)  Natalya Sazanovich (BLR)  Shelia Burrell (USA)
2003 Saint-Denis  Carolina Klüft (SWE)  Eunice Barber (FRA)  Natalya Sazanovich (BLR)
2005 Helsinki  Carolina Klüft (SWE)  Eunice Barber (FRA)  Margaret Simpson (GHA)
2007 Osaka  Carolina Klüft (SWE)  Lyudmila Blonska (UKR)  Kelly Sotherton (GBR)
2009 Berlin  Jessica Ennis (GBR)  Jennifer Oeser (GER)  Kamila Chudzik (POL)
2011 Daegu  Tatyana Chernova (RUS)  Jessica Ennis (GBR)  Jennifer Oeser (GER)
2013 Moscow  Hanna Melnychenko (UKR)  Brianne Theisen-Eaton (CAN)  Dafne Schippers (NED)

Men's World Indoor Championships medalists[edit]

Bryan Clay celebrating his 2010 world title win in Doha
Games Gold Silver Bronze
1995  Christian Plaziat (FRA)  Tomáš Dvořák (CZE)  Henrik Dagård (SWE)
1997  Robert Změlík (CZE)  Erki Nool (EST)  Jón Magnússon (ISL)
1999  Sebastian Chmara (POL)  Erki Nool (EST)  Roman Šebrle (CZE)
2001  Roman Šebrle (CZE)  Jón Magnússon (ISL)  Lev Lobodin (RUS)
2003  Tom Pappas (USA)  Lev Lobodin (RUS)  Roman Šebrle (CZE)
2004  Roman Šebrle (CZE)  Bryan Clay (USA)  Lev Lobodin (RUS)
2006  André Niklaus (GER)  Bryan Clay (USA)  Roman Šebrle (CZE)
2008  Bryan Clay (USA)  Andrei Krauchanka (BLR)  Dmitriy Karpov (KAZ)
2010  Bryan Clay (USA)  Trey Hardee (USA)  Aleksey Drozdov (RUS)
2012  Ashton Eaton (USA)  Oleksiy Kasyanov (UKR)  Artem Lukyanenko (RUS)

Season's bests[edit]

Jessica Ennis in the Osaka World Athletics Championships 2007 women's heptathlon

Women's heptathlon[edit]

Year Score Athlete Location
1980 6049  Zoya Spasovkhodskaya (URS) Pyatigorsk
1981 6788  Ramona Neubert (GDR) Kiev
1982 6845  Ramona Neubert (GDR) Halle
1983 6935  Ramona Neubert (GDR) Moscow
1984 6946  Sabine Paetz (GDR) Potsdam
1985 6718  Jackie Joyner (USA) Baton Rouge
1986 7158  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Houston
1987 7128  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Rome
1988 7291  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Seoul
1989 7007  Larisa Nikitina (URS) Bryansk
1990 6783  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Seattle
1991 6878  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) New York City
1992 7044  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Barcelona
1993 6837  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Stuttgart
1994 6741  Heike Drechsler (GER) Talence
1995 6715  Ghada Shouaa (SYR) Götzis
1996 6942  Ghada Shouaa (SYR) Götzis
1997 6787  Sabine Braun (GER) Ratingen
1998 6559  Denise Lewis (GBR) Budapest
1999 6861  Eunice Barber (FRA) Seville
2000 6842  Eunice Barber (FRA) Götzis
2001 6736  Eunice Barber (FRA) Götzis
2002 6542  Carolina Klüft (SWE) Munich
2003 7001  Carolina Klüft (SWE) Saint-Denis
2004 6952  Carolina Klüft (SWE) Athens
2005 6889  Eunice Barber (FRA) Arles
2006 6740  Carolina Klüft (SWE) Gothenburg
2007 7032  Carolina Klüft (SWE) Osaka
2008 6733  Nataliya Dobrynska (UKR) Beijing
2009 6731  Jessica Ennis (GBR) Berlin
2010 6823  Jessica Ennis (GBR) Barcelona
2011 6880  Tatyana Chernova (RUS) Daegu
2012 6955  Jessica Ennis (GBR) London
2013 6623  Tatyana Chernova (RUS) Kazan
2014 6682  Katarina Johnson-Thompson (GBR) Götzis

Men's indoor heptathlon[edit]

Year Score Athlete Location
1999 6386  Sebastian Chmara (POL) Maebashi
2000 6424  Tomáš Dvořák (CZE) Ghent
2001 6420  Roman Šebrle (CZE) Lisbon
2002 6291  Frank Busemann (GER) Tallinn
2003 6412  Lev Lobodin (RUS) Moscow
2004 6438  Roman Šebrle (CZE) Budapest
2005 6232  Roman Šebrle (CZE) Madrid
2006 6229  Aleksandr Pogorelov (RUS) Moscow
2007 6196  Roman Šebrle (CZE) Birmingham
2008 6371  Bryan Clay (USA) Valencia
2009 6362  Mikk Pahapill (EST) Turin
2010 6499  Ashton Eaton (USA) Fayetteville
2011 6568  Ashton Eaton (USA) Tallinn
2012 6645  Ashton Eaton (USA) Istanbul
2013 6372  Eelco Sintnicolaas (NED) Gothenburg

National records[edit]

Women's heptathlon[edit]

Lyudmila Blonska in the Osaka World Athletics Championships 2007 women's heptathlon
  • As of June 2014
Score Nation Athlete Date Place Ref
7291  United States Jackie Joyner-Kersee 1988-09-24 Seoul
7032  Sweden Carolina Klüft 2007-08-26 Osaka
7007  Russia Larisa Nikitina 1989-06-11 Bryansk
6985  Germany Sabine Braun 1992-05-31 Götzis
6955  United Kingdom Jessica Ennis 2012-08-04 London
6942  Syria Ghada Shouaa 1996-05-26 Götzis
6889  France Eunice Barber 2005-06-05 Arles
6832  Ukraine Lyudmyla Blonska 2007-08-26 Osaka
6750  China Ma Miaolan 1993-09-12 Beijing
6695  Australia Jane Flemming 1990-01-28 Auckland
6658  Bulgaria Svetla Dimitrova 1992-05-31 Götzis
6641  Canada Brianne Theisen-Eaton 31 May – 1 June 2014 Götzis [12]
6635  Belarus Svetlana Buraga 1993-08-18 Stuttgart
6619  Romania Liliana Nastase 1992-08-02 Barcelona
6616  Poland Małgorzata Nowak 1985-08-31 Kobe
6604  Lithuania Remigija Nazaroviene 1989-06-11 Bryansk
6573  Hungary Rita Inancsi 1994-05-29 Götzis
6545  Netherlands Dafne Schippers 31 May – 1 June 2014 Götzis [12]
6527  Jamaica Diane Guthrie-Gresham 1995-06-03 Knoxville
6508  Belgium Nafissatou Thiam 31 May – 1 June 2014 Götzis [12]
6460  Czech Republic Eliška Klučinová 14–15 June 2014 Kladno [13]
6423  Ghana Margaret Simpson 2005-05-29 Götzis
6416  Sierra Leone Eunice Barber 1996-09-15 Talence
6404  Finland Satu Ruotsalainen 1991-08-27 Tokyo
6396  Latvia Aiga Grabuste 2009-07-19 Kaunas
6392  Algeria Yasmina Azzizi 1991-08-27 Tokyo
6371  Soviet Union Vera Yurchenko 1987-09-20 Lvov
6352  Cuba Magalys García 1996-06-23 Havana
6278  New Zealand Joanne Henry 1992-03-01 Auckland
6265   Switzerland Corinne Schneider 1985-06-16 Zug
6235  Greece Aryiro Strataki 2006-05-28 Götzis
6230  Portugal Naide Gomes 2005-07-17 Logroño
6226  Norway Ida Marcusen 2007-08-26 Osaka
6221  Estonia Grit Šadeiko 2013-06-30 Tallinn
6211  India Javur Jagadeeshappa Shobha 2004-03-17 New Delhi
6185  Italy Gertrud Bacher 1999-05-09 Desenzano del Garda
6160  Brazil Lucimara da Silva 2012-06-10 Barquisimeto [14]
6031  Israel Svetlana Gnezdilov 2003-08-13 Tel Aviv
5962  Japan Yuki Nakata 2004-06-05 Tottori
5959  Austria Ivona Dadic 2012-05-27 Götzis [15]
5860  Spain María Peinado
Laura Ginés
2002-07-14
2012-07-03
Castellón
Barcelona
[16]
5817  Cameroon Anaelle Nyabeu Djapa 24–25 May 2014 Arona [17]
5646  Saint Lucia Makeba Alcide 12–13 May 2011 Athens [18]
5622  Venezuela Thaimara Rivas 20–21 June 2003
9–10 June 2012
Barquisimeto
[19]
5479  Paraguay Ana Camila Pirelli 9–10 June 2012 Barquisimeto [20]
5442  Ireland Kelly Proper 2–3 May 2013 Florence [21]
5346  Philippines Elma Muros-Posadas 13–14 December 1998 Bangkok
5175  Malaysia Zaiton Othman 10–11 December 1981 Manila
4983  Benin Odile Ahouanwanou 29–30 June 2012 Porto-Novo
4620  Namibia Corlia Kruger 4–5 April 2014 Windhoek [22]
4464  Anguilla Dee-Anne Rogers 10–11 July 2013 Kazan

See also[edit]

Other multiple event contests include:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Women's javelin was redesigned in 1999 and all records started fresh. Point allocation for Heptathlon remained the same, but the comparison is being made between the WR and Heptathlon best of the current model.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Heptathlon - Definition". Merriam-webster.com. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  2. ^ "London 2012: Jessica Ennis leads heptathlon after first day", The Guardian, 3 August 2012
  3. ^ "IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events". IAAF. April 2004. p. 15. Retrieved August 5, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Women's Heptathlon 100 Metres Hurdles Results". IAAF. August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Women's Heptathlon Shot Put Results". IAAF. August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  6. ^ Hans van Kuijen (September 16, 2012). "Van Alphen and Yosypenko prevail in Talence - IAAF Combined Events Challenge". IAAF. Retrieved September 18, 2012. 
  7. ^ [1][dead link]
  8. ^ "Long Jump Results". IAAF. March 9, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ Krajewski, Casey (February 22, 2013). "Drouin Jumps to World Record in Heptathlon". Indiana Daily Student. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  10. ^ Heptathlon - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  11. ^ Heptathlon - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  12. ^ a b c Diego Sampaolo (1 June 2014). "Hardee back on top, Johnson-Thompson breaks through in Gotzis". IAAF. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  13. ^ Michal Osoba (15 June 2014). "Special K day! Kasyanov and Klucinova triumph in Kladno – IAAF Combined Events Challenge". IAAF. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  14. ^ Eduardo Biscayart (June 11, 2012). "Two South American records fall as Ibero-American champs conclude in Barquisimeto". IAAF. Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Hypo-Meeting 2012 Women's Results". IAAF. May 27, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  16. ^ "AIRE LIBRE - Récords de España Absolutos - MUJERES". May 4, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Heptathlon Results". www.atletismocanario.es. 25 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  18. ^ "Heptathlon Results". www.flashresults.com. May 13, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2011. 
  19. ^ Gómez Chirinos, Ricardo (June 4, 2010). "Milangela Rosales rompió record nacional en los 10 mil metros marcha.." (in Spanish). www.feveatletismo.org. Retrieved July 17, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Heptathlon Results". CONSUDATLE. June 10, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Proper Breaks Irish Heptathlon Record". Athletics Ireland. May 3, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2013. 
  22. ^ Helge Schutz (7 April 2014). "Johannes, Kruger set records at National Champs". The Namibian. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 

External links[edit]