Kepler (spacecraft)

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This article is about the NASA space telescope. For the European cargo spacecraft, see Johannes Kepler ATV. For the telescope invented by Johannes Kepler, see Keplerian Telescope. For other uses, see Kepler (disambiguation).
Kepler
Kepler in orbit
Artist's impression of the Kepler telescope
Mission type Space Telescope
Operator LASP NASA
COSPAR ID 2009-011A
SATCAT № 34380
Website kepler.nasa.gov
Mission duration planned: 3.5 years
elapsed: 5 years, 4 months and 18 days
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.
Launch mass 1,052.4 kg (2,320 lb)[1]
Dry mass 1,040.7 kg (2,294 lb)
Payload mass 478 kg (1,054 lb)
Dimensions 4.7 m × 2.7 m (15.4 ft × 8.9 ft)
Power 1100 watts
Start of mission
Launch date March 7, 2009, 03:49:57 (2009-03-07UTC03:49:57Z) UTC[2]
Rocket Delta II (7925-10L)
Launch site Space Launch Complex 17-B
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Contractor United Launch Alliance
Entered service May 12, 2009, 09:01 (2009-05-12UTC09:01Z) UTC
Orbital parameters
Reference system Heliocentric
Regime Earth-trailing
Period 372.5 days
Main Telescope
Type Schmidt camera
Diameter 0.95 m (3.1 ft)
Collecting area 0.708 m2[A]
Wavelengths 400–865 nm[3]
Transponders
Band X band (TT&C)
Ka band (data acquisition)
Bandwidth few kbit/s (X Band)
~4.3 Mbit/s (Ka band)

Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars.[5] The spacecraft, named after the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler,[6] was launched on March 7, 2009.[7]

Designed to survey a portion of our region of the Milky Way to discover dozens of Earth-size extrasolar planets in or near the habitable zone and estimate how many of the billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets,[8][9] Kepler's sole instrument is a photometer that continually monitors the brightness of over 145,000 main sequence stars in a fixed field of view.[10] This data is transmitted to Earth, then analyzed to detect periodic dimming caused by extrasolar planets that cross in front of their host star.

Kepler is part of NASA's Discovery Program of relatively low-cost, focused primary science missions. The telescope's construction and initial operation were managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Ball Aerospace responsible for developing the Kepler flight system. The Ames Research Center is responsible for the ground system development, mission operations since December 2009, and science data analysis. The initial planned lifetime was 3.5 years,[11] but greater-than-expected noise in the data, from both the stars and the spacecraft, meant additional time was needed to fulfill all mission goals. Initially, in 2012, the mission was expected to last until 2016,[12] but this would only have been possible if all remaining reaction wheels used for pointing the spacecraft remained reliable.[13] On May 11, 2013, a second of four reaction wheels failed, disabling the collection of science data[14] and threatening the continuation of the mission.[15]

As of June 2014, Kepler and its follow-up observations had found 977 confirmed exoplanets in more than 400 stellar systems, along with a further 3,277 unconfirmed planet candidates.[B][16][17] In November 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of sun-like stars and red dwarf stars within the Milky Way Galaxy.[18][19][20] 11 billion of these estimated planets may be orbiting sun-like stars.[21] The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists.[18][19]

On August 15, 2013, NASA announced that they had given up trying to fix the two failed reaction wheels. This meant the current mission needed to be modified, but it did not necessarily mean the end of planet-hunting. NASA had asked the space science community to propose alternative mission plans "potentially including an exoplanet search, using the remaining two good reaction wheels and thrusters".[22][23][24][25] On November 18, 2013, the K2 (also named "Second Light") plan proposal, which would include utilizing the disabled Kepler in a way that could detect habitable planets around smaller, dimmer red dwarf stars, was reported.[26][27][28][29] On May 16, 2014, NASA announced the approval of extending the Kepler mission to the K2 mission.[30]

Spacecraft[edit]

Kepler being loaded onto its upper stage

The spacecraft has a mass of 1,039 kilograms (2,291 lb) and contains a 1.4-meter (55 in) primary mirror feeding an aperture of 0.95-meter (37.4 in) – at the time of its launch this was the largest mirror on any telescope outside Earth orbit.[31] The spacecraft has a 115 deg2 (about 12-degree diameter) field of view (FOV), roughly equivalent to the size of one's fist held at arm's length. Of this, 105 deg2 is of science quality, with less than 11% vignetting. The photometer has a soft focus to provide excellent photometry, rather than sharp images. The mission goal is a combined differential photometric precision (CDPP) of 20 ppm for a m(V)=12 solar-like star for a 6.5-hour integration, though the observations so far have fallen short of this objective (see mission status). An Earth-like transit produces a brightness change of 84 ppm and lasts for thirteen hours when it crosses the center of the star.

Camera[edit]

Kepler's image sensor array. The array is curved to account for Petzval field curvature.

The focal plane of the spacecraft's camera is made up of 42 CCDs at 2200x1024 pixels, which made it at the time the largest camera yet launched into space, possessing a total resolution of 95 megapixels.[32][33] The array is cooled by heat pipes connected to an external radiator.[34] The CCDs are read out every six seconds (to limit saturation) and co-added on board for 58.89 seconds for short cadence targets, and 1765.5 seconds (29.4 minutes) for long cadence targets. Due to the larger bandwidth requirements for the former, these are limited in number to 512 compared to ~160,000 for long cadence. However, even though at launch Kepler had the highest data rate of any NASA mission, the 29-minute sums of all 95 million pixels constitute more data than can be stored and sent back to Earth. Therefore the science team has pre-selected the relevant pixels associated with each star of interest, amounting to about 6 percent of the pixels (5.4 megapixels). The data from these pixels is then requantized, compressed and stored, along with other auxiliary data, in the on-board 16 gigabyte solid-state recorder. Data that is stored and downlinked includes science stars, p-mode stars, smear, black level, background and full field-of-view images.[34][35]

Primary mirror[edit]

Diagram showing the interior of the Kepler observatory.
Comparison of nominal sizes of primary mirrors of the Kepler (spacecraft) and some notable optical telescopes (click for detail)

The Kepler primary mirror is 1.4 meters (4.6 ft) in diameter, the largest mirror located outside Earth orbit. Manufactured by glass maker Corning using ultra-low expansion (ULE) glass, the mirror is specifically designed to have a mass only 14% that of a solid mirror of the same size.[36][37] In order to produce a space telescope system with sufficient sensitivity to detect relatively small planets, as they pass in front of stars, a very high reflectance coating on the primary mirror was required. Using ion assisted evaporation, Surface Optics Corp. applied a protective 9-layer silver coating to enhance reflection and a dielectric interference coating to minimize the formation of color centers and atmospheric moisture absorption.[38][39]

Performance[edit]

In terms of photometric performance, Kepler is working well,[when?] much better than any Earth-bound telescope, but still short of the design goals. The objective was a combined differential photometric precision (CDPP) of 20 parts per million (PPM) on a magnitude 12 star for a 6.5 hour integration. This estimate was developed allowing 10 ppm for stellar variability, roughly the value for the Sun. The obtained accuracy for this observation has a wide range, depending on the star and position on the focal plane, with a median of 29 ppm. Most of the additional noise appears to be due to a larger-than-expected variability in the stars themselves (19.5 ppm as opposed to the assumed 10.0 ppm), with the rest due to instrumental noise sources slightly larger than predicted.[40] Work is ongoing[when?] to better understand, and perhaps calibrate out, instrument noise.[41]

Since the signal from an Earth-size planet is so close to the noise level (only 80 ppm), the increased noise means each individual transit is only a 2.7 σ event, instead of the intended 4 σ. This, in turn, means more transits must be observed to be sure of a detection. Scientific estimates indicated that a 7–8-year mission, as opposed to the originally planned 3.5 years, would be needed to find all transiting Earth-sized planets.[42] On April 4, 2012, the Kepler mission was approved for extension through the fiscal year 2016,[12][43] but this also depended on all remaining reaction wheels staying healthy, which turned out not to be the case (see Spacecraft history below).

Spacecraft orbit and orientation[edit]

Kepler's search volume, in the context of the Milky Way galaxy.
The photometer's field of view in the constellations Cygnus, Lyra and Draco.

Kepler orbits the sun,[44][45] which avoids Earth occultations, stray light, and gravitational perturbations and torques inherent in an Earth orbit. The photometer points to a field in the northern constellations of Cygnus, Lyra and Draco, which is well out of the ecliptic plane, so that sunlight never enters the photometer as the spacecraft orbits the Sun. (Kuiper belt objects and the asteroid belt do not obscure the field of view.[34])

This is also the direction of the Solar System's motion around the center of the galaxy. Thus, the stars which Kepler observes are roughly the same distance from the galactic center as the Solar System, and also close to the galactic plane. This fact is important if position in the galaxy is related to habitability, as suggested by the Rare Earth hypothesis.

NASA has characterised Kepler's orbit as "Earth-trailing".[46] With an orbital period of 372.5 days, Kepler slowly falls further behind Earth.

Spacecraft operations[edit]

Kepler's orbit. The spacecraft's solar array is adjusted at solstices and equinoxes.

Kepler is operated out of Boulder, Colorado, by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) under contract to Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. The spacecraft's solar array is rotated to face the Sun at the solstices and equinoxes, so as to optimize the amount of sunlight falling on the solar array and to keep the heat radiator pointing towards deep space.[34] Together, LASP and Ball Aerospace control the spacecraft from a mission operations center located on the research campus of the University of Colorado. LASP performs essential mission planning and the initial collection and distribution of the science data. The mission's initial life-cycle cost was estimated at US$600 million, including funding for 3.5 years of operation.[34] In 2012, NASA announced that the Kepler mission would be funded until 2016.[12]

Communications[edit]

NASA contacts the spacecraft using the X band communication link twice a week for command and status updates. Scientific data are downloaded once a month using the Ka band link at a maximum data transfer rate of approximately 550 KBps. The Kepler spacecraft conducts its own partial analysis on board and only transmits scientific data deemed necessary to the mission in order to conserve bandwidth.[47]

Data management[edit]

Science data telemetry collected during mission operations at LASP is sent for processing to the Kepler Data Management Center (DMC) which is located at the Space Telescope Science Institute on the campus of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The science data telemetry is decoded and processed into uncalibrated FITS-format science data products by the DMC, which are then passed along to the Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center, for calibration and final processing. The SOC at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) develops and operates the tools needed to process scientific data for use by the Kepler Science Office (SO). Accordingly, the SOC develops the pipeline data processing software based on scientific algorithms developed by the SO. During operations, the SOC:

  1. Receives calibrated pixel data from the DMC
  2. Applies the analysis algorithms to produce light curves for each star
  3. Performs transit searches for detection of planets (threshold-crossing events, or TCEs)
  4. Performs data validation of candidate planets by evaluating various data products for consistency as a way to eliminate false positive detections

The SOC also evaluates the photometric performance on an on-going basis and provides the performance metrics to the SO and Mission Management Office. Finally, the SOC develops and maintains the project’s scientific databases, including catalogs and processed data. The SOC finally returns calibrated data products and scientific results back to the DMC for long-term archiving, and distribution to astronomers around the world through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST).

Spacecraft history[edit]

In January 2006, the project's launch was delayed eight months because of budget cuts and consolidation at NASA.[48] It was delayed again by four months in March 2006 due to fiscal problems.[48] At this time, the high-gain antenna was changed from a gimbal-led design to one fixed to the frame of the spacecraft to reduce cost and complexity, at the cost of one observation day per month.

A 2004 conceptual drawing of the Kepler Space Observatory

The Kepler observatory was launched on March 7, 2009 at 03:49:57 UTC aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.[2][7] The launch was a complete success and all three stages were completed by 04:55 UTC. The cover of the telescope was jettisoned on April 7, 2009, and the first light images were taken on the next day.[49][50]

On April 20, 2009, it was announced that the Kepler science team had concluded that further refinement of the focus would dramatically increase the scientific return.[51] On April 23, 2009, it was announced that the focus had been successfully optimized by moving the primary mirror 40 micrometers (1.6 thousandths of an inch) towards the focal plane and tilting the primary mirror 0.0072 degree.[52]

On May 12, 2009, at 17:01 UTC-8, Kepler successfully completed its commissioning phase and began its search for planets around other stars.[53][54]

Kepler's launch on March 7, 2009.

On June 19, 2009, the spacecraft successfully sent its first science data to Earth. It was discovered that Kepler had entered safe mode on June 15. A second safe mode event occurred on July 2. In both cases the event was triggered by a processor reset. The spacecraft resumed normal operation on July 3 and the science data that had been collected since June 19 was downlinked that day.[55] On October 14, 2009, the cause of these safing events was determined to be a low voltage power supply that provides power to the RAD750 processor.[56] On January 12, 2010, one portion of the focal plane transmitted anomalous data, suggesting a problem with focal plane MOD-3 module, covering two out of Kepler's 42 CCDs. As of October 2010, the module was described as "failed", but the coverage still exceeded the science goals.[57]

Kepler downlinked roughly twelve gigabytes of data[58] about once per month[59]—an example of such a downlink was on November 22–23, 2010.[60]

On July 14, 2012, one of the four reaction wheels used for fine pointing of the spacecraft failed.[61] While Kepler requires only three reaction wheels to accurately aim the telescope, another failure would leave the spacecraft unable to continue in its mission. This is a potential threat to the extended mission.[62]

On January 17, 2013, NASA announced that one of the three remaining reaction wheels showed increased friction, and that Kepler would discontinue operation for ten days as a possible way of solving the problem. If this second wheel should also fail, the Kepler mission would be over.[63][64] On January 29, 2013, NASA reported the successful return to normal science collection mode,[65] though the reaction wheel still exhibits elevated and erratic friction levels.[66]

On May 11, 2013, another reaction wheel failed and the spacecraft was put in 'Point Rest State' by May 15, 2013.[14] In PRS, the spacecraft uses a combination of thrusters and solar pressure to control pointing.[14] The fuel use is low, which allows time to attempt recovery of the spacecraft.[14]

The spacecraft automatically went into a thruster-controlled safe mode with the solar panels facing the Sun and with an intermittent communication link with the Earth. In this state the fuel would last for several months. Commands were sent to the spacecraft to put it into Point Rest State. This state reduced fuel consumption - fuel reserves would last for several years in this state. This state also makes communication possible at any time. Work was started on the possibility of getting at least one reaction wheel working again.[67][68]

In July 2013, the spacecraft remained in "point rest state" while recovery efforts were planned.[69] By August 15, 2013, attempts to resolve issues with two of the four reaction wheels failed.[22][23][24] An engineering report was ordered to assess the spacecraft's remaining capabilities.[22]

Field of view[edit]

Diagram of Kepler's investigated area with celestial coordinates.

Kepler has a fixed field of view (FOV) against the sky. The diagram to the right shows the celestial coordinates and where the detector fields are located, along with the locations of a few bright stars with celestial north at the top left corner. The mission website has a calculator that will determine if a given object falls in the FOV, and if so, where it will appear in the photo detector output data stream. Data on extrasolar planet candidates is submitted to the ''Kepler'' Follow-up Program, or KFOP, to conduct follow-up observations.

Kepler's field of view covers 100 square degrees, around 0.25 percent of the sky, or "about two scoops of the Big Dipper". Thus, it would require around 400 Kepler-like telescopes to cover the whole sky.[70]

Objectives and methods[edit]

The scientific objective of Kepler is to explore the structure and diversity of planetary systems.[71] This spacecraft observes a large sample of stars to achieve several key goals:

  • To determine how many Earth-size and larger planets there are in or near the habitable zone (often called "Goldilocks planets")[72] of a wide variety of spectral types of stars.
  • To determine the range of size and shape of the orbits of these planets.
  • To estimate how many planets there are in multiple-star systems.
  • To determine the range of orbit size, brightness, size, mass and density of short-period giant planets.
  • To identify additional members of each discovered planetary system using other techniques.
  • Determine the properties of those stars that harbor planetary systems.

Most of the extrasolar planets previously detected by other projects were giant planets, mostly the size of Jupiter and bigger. Kepler is designed to look for planets 30 to 600 times less massive, closer to the order of Earth's mass (Jupiter is 318 times more massive than Earth). The method used, the transit method, involves observing repeated transit of planets in front of their stars, which causes a slight reduction in the star's apparent magnitude, on the order of 0.01% for an Earth-size planet. The degree of this reduction in brightness can be used to deduce the diameter of the planet, and the interval between transits can be used to deduce the planet's orbital period, from which estimates of its orbital semi-major axis (using Kepler's laws) and its temperature (using models of stellar radiation) can be calculated.

The probability of a random planetary orbit being along the line-of-sight to a star is the diameter of the star divided by the diameter of the orbit.[73] For an Earth-like planet at 1 AU transiting a Sol-like star the probability is 0.47%, or about 1 in 210.[73][C] For a planet like Venus orbiting a Sol-like star the probability is slightly higher, at 0.65%;[73] such planets could be Earth-like if the host star is a late G-type star such as Tau Ceti.[citation needed] If the host star has multiple planets, the probability of additional detections is higher than the probability of initial detection assuming planets in a given system tend to orbit in similar planes – an assumption consistent with current models of planetary system formation.[73] For instance, if a Kepler-like mission conducted by aliens observed Earth transiting the Sun, there is a 12% chance that it would also see Venus transiting.[73]

Kepler's 115-deg2 field of view gives it a much higher probability of detecting Earth-like planets than the Hubble Space Telescope, which has a field of view of only 10 sq. arc-minutes. Moreover, Kepler is dedicated to detecting planetary transits, while the Hubble Space Telescope is used to address a wide range of scientific questions, and rarely looks continuously at just one starfield. Of the approximately half-million stars in Kepler's field of view, around 150,000 stars were selected for observation. More than 90,000 are G-type stars on, or near, the main sequence. Thus, Kepler was designed to be sensitive to wavelengths of 400–865 nm where brightness of those stars peaks. Most of the stars observed by Kepler are have apparent visual magnitude of >14 but the brightest observed stars have visual magnitude of 8 or lower. Most of the candidates were initially not expected to be confirmed due to being too faint for follow-up observations.[74] All the selected stars are observed simultaneously, with the spacecraft measuring variations in their brightness every thirty minutes. This provides a better chance for seeing a transit. The mission was designed to maximize the probability of detecting planets orbiting other stars.[34][75]

Since Kepler must observe at least three transits to confirm that the dimming of a star was caused by a transiting planet, and since larger planets give a signal that is easier to check, scientists expected the first reported results to be larger Jupiter-size planets in tight orbits. The first of these were reported after only a few months of operation. Smaller planets, and planets farther from their sun would take longer, and discovering planets comparable to Earth were expected to take three years or longer.[44]

Data collected by Kepler is also being used for studying variable stars of various types and performing asteroseismology,[76] particularly on stars showing solar-like oscillations.[77]

Planet finding process[edit]

Finding planet candidates[edit]

Once Kepler has collected and sent back the data, raw light curves are constructed. The next step is processing (folding) light curves into more easily observable form and letting software to select signals that seem potentially transit-like. At this point, any signal that shows potential transit-like features is called threshold crossing event. These signals are individually inspected in 2 inspection rounds with the first round taking only a few seconds per target. This inspection eliminates erroneously selected non-signals, signals caused by instrumental noise and obvious eclipsing binaries. [78]

Threshold crossing events that pass these tests are now called Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI), receive a KOI designation and are archived. KOIs are inspected more thoroughly in a process called dispositioning. Those which pass the dispositioning are called Kepler planet candidates. The KOI archive is not static, meaning that a Kepler candidate could end up in the false-positive list upon further inspection. In turn, KOIs that were mistakenly classified as false positives could end up back in the candidates list.[79]

Not all the planet candidates go through this process. Circumbinary planets do not show strictly periodic transits, and have to be inspected through other methods. In addition, third-party researchers use different data-processing methods, or even search planet candidates from the unprocessed light curve data. As a consequence, those planets may be missing KOI designation.

Confirming planet candidates[edit]

Once suitable candidates have been found from Kepler data, it is necessary to rule out false positives with follow-up tests.

Usually, Kepler candidates are imaged individually with more-advanced ground-based telescopes in order to resolve any background objects which could contaminate the brightness signature of the transit signal.[80] Another method to rule out planet candidates is astrometry for which Kepler can collect good data even though doing so was not a design goal. While Kepler cannot detect planetary-mass objects with this method, it can be used to determine if the transit was caused by a stellar-mass object.[81]

Through other detection methods[edit]

There are a few different exoplanet detection methods which help to rule out false positives by giving further proof that a candidate is a real planet. One of the methods, called doppler spectroscopy, requires follow-up observations from ground-based telescopes. This method works well if the planet is massive or is located around a relatively bright star. While current spectrographs are insufficient for confirming planetary candidates with small masses around relatively dim stars, this method can be used to discover additional massive non-transiting planet candidates around targeted stars.

In multiplanetary systems, planets can often be confirmed through transit timing variation by looking at the time between successive transits, which may vary if planets are gravitationally perturbed by each other. This helps to confirm relatively low-mass planets even when the star is relatively distant. Transit timing variations indicate that two or more planets belong to the same planetary system. There are even cases where a non-transiting planet is also discovered in this way.[82]

Circumbinary planets show much larger transit timing variations between transits than planets gravitationally disturbed by other planets. Their transit duration times also vary significantly. Transit timing and duration variations for circumbinary planets are caused by the orbital motion of the host stars, rather than by other planets.[83] In addition, if the planet is massive enough, it can cause slight variations of the host stars' orbital periods. Despite being harder to find circumbinary planets due to their non-periodic transits, it is much easier to confirm them, as timing patterns of transits cannot be mimicked by an eclipsing binary or a background star system.[84]

In addition to transits, planets orbiting around their stars undergo reflected-light variations – like the Moon, they go through phases from full to new and back again. Since Kepler cannot resolve the planet from the star, it sees only the combined light, and the brightness of the host star seems to change over each orbit in a periodic manner. Although the effect is small – the photometric precision required to see a close-in giant planet is about the same as to detect an Earth-sized planet in transit across a solar-type star – Jupiter-sized planets with an orbital period of a few days or less are detectable by sensitive space telescopes such as Kepler. In the long run, this method may help find more planets than the transit method, because the reflected light variation with orbital phase is largely independent of the planet's orbital inclination, and does not require the planet to pass in front of the disk of the star. In addition, the phase function of a giant planet is also a function of its thermal properties and atmosphere, if any. Therefore, the phase curve may constrain other planetary properties, such as the particle size distribution of the atmospheric particles.[85]

Kepler's photometric precision is often high enough to observe a star's brightness changes caused by doppler beaming or a star's shape deformation by a companion. These can sometimes be used to rule out hot Jupiter candidates as false positives caused by a star or a brown dwarf when these effects are too noticeable.[86] However, there are some cases where such effects are detected even by planetary-mass companions such as TrES-2b.[87]

Through validation[edit]

If a planet cannot be detected through at least one of the other other detection methods, it can be confirmed by determining if the possibility of a Kepler candidate being a real planet is significantly larger than any false-positive scenarios combined. One of the first methods was to see if other telescopes can see the transit as well. The first planet confirmed through this method was Kepler-22b which was also observed with a Spitzer space telescope in addition to analyzing any other false-positive possibilities.[88] Such confirmation is costly, as small planets can generally be detected only with space telescopes.

In 2014, a new confirmation method called "validation by multiplicity" was announced. From the planets previously confirmed through various methods, it was found that planets in most planetary systems orbit in a relatively flat plane, similar to the planets found in Earth's solar system. This means that if a star has multiple planet candidates, it is very likely a real planetary system.[89] Transit signals still need to meet several criteria which rule out false-positive scenarios. For instance, it has to have considerable signal-to-noise ratio, it has at least three observed transits, orbital stability of those systems have to be stable and transit curve has to have a shape that partly eclipsing binaries could not mimic the transit signal. In addition, its orbital period needs to be 1.6 days or longer to rule out common false positives caused by eclipsing binaries.[90] Validation by multiplicity method is very efficient and allows to confirm hundreds of Kepler candidates in a relatively short amount of time.

A new validation method using a tool called PASTIS has been developed. It makes it possible to confirm a planet even when only a single candidate transit event for the host star has been detected. A drawback of this tool is that it requires a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio from Kepler data, so it can mainly confirm only larger planets or planets around quiet and relatively bright stars. Currently, the analysis of Kepler candidates through this method is underway.[91] PASTIS was first successful for validating the planet Kepler-420b.[92]

Mission results to date[edit]

A photo taken by Kepler with two points of interest outlined. Celestial north is towards the lower left corner.
Detail of Kepler's image of the investigated area showing open star cluster NGC 6791. Celestial north is towards the lower left corner.
Detail of Kepler's image of the investigated area. The location of TrES-2b within this image is shown. Celestial north is towards the lower left corner.

The Kepler observatory was in active operation from 2009 through 2013, with the first main results announced on January 4, 2010. As expected, the initial discoveries were all short-period planets. As the mission continued, additional longer-period candidates were found.

2009[edit]

NASA held a press conference to discuss early science results of the Kepler mission on August 6, 2009.[93] At this press conference, it was revealed that Kepler had confirmed the existence of the previously known transiting exoplanet HAT-P-7b, and was functioning well enough to discover Earth-size planets.[94][95]

Since Kepler's detection of planets depends on seeing very small changes in brightness, stars that vary in brightness all by themselves (variable stars) are not useful in this search.[59] From the first few months of data, Kepler scientists have determined that about 7,500 stars from the initial target list are such variable stars. These were dropped from the target list, and replaced by new candidates. On November 4, 2009, the Kepler project publicly released the light curves of the dropped stars.[96]

The first six weeks of data revealed five previously unknown planets, all very close to their stars.[97][98] Among the notable results are one of the least dense planets yet found,[99] two low-mass white dwarf stars[100] that were initially reported as being members of a new class of stellar objects,[101] and a well-characterized planet orbiting a binary star.

2010[edit]

On June 15, 2010, the Kepler mission released data on all but 400 of the ~156,000 planetary target stars to the public. 706 targets from this first data set have viable exoplanet candidates, with sizes ranging from as small as the Earth to larger than Jupiter. The identity and characteristics of 306 of the 706 targets were given. The released targets included five candidate multi-planet systems. Data for the remaining 400 targets with planetary candidates was to be released in February 2011. (For details about this later data release, see the Kepler results for 2011 below.) Nonetheless, the Kepler results, based on the candidates in the list released in 2010, imply that most candidate planets have radii less than half that of Jupiter. The Kepler results also imply that small candidate planets with periods less than thirty days are much more common than large candidate planets with periods less than thirty days and that the ground-based discoveries are sampling the large-size tail of the size distribution.[102] This contradicted older theories which had suggested small and Earth-like planets would be relatively infrequent.[103][104] Based on extrapolations from the Kepler data, an estimate of around 100 million habitable planets in our galaxy may be realistic.[105] However, some media reports of the TED talk have led to the misunderstanding that Kepler had actually found these planets. This was clarified in a letter to the Director of the NASA Ames Research Center, for the Kepler Science Council dated August 2, 2010 states, "Analysis of the current Kepler data does not support the assertion that Kepler has found any Earth-like planets."[106][107][108]

In 2010, Kepler identified two systems containing objects which are smaller and hotter than their parent stars: KOI 74 and KOI 81.[109] These objects are probably low-mass white dwarf stars produced by previous episodes of mass transfer in their systems.[100]

In 2010, the Kepler team released a paper which had data for 312 extrasolar planet candidates from 306 separate stars. Only 33.5 days of data were available for most of the candidates.[102] NASA also announced data for another 400 candidates were being withheld to allow members of the Kepler team to perform follow-up observations.[110] The data for these candidates were made public on February 2, 2011.[111]

2011[edit]

A size comparison of the exoplanets Kepler-20e[112] and Kepler-20f[113] with Venus and Earth.

On February 2, 2011, the Kepler team announced the results of analysis of the data taken between 2 May and September 16, 2009.[111] They found 1235 planetary candidates circling 997 host stars. (The numbers that follow assume the candidates are really planets, though the official papers called them only candidates. Independent analysis indicated that at least 90% of them are real planets and not false positives).[114] 68 planets were approximately Earth-size, 288 super-Earth-size, 662 Neptune-size, 165 Jupiter-size, and 19 up to twice the size of Jupiter. In contrast to previous work, roughly 74% of the planets are smaller than Neptune, most likely as a result of previous work finding large planets more easily than smaller ones.

That February 2, 2011 release of 1235 extrasolar planet candidates, included 54 that may be in the "habitable zone", including 5 less than twice the size of the Earth.[115][116] There were previously only two planets thought to be in the "habitable zone", so these new findings represent an enormous expansion of the potential number of "Goldilocks planets" (planets of the right temperature to support liquid water).[117] All of the habitable zone candidates found thus far orbit stars significantly smaller and cooler than the Sun (habitable candidates around Sun-like stars will take several additional years to accumulate the three transits required for detection).[118] Of all the new planet candidates, 68 are 125% of Earth's size or smaller, or smaller than all previously discovered exoplanets.[116] "Earth-size" and "super-Earth-size" is defined as "less than or equal to 2 Earth radii (Re)" [(or, Rp ≤ 2.0 Re) – Table 5].[111] Six such planet candidates [namely: KOI 326.01 (Rp=0.85), KOI 701.03 (Rp=1.73), KOI 268.01 (Rp=1.75), KOI 1026.01 (Rp=1.77), KOI 854.01 (Rp=1.91), KOI 70.03 (Rp=1.96) – Table 6][111] are in the "habitable zone."[115] A more recent study found that one of these candidates (KOI 326.01) is in fact much larger and hotter than first reported.[119]

The frequency of planet observations was highest for exoplanets two to three times Earth-size, and then declined in inverse proportionality to the area of the planet. The best estimate (as of March 2011), after accounting for observational biases, was: 5.4% of stars host Earth-size candidates, 6.8% host super-Earth-size candidates, 19.3% host Neptune-size candidates, and 2.55% host Jupiter-size or larger candidates. Multi-planet systems are common; 17% of the host stars have multi-candidate systems, and 33.9% of all the planets are in multiple planet systems.[120]

By December 5, 2011, the Kepler team announced that they had discovered 2,326 planetary candidates, of which 207 are similar in size to Earth, 680 are super-Earth-size, 1,181 are Neptune-size, 203 are Jupiter-size and 55 are larger than Jupiter. Compared to the February 2011 figures, the number of Earth-size and super-Earth-size planets increased by 200% and 140% respectively. Moreover, 48 planet candidates were found in the habitable zones of surveyed stars, marking a decrease from the February figure; this was due to the more stringent criteria in use in the December data.[121]

On December 20, 2011, the Kepler team announced the discovery of the first Earth-size exoplanets, Kepler-20e[112] and Kepler-20f,[113] orbiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-20.[122]

Based on Kepler's findings, astronomer Seth Shostak estimated in 2011 that "within a thousand light-years of Earth", there are "at least 30,000" habitable planets.[123] Also based on the findings, the Kepler team has estimated that there are "at least 50 billion planets in the Milky Way", of which "at least 500 million" are in the habitable zone.[124] In March 2011, astronomers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) reported that about "1.4 to 2.7 percent" of all sunlike stars are expected to have earthlike planets "within the habitable zones of their stars". This means there are "two billion" of these "Earth analogs" in our own Milky Way galaxy alone. The JPL astronomers also noted that there are "50 billion other galaxies", potentially yielding more than one sextillion "Earth analog" planets if all galaxies have similar numbers of planets to the Milky Way.[125]

2012[edit]

In January 2012, an international team of astronomers reported that each star in the Milky Way Galaxy may host "on average...at least 1.6 planets", suggesting that over 160 billion star-bound planets may exist in our galaxy alone.[126][127] Kepler also recorded distant stellar super-flares, some of which are 10,000 times more powerful than the superlative 1859 Carrington event.[128] The superflares may be triggered by close-orbiting Jupiter-sized planets.[128] The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) technique, which was used to discover Kepler-9d, gained popularity for confirming exoplanet discoveries.[129] A planet in a system with four stars was also confirmed, the first time such a system had been discovered.[130]

As of 2012, there were a total of 2,321 candidates.[121][131][132] Of these, 207 are similar in size to Earth, 680 are super-Earth-size, 1,181 are Neptune-size, 203 are Jupiter-size and 55 are larger than Jupiter. Moreover, 48 planet candidates were found in the habitable zones of surveyed stars. The Kepler team estimated that 5.4% of all stars host Earth-size planet candidates, and that 17% of all stars have multiple planets. In December 2011, two of the Earth-sized candidates, Kepler-20e[112] and Kepler-20f,[113] were confirmed as planets orbiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-20.[122][133][134]

2013[edit]

A chart showing Kepler discoveries, in context of all discovered exoplanets (through 2013), with some transit probabilities indicated for example scenarios.

According to a study by Caltech astronomers published in January 2013, the Milky Way Galaxy contains at least as many planets as it does stars, resulting in 100–400 billion exoplanets.[135][136] The study, based on planets orbiting the star Kepler-32, suggests that planetary systems may be common around stars in our galaxy. The discovery of 461 more candidates was announced on January 7, 2013.[137] The longer Kepler watches, the more planets with long periods it can detect.[137]

Since the last Kepler catalog was released in February 2012, the number of candidates discovered in the Kepler data has increased by 20 percent and now totals 2,740 potential planets orbiting 2,036 stars. - NASA[137]

A new candidate, announced on January 7, 2013, is Kepler-69c (formerly, KOI-172.02), an Earth-like exoplanet orbiting a star similar to our Sun in the habitable zone and possibly a "prime candidate to host alien life".[138]

In April 2013, a white dwarf star was discovered bending the light of its companion red dwarf star in the KOI-256 star system.[139]

In April 2013, NASA announced the discovery of three new Earth-like exoplanetsKepler-62e, Kepler-62f, and Kepler-69c – in the habitable zones of their respective host stars, Kepler-62 and Kepler-69. The new exoplanets, which are considered prime candidates for possessing liquid water and thus potentially life, were identified using the Kepler spacecraft.[140][141][142] A more recent analysis has shown that Kepler 69c is likely more analogous to Venus, and thus unlikely to be habitable.[143]

On May 15, 2013, NASA announced the spacecraft had been crippled by failure of a reaction wheel that keeps it pointed in the right direction. A second wheel had previously failed, and the spacecraft requires three wheels (out of four total) to be operational for the instrument to function properly. Further testing in July and August determined that while Kepler was capable of using its damaged reaction wheels to prevent itself from entering safe mode and downlinking previously collected science data it was not capable of collecting further science data as previously configured.[144] Scientists working on the Kepler project said there was a backlog of data still to be looked at, and that more discoveries would be made in the following couple of years, despite the setback.[145]

Although no new science data from Kepler field had been collected since the problem, an additional sixty-three candidates were announced in July 2013 based on the previously collected observations.[69]

In November 2013, the second Kepler science conference was held. The discoveries included the median size of planet candidates getting smaller compared to early 2013, preliminary results of the discovery of a few circumbinary planets and planets in the habitable zone.[146]

2014[edit]

Histogram of Exoplanet Discoveries - the yellow shaded bar shows newly announced planets including those verified by the multiplicity technique (February 26, 2014).

On February 13, over 530 additional planet candidates were announced residing around single planet systems. Several of them were nearly Earth-sized and located in the habitable zone. This number was further increased by about 400 in June 2014.[147]

On February 26, scientists announced that data from Kepler had confirmed the existence of 715 new exoplanets. A new statistical method of confirmation was used called “verification by multiplicity” which is based on how many planets around multiple stars were found to be real planets. This allowed much quicker confirmation of numerous candidates which are part of multiplanetary systems. 95% of the discovered exoplanets were smaller than Neptune and four, including Kepler-296f, were less than 2 1/2 the size of Earth and were in habitable zones where surface temperatures are suitable for liquid water.[89][148][149][150]

In March, a study found that small planets with orbital periods of less than 1 day are usually accompanied by at least one additional planet with orbital period of 1–50 days. This study also noted that ultra-short period planets are almost always smaller than 2 Earth radii unless it is a misaligned hot Jupiter.[151]

Kepler data has also helped scientists observe and understand supernovae; measurements were collected every half hour so the light curves were especially useful for studying these types of astronomical events.[152]

On April 17, the Kepler team announced the discovery of Kepler-186f, the first nearly Earth-sized planet located in the habitable zone. This planet orbits around a red dwarf.[153]

In July of 2014, the first discoveries from Post-Kepler field data were reported in form of eclipsing binaries. Discoveries were reported from Kepler engineering data set which was collected prior to campaign 0 in preparation to main K2 mission. [154]

Mission status[edit]

Kepler was launched in 2009 after it was constructed. It was very successful for finding exoplanets, but reaction-wheel failures crippled its extended mission in 2013.

Extension[edit]

Predicted structure of Earth's Galaxy overlaid with the original Kepler search space.[155]

In April 2012, an independent panel of senior NASA scientists recommended that the Kepler mission be continued through 2016. According to the senior review, Kepler observations needed to continue until at least 2015 to achieve all the stated scientific goals.[156] On November 14, 2012, NASA announced the completion of Kepler's primary mission, and the beginning of its extended mission, which may last as long as four years.[157]

Reaction wheel saga[edit]

In July 2012, one of Kepler's four reaction wheels (wheel 2) failed.[22] On May 11, 2013, a second wheel (wheel 4) failed, threatening the continuation of the mission, as three wheels are necessary for its planet hunting.[14][15] Kepler has not collected science data since May because it is not able to point with sufficient accuracy.[137] On July 18 and 22 reaction wheels 4 and 2 were tested respectively; wheel 4 only rotated counter-clockwise but wheel 2 ran in both directions, albeit with significantly elevated friction levels.[158] A further test of wheel 4 on July 25 managed to achieve bi-directional rotation.[159] Both wheels, however, exhibited too much friction to be useful.[24] On August 2, NASA put out a call for proposals to use the remaining capabilities of Kepler for other scientific missions. Starting on August 8, a full systems evaluation was conducted. It was determined that wheel 2 could not provide sufficient precision for scientific missions and the spacecraft was returned to a "rest" state to conserve fuel.[22] Wheel 4 was previously ruled out because it exhibited higher friction levels than wheel 2 in previous tests.[159] Sending astronauts to fix Kepler is not an option since it orbits the Sun and is millions of kilometers from Earth.[24]

On August 15, 2013, NASA announced that Kepler would not continue searching for planets using the transit method after attempts to resolve issues with two of the four reaction wheels failed.[22][23][24] An engineering report has been ordered to assess the spacecraft's capabilities, its two good reaction wheels and its thrusters.[22] Concurrently, a scientific study is being conducted to determine whether enough knowledge can be obtained from Kepler's limited scope to justify its $18 million per year cost. Both reports are expected during the fall of 2013, at which time NASA will determine the future of Kepler.

Possible future uses include searching for asteroids and comets, looking for evidence of supernovas, and finding huge exoplanets through gravitational microlensing.[24] Another proposal is to modify the software on Kepler to compensate. Instead of the stars being fixed and stable in Kepler's field of view, they will drift. However, software could track this drift and more or less completely recover the mission goals despite being unable to hold the stars in a fixed view.[160]

Previously collected data continues to be analyzed.[137] It is expected that around 90% of the 3,548 candidate planets previously identified by Kepler will be confirmed when the data analysis is complete, a process that will take several years. As of August 2013, 135 of those candidates have been confirmed.[24]

Second Light (K2)[edit]

In November 2013, a newly proposed mission plan, initially named "K2" (also called "Second Light"), was presented for consideration.[27][28][29][161] K2 would involve using Kepler's remaining capability, photometric precision of about 300 parts per million, compared with about 20 parts per million earlier, to collect data for the study of "supernova explosions, star formation and solar-system bodies such as asteroids and comets, ... " and for finding and studying more exoplanets.[27][28][161] In this proposed mission plan, Kepler would search a much larger area in the plane of earth's orbit around the sun.[27][28][161]

Kepler's "Second Light" (K2) Proposal Explained (December 11, 2013).[28]

In early 2014, the spacecraft underwent successful testing for the K2 mission.[162] From March to May 2014, data from a new field called Field 0 was collected as a testing run.[163] On May 16, 2014, NASA announced the approval of extending the Kepler mission to the K2 mission.[30] Kepler's photometric precision for the K2 mission is estimated to be 50 ppm on a magnitude 12 star for a 6.5 hour integration.[164] In February 2014, photometric precision for the K2 mission using two-wheel, fine-point precision operations was measured as 44 ppm on magnitude 12 stars for a 6.5 hour integration. The analysis of these measurements posted by NASA stated that the measurements "suggest" the K2 photometric precision "approaches" that of the Kepler archive of three-wheel, fine-point precision data.[165]

Field 1 of the K2 mission is set towards the Leo-Virgo region of the sky and Field 2 is towards the "head" area of Scorpius and includes two globular clusters: Messier 4 and Messier 80[166] and part of the Scorpius–Centaurus Association which is only about 11 million years old[167] and at a distance of 380-470 light years[168] with probably over 1000 members.[169]

Data releases[edit]

The Kepler team originally promised to release data within one year of observations.[170] However, this plan was changed after launch, with data being scheduled for release up to three years after its collection.[171] This resulted in considerable criticism,[172][173][174][175][176] leading the Kepler science team to release the third quarter of their data one year and nine months after collection.[177] The data through September 2010 (quarters 4, 5, and 6) was made public in January 2012.[178]

Follow-ups by others[edit]

Periodically, the Kepler team releases a list of candidates (Kepler Objects of Interest, or KOIs) to the public. Using this information, a team of astronomers collected radial velocity data using the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph to confirm the existence of the candidate KOI-428b in 2010, later named Kepler-40b.[179] In 2011, the same team confirmed candidate KOI-423b, later named Kepler-39b.[180]

Citizen scientist participation[edit]

Since December 2010, Kepler mission data has been used for the Zooniverse project "Planethunters.org", which allows volunteers to look for transit events in the light curves of Kepler images to identify planets that computer algorithms might miss.[181] By June 2011, users had found sixty-nine potential candidates that were previously unrecognized by the Kepler mission team.[182] The team has plans to publicly credit amateurs who spot such planets.

In January 2012, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) program Stargazing Live aired a public appeal for volunteers to analyse Planethunters.org data for potential new exoplanets. This led two amateur astronomers—one in Peterborough, England—to discover a new Neptune-sized exoplanet, to be named Threapleton Holmes B.[183] One hundred thousand other volunteers are also engaged in the search by late January, analyzing over one million Kepler images by early 2012.[184]

Confirmed exoplanets[edit]

Artist's concept of Kepler-22b.

In addition to discovering hundreds of exoplanet candidates, the Kepler spacecraft has also reported twenty-six exoplanets in eleven systems that have not yet been added to the Extrasolar Planet Database.[185] Exoplanets discovered using Kepler's data, but confirmed by outside researchers, include KOI-423b,[180] KOI-428b,[179] KOI-196b,[186] KOI-135b,[187] KOI-204b,[188] KOI-254b,[189] KOI-730,[190] and Kepler-42 (KOI-961).[191] The "KOI" acronym indicates that the star is a Kepler Object of Interest.

Both Corot[192] and Kepler[95] measured the reflected light from planets. However, these planets were already known, because they transit their star. Kepler's data allowed the first discovery of planets by this method, Kepler-70b and Kepler-70c.[193]

Kepler Input Catalog[edit]

Main article: Kepler Input Catalog

The Kepler Input Catalog (or KIC) is a publicly searchable database of roughly 13.2 million targets used for the Kepler Spectral Classification Program and Kepler Mission.[194][195] The catalog alone is not used for finding Kepler targets, because only a portion of the listed stars (about one-third of the catalog) can be observed by the spacecraft.[194]

See also[edit]

Related or comparable missions and projects

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Aperture of 0.95 m yields a light-gathering area of Pi×(0.95/2)2 = 0.708 m2; the 42 CCDs each sized 0.050 m × 0.025m yields a total sensor area of 0.0525 m2:[4]
  2. ^ This does not include Kepler candidates without a KOI designation, such as circumbinary planets, or candidates found in the Planet Hunters project.
  3. ^ This probability only has two significant figures. Thus, it is stated as 1 in 210, not 1 in 212.77

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Extrasolar planet catalogs and databases