Johannes Kepler ATV
Johannes Kepler (ATV-002) Mission Patch
Thales Alenia Space, Arianespace (LSP)
|Carrier Rocket||Ariane 5ES|
|Launch site||Kourou ELA-3|
|Launch date||16 February 2011
|Docking port||Zvezda Aft|
|Docking date||February 24, 2011, 15:59:19 UTC|
|Undocking date||June 20, 2011|
|Total||20,050 kg (44,200 lb)|
The Johannes Kepler ATV, or Automated Transfer Vehicle 002 (ATV-002), was an unmanned cargo spacecraft designed to resupply the International Space Station (ISS). It was launched on 16 February 2011 by the European Space Agency (ESA). Johannes Kepler carried propellant, air and dry cargo weighing over 7,000 kilograms (15,000 lb), and had a total mass of over 20,000 kilograms (44,000 lb), making it, at the time, the heaviest payload launched by the ESA. The spacecraft was named after the 17th-century German astronomer Johannes Kepler.
Johannes Kepler was the second ATV cargo resupply vehicle to be launched, following the Jules Verne mission of 2008. Johannes Kepler carried around five tonnes more cargo than Russia's Progress-M resupply spacecraft, and about 1.5 tonnes more than the Japanese HTV. 10,000 kg of fuel was used to change ISS's altitude from 350 to 400 km.
Many of the supplies aboard the ATV were used for the Space Shuttle mission STS-133 and the ISS Expedition 26. A Reentry Breakup Recorder was placed aboard before the ATV's separation on 20 June 2011. Johannes Kepler performed a destructive re-entry on 21 June 2011, with its remains impacting the Pacific Ocean.
Johannes Kepler consisted of two sections: the Propulsion Module, with four main engines and 28 smaller maneuvering thrusters, and the Integrated Cargo Carrier, which attached directly to the ISS and could hold up to eight standard payload racks. The four solar wings of the spacecraft provided up to 4,800 watts of electrical power to its rechargeable batteries.
The ATV's rendezvous and docking system mounted a telegoniometer, which functioned as a radar system, and two videometers, which fired laser pulses at cube-shaped reflectors on the ISS' Zvezda service module for range detection. The nose of the spacecraft contained rendezvous sensors and Russian docking equipment, as well as eight maneuvering thrusters to complement the propulsion module.
|Diameter at widest point||4.5 metres (15 ft)|
|Length (probe retracted)||9.8 metres (32 ft)|
|Spacecraft mass (with fluids loaded)||20,010 kilograms (44,100 lb)|
|Deployed solar array width||22.3 metres (73 ft)|
Mission payload 
|4,534 kilograms (10,000 lb)|
|850 kilograms (1,900 lb)|
|Oxygen gas||100 kilograms (220 lb)|
|Water||0 kilograms (0 lb)|
(food, clothes, equipment)
|1,600 kilograms (3,500 lb)|
|Total||7,084 kilograms (15,620 lb)|
- Source: NASA
GeoFlow II 
Johannes Kepler delivered the GeoFlow II hydrodynamics experiment container to the ISS. This experiment was designed to observe liquid movements in microgravity, and compare them with computer simulations, thus helping scientists to understand convection currents within the Earth’s mantle.
Mission summary 
The first launch attempt, on 15 February 2011, was halted four minutes before lift-off, due to an erroneous signal from one of the rocket's fuel tanks.
Docking with the ISS was completed on 24 February 2011 at 15:59 UTC, after a 15-minute delay. The spacecraft traveled over eight days to catch up with the space station, and arrived at the aft port of the station's Zvezda service module. During the rendezvous operations, ATV-2 traveled a total of 2.5 million miles. The docking occurred as ATV-2 and the ISS flew over the coast of Liberia in western Africa. Hooks and latches engaged a few minutes later to firmly attach ATV-2 to the ISS.
The Johannes Kepler mission marked the first time European astronauts were on board the International Space Station during an ATV mission, with Italian astronaut Paolo Nespoli welcoming the ATV's arrival. ESA astronaut Roberto Vittori was also aboard the ISS at the same time as the ATV, having arrived on Space Shuttle Endeavour on the STS-134 mission in May 2011.
ISS altitude Increase 
ATV-2 was used to change ISS's standard altitude from about 350 kilometers (220 statute miles) to 400 km (248 miles). The higher altitude has lower atmospheric drag, which reduces the propellant needed to maintain altitude from 6800 kg (19,000 pounds) a year to roughly 3630 kg (8,000 pounds), depending on atmospheric conditions. J. Kepler used about 10,000 pounds (4,500 kilograms) of rocket fuel to accomplish this change.
This change was done incrementally over several months. An example of such a burn occurred 18 March 2011, the ATV's Orbit Control System (OCS) thrusters were used to re-boost the orbit of the ISS. The engines were started at 06:00:00 GMT, and shut down at 06:14:42. The maneuver increased the altitude of the space station by 3.9 kilometres (2.4 mi).[not in citation given]
End of mission and deorbit 
On 20 June 2011, Johannes Kepler undocked from the ISS. At 18:30 UTC (20:30 CEST) that same day, while preparing to deorbit, the ATV was forced to conduct a debris-avoidance maneuver, using some of its remaining fuel to move into a safe orbit after NASA warned of a potential collision with orbital debris. On 21 June 2011, the ATV deorbited, burning up in the atmosphere over the South Pacific Ocean at around 22:44 CET.
ATV missions 
|Designation||Name||Launch date||ISS docking date||Re-entry date||Notes|
|ATV-001||Jules Verne||9 March 2008||3 April 2008||29 September 2008|||
|ATV-002||Johannes Kepler||16 February 2011||24 February 2011||21 June 2011|||
|ATV-003||Edoardo Amaldi||23 March 2012||28 March 2012||4 October 2012|||
|ATV-004||Albert Einstein||5 June 2013||15 June 2013||15 October 2013|||
|ATV-005||Georges Lemaître||12 April 2014||N/A||N/A|||
See also 
- NASA Live TV broadcast. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- ESA ATV blog. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Europe’s ATV Johannes Kepler supply ship on its way to Space Station". ESA Portal, 16 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- NASA's Consolidated Launch Schedule. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Chris Gebhardt (2011-02-15). "Ariane 5 launches ATV-2 for journey to the ISS". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- "Europe’s ATV space ferry ready for launch". ESA. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Second ATV named after Johannes Kepler". ESA. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- ESA (January 2011). "INFORMATION KIT ATV Johannes Kepler". ESA. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- NASA - Higher Altitude Improves Station's Fuel Economy - 2011
- "Unique Aerospace Invention Ready For Debut". Space Travel.com. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- NASA.gov: JK ATV Mission Cargo
- "Project Geoflow II flies into space aboard Ariane 5". ASTRIUM. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Atkinson, Nancy. "ATV ‘Johannes Kepler’ Launch to Space Station Delayed to Wednesday". Universe Today.
- Stephen Clark (February 24, 2011). "Europe's automated cargo ship docks with space station". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
- "NASA Assigns Crew for STS-134 Shuttle Mission, Change to STS-132". NASA. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- Roscosmos PAO (2011-03-18). "ISS Orbit Boosted". roscosmos.ru. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- Moskowitz, Clara. "Huge Robot Cargo Ship Departs Space Station". Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- http://blogs.esa.int/atv/ ESA ATV blog. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- European Space Agency ATV page. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- "Multi-Program Integrated Milestones" (PDF). NASA. 25 January 2008.
- "European Cargo Ship Begins Maiden Space Voyage". Space.com. 9 March 2008.
- "Europe's second cargo freighter to fly in December". Spaceflight Now. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- "One-day delay of final shuttle launch makes room for ATV". Spaceflight Now. 1 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- "Third ATV named after Edoardo Amaldi". ESA. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- "Europe's third cargo vehicle docks with the Space Station". ESA – ATV. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-31.
- "Deorbit burns set for Tuesday night/Wednesday morning". ESA ATV blog. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Mission accomplished for ATV Edoardo Amaldi". Space-Travel.com. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- "ATV-4 scheduled for summer liftoff". ESA. 11 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Johannes Kepler (spacecraft)|
- ESA - ATV
- ESA - ATV blog
- Mission Overview Video
- Launch Kit Flight 200 Ariane 5ES ATV Johannes Kepler
Huge European Cargo Ship Launches Toward Space Station]