List of German Jews

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The first Jewish population in the region to be later known as Germany came with the Romans to the city now known as Cologne. A "Golden Age" in the first millennium saw the emergence of the Ashkenazi Jews, while the persecution and expulsion that followed the Crusades led to the creation of Yiddish and an overall shift eastwards. A change of status in the late Renaissance Era, combined with the Jewish Enlightenment – the Haskalah, meant that by the 1920s Germany had one of the most integrated Jewish populations in Europe, contributing prominently to German culture and society. The vast majority either left the country or were murdered in the Holocaust.

The following is a list of some famous Jewish people (by religion or descent) from Germany proper. Also note that the idea of German nationality is rather broad, due to the many Germanic tribes, Jewish assimilation into Germany, and separate German ruled states through the history of Europe. Therefore, the same set of people could at times be referred to as Germans, Jews, or German Jews alike.

Historical figures[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Activists[edit]

Religious figures[edit]

Rabbis[edit]

Reform[edit]

Scholars[edit]

Other[edit]

Scientific figures[edit]

Natural Scientists[edit]

Physicians and medical researchers[edit]

Mathematicians[edit]

Technical Scientists[edit]

Psychologists[edit]

Academic figures[edit]

Philosophers[edit]

Economists[edit]

Social Scientists[edit]

Historians[edit]

Jurists[edit]

Linguists and philologists[edit]

Educationalists[edit]

Showbusiness[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Artists[edit]

Writers[edit]

Entrepreneurs[edit]

See also Court Jews

Sports[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Walter Tetzlaff, ed. "2000 Kurzbiographien bedeutender deutscher Juden des 20. Jahrhunderts" (Lindhorst: Askania, 1982).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BAVARIA - JewishEncyclopedia.com
  2. ^ http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/bamberger-ludwig.jsp?l=B&p=1
  3. ^ S/R 20: French Greens Surge Ahead in Elections for European Parliament
  4. ^ Jews, Politics & Military
  5. ^ Biography of Kurt Eisner
  6. ^ http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/118/475/86.pdf
  7. ^ FRIEDENTHAL, KARL RUDOLPH - JewishEncyclopedia.com
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ Henry Kissinger | Jewish Virtual Library
  11. ^ Lexicon: Frankfurt am Main
  12. ^ Eduard Lasker: Ein Leben für den Rechtsstaat by Adolf Laufs, German Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 3. (Oct., 1986), pp. 651-652
  13. ^ Flirt 4 Free | Live Video Chat
  14. ^ Germany's Greens and Israel: "The Theme is too Much" by Diana Johnstone, MERIP Middle East Report, No. 149, Human Rights in the Middle East. (Nov. - Dec., 1987), pp. 44-45
  15. ^ [3]
  16. ^ Walter Rathenau: Industrialist, Banker, Intellectual, and Politician; Notes and Diaries 1907-1922 by Von Strandmann
  17. ^ http://bucerius.haifa.ac.il/abstracts-migration.doc
  18. ^ Jewish Women who Lived in Dortmund, Germany between 1930 and 1943
  19. ^ News - Latest breaking UK news - Telegraph
  20. ^ [4]
  21. ^ Nahum Goldmann | Jewish Virtual Library
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jewish Encyclopedia
  23. ^ [5]
  24. ^ Eliyahu Meir Klugman (1996). Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch: Architect of Judaism for the Modern World. Brooklyn, NY: Artscroll Mesorah. ISBN 0-89906-632-1. 
  25. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, [6]
  26. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 ed.
  27. ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Prussian Poland of Jewish parents"
  28. ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born of Jewish parents"
  29. ^ Adolf von Baeyer's Scientific Achievements — a Legacy - Huisgen - 2003 - Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English - Wiley Online Library
  30. ^ [7]
  31. ^ [8]
  32. ^ Radio National Australia interview with Sir Walter: "I’m half Ashkenazy Jewish myself" Accessed 21 Feb 2007
  33. ^ The religion of Max Born, theoretical physicist
  34. ^ Book Review: Heinrich Caro and the Creation of Modern Chemical Industry. By Carsten Reinhardt and Anthony S. Travis - Quadbeck-Seeger - 2001 - Angewandte Chemie International ...
  35. ^ The Evonik History Portal - The History of Evonik Industries
  36. ^ Shlichim (Israeli Emissaries) | The Jewish Agency for Israel
  37. ^ [9]
  38. ^ [10]
  39. ^ [11]
  40. ^ An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie
  41. ^ [12]
  42. ^ a b Jewish Chemists
  43. ^ WebCite query result
  44. ^ Freddy Litten: abstracts 2
  45. ^ [13]
  46. ^ Dr. Leopold Ladenburg: "Stammtafel der Familie Ladenburg", Verlag J. Ph. Walther, Mannheim 1882
  47. ^ Fritz London: A Scientific Biography by Kostas Gavroglu
  48. ^ [14]
  49. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica 13:492
  50. ^ Viktor Meyer, Organic Chemist biography
  51. ^ [15]
  52. ^ The master of light;: A biography of Albert A. Michelson by Dorothy Michelson Livingston, 1973
  53. ^ Geometry.Net - Nobel: Michelson Albert Abraham
  54. ^ AJR
  55. ^ Rudolf Peierls
  56. ^ Arno Penzias - Biographical
  57. ^ PHILIPPSON - JewishEncyclopedia.com
  58. ^ Jewish Physicists
  59. ^ [16]; [17]
  60. ^ http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/154/1/5.pdf
  61. ^ [18]
  62. ^ Schwarzschild biography
  63. ^ (Encyclopaedia Judaica, 14:1578)
  64. ^ Jack Steinberger - Biographical
  65. ^ [19]
  66. ^ British Jewish Year Book 2005 p.215 (list of Jewish Nobel Prize winners); Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. "Wallach, Otto"; [20]; however Otto Wallach 1847-1931. Chemiker und Nobelpreisträger by Gunther Beer, Pg 11 disagrees
  67. ^ Letter from Richard Willstatter to Michael Heidelberger (November 14, 1939)
  68. ^ [21]
  69. ^ Whonamedit - Alfred Bielschowsky
  70. ^ Whonamedit - Julius Hallervorden
  71. ^ Obituary: Konrad E. Bloch (1912-2000) : Article : Nature
  72. ^ [22]
  73. ^ Gustav V. R. Born, The Born Family in Göttingen and Beyond, Termessos Verlag
  74. ^ [23]
  75. ^ [24]
  76. ^ Ferdinand Cohn (German botanist) - Encyclopedia Britannica
  77. ^ The Israel Chemical Society
  78. ^ [25]
  79. ^ [26]
  80. ^ a b Project MUSE - The Expulsion of Jewish Biochemists from Academia in Nazi Germany
  81. ^ [27]
  82. ^ Archive for Sexology
  83. ^ In the Shadow of Sudhoff: German Medical History in the Weimar Republic
  84. ^ Whonamedit - Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle
  85. ^ Sir Bernard Katz - Biographical
  86. ^ Memoirs of a Biochemical Hod Carrier
  87. ^ http://www.berghahnbooksonline.com/books/limberggermans/abs/50841_bios.pdf
  88. ^ Whonamedit - Sir Hans Adolf Krebs
  89. ^ Hitler's Gift and the Era of Biosynthesis
  90. ^ Lefalophodon: Jacques Loeb
  91. ^ Otto Loewi † - Springer
  92. ^ [28] "he married Katia Pringsheim, daughter of a well-known Jewish family of intellectuals. They had six children: Klaus, Erika, Golo, Monika, Elisabeth and Michael"
  93. ^ Otto Fritz Meyerhof
  94. ^ Oskar Minkowski: Discovery of the pancreatic origin of diabetes, 1889 - Springer
  95. ^ Whonamedit - Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser
  96. ^ [29]
  97. ^ Nathanael Pringsheim and the Foundation of the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland - Springer
  98. ^ Whonamedit - Ludwig Traube
  99. ^ Tidhar, David (2012). ד"ר משה ואלאך [Dr. Moshe Wallach] (in Hebrew). Encyclopedia of the Founders and Builders of Israel. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  100. ^ Steinberg, Ruth. "Schwester Selma" in Torah Profile: A Treasury of Biographical Sketches, Rabbi Nisson Wolpin, ed. 1988: Mesorah Publications, Ltd., ISBN 089906860X, p. 279.
  101. ^ Friedenwald, H. (1946), Jewish Luminaries in Medical History
  102. ^ Whonamedit - Carl Weigert
  103. ^ Doetsch (print-only)
  104. ^ [30][dead link]
  105. ^ Brauer biography
  106. ^ Obituary in The Times "he was born in Hamburg in 1924 to Jewish parents" Accessed 9 July 2008.
  107. ^ Courant biography
  108. ^ http://www.ams.org/notices/200209/fea-dawson.pdf
  109. ^ Epstein biography
  110. ^ Fraenkel biography
  111. ^ Freudenthal biography
  112. ^ [31]
  113. ^ Hopf biography
  114. ^ Hurwitz biography
  115. ^ Jacobi biography
  116. ^ Kronecker biography
  117. ^ Edmund Landau (1877-1938)
  118. ^ Jewish Mathematicians
  119. ^ Mahler biography
  120. ^ Contemporary Authors V 162 By Rooney, Scot Peacock, Pg 169
  121. ^ What's On: Music, Film, & Things To Do in Liverpool - Liverpool Echo
  122. ^ [32]
  123. ^ Neumann_Bernhard biography
  124. ^ CWP at physics.UCLA.edu // Noether
  125. ^ Pringsheim biography
  126. ^ Rado_Richard biography
  127. ^ Robinson biography
  128. ^ [33]
  129. ^ Schonflies biography
  130. ^ Schur biography
  131. ^ Toeplitz biography
  132. ^ Electronic Nation - Chapter 2
  133. ^ Emile Berliner - GHN: IEEE Global History Network
  134. ^ Emanuel Goldberg Page
  135. ^ [34]
  136. ^ [35]
  137. ^ סיעוד – פורטל סיעוד בישראל | סיעוד וטיפול סיעודי
  138. ^ Reinhold Rudenberg
  139. ^ WEIZENBAUM. REBEL AT WORK. About the film
  140. ^ http://mj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/26/1/1
  141. ^ [36]
  142. ^ Erik Erikson Biography
  143. ^ [37]
  144. ^ An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie
  145. ^ Judy Duchan's History of Speech - Language Pathology
  146. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "the son of Jewish parents"
  147. ^ Intersections: Magnus Hirschfeld: Panhumanism and the Sexual Cultures of Asia
  148. ^ [38]
  149. ^ Kurt Lewin Biography and Timeline (1890-1947)
  150. ^ [39]
  151. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica (Keter, Jerusalem, 1972, vol. 12, p. 945)
  152. ^ PEP Web - Lingering Shadows: Jungians, Freudians and Anti-Semitism: Aryeh Maidenbaum and Stephen A. Martin, Shambala, Boston, 1991, 416 pp., $35 (for Journal of the American A...
  153. ^ Fritz Perls Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy series: Amazon.co.uk: Petruska Clarkson, Jennifer Mackewn: Books
  154. ^ Consciousness Regained - Springer
  155. ^ [40]
  156. ^ [41]
  157. ^ Adorno, Theodor [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
  158. ^ Literary Encyclopedia | Ernst Bloch
  159. ^ constantinbrunner.info
  160. ^ Ernst Cassirer (German philosopher) - Encyclopedia Britannica
  161. ^ Hermann Cohen | Jewish Virtual Library
  162. ^ [42]
  163. ^ Project MUSE - Rabbis Joseph B. Soloveitchik and Abraham Joshua Heschel on Jewish-Christian Relations
  164. ^ Philosophy
  165. ^ [43]
  166. ^ Biographical Memoirs Home
  167. ^ [44]
  168. ^ Husserl, Edmund [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
  169. ^ Home | The Center for the Study of Religion and Conflict
  170. ^ Konf: From Pre-modern Corporation to Post-modern Pluralism - H-Soz-u-Kult / Termine
  171. ^ Shlichim (Israeli Emissaries) | The Jewish Agency for Israel
  172. ^ Heidegger's Children: Hannah Arendt, Karl Lowith, Hans Jonas, and Herbert Marcuse.: Richard Wolin: 9780691070193: Amazon.com: Books
  173. ^ Salomon Maimon (Jewish philosopher) - Encyclopedia Britannica
  174. ^ Guide to the Fritz Mauthner Collection,1765-1968AR 3392
  175. ^ Who is Moses Mendelssohn?
  176. ^ [45]
  177. ^ The Han Reichenbach Archives - An Overview
  178. ^ Biography of Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy
  179. ^ Max Scheler, 1874-1928: An Intellectual Portrait by John Raphael Staude
  180. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica art. Sternberg, Kurt
  181. ^ Robert J. Aumann - Biographical
  182. ^ [46]
  183. ^ Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F. A. Hayek - Pg 145
  184. ^ JInfo list of economists accessed 17 May 2007
  185. ^ Living — International Office
  186. ^ Adolph Lowe Papers
  187. ^ Glossary of People: L
  188. ^ Riemer, Yehuda. Fritz Peretz Naphtali, A Social Democrat in Two Worlds. Hassifriya Haziyonit, Jerusalem 1996
  189. ^ Jewish Nobel Prize Winners in Economics
  190. ^ (The Economist, March 11th 2006, p95: "born a Jew")
  191. ^ [47]
  192. ^ Eduard Bernstein Biography by Ted Crawford
  193. ^ [48]
  194. ^ Lewis A. Coser
  195. ^ Norbert Elias and “the civilizing process” - Springer
  196. ^ Amitai Etzioni
  197. ^ [49]
  198. ^ Moses Hess | Jewish Virtual Library
  199. ^ Are Australians racist? (transcript available) - Counterpoint - ABC Radio National (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
  200. ^ Program in Judaic Studies, Princeton University
  201. ^ Ferdinand Lassalle (German social leader) - Encyclopedia Britannica
  202. ^ Redirect
  203. ^ Herbert Marcuse, Sept. 1970 Playboy article
  204. ^ Religion of Karl Marx: Jewish Lutheran turned atheist Marxist
  205. ^ [50]
  206. ^ An Unmastered Past
  207. ^ http://www.bolender.com/Sociological%20Theory/Simmel,%20Georg/PowerPoint%20Presentation%20of%20Georg%20Simmel/Georg%20Simmel.ppt
  208. ^ [51]
  209. ^ The Political Theology of Paul - Jacob Taubes
    Translated by Dana Hollander
  210. ^ Louis Wirth Essay - Critical Essays - eNotes.com
  211. ^ Irene Blechle, Entdecker der Hochschulpädagogik. Die Universitätsreformer Ernst Bernheim und Hans Schmidkunz. Shaker Verlag, Aachen 2002, ISBN 3-8265-9943-8
  212. ^ Dictionary of Art Historians - Richard Ettinghausen
  213. ^ Henry Friedlander
  214. ^ My German Question: Growing Up in Nazi Berlin: Peter Gay: 9780300080704: Amazon.com: Books
  215. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, 2 ed, vol. 8, sv. "Graetz, Heinrich"
  216. ^ [52]
  217. ^ Eric Hobsbawm · Diary: Memories of Weimar · LRB 24 January 2008
  218. ^ [53]
  219. ^ Search the Collections — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  220. ^ AJR
  221. ^ [54]
  222. ^ Otto Rahn Memorial. 2014 http://www.otto-rahn.com/otto-rahn-biography |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 2014-07-18.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  223. ^ [55]
  224. ^ [56]
  225. ^ Marcuse review of Wolffsohn, Deutschland-Akte
  226. ^ Hannah Arendt
  227. ^ [57]
  228. ^ [58]
  229. ^ Personal Memoirs by Victor Ehrenberg, Privately Published, 1971
  230. ^ [59]
  231. ^ a b British Dictionary of National Biography
  232. ^ The German Law Journal
  233. ^ IN MEMORY OF HUGO SINZHEIMER (1875- 1945): REMARKS ON THE METHODENSTREIT IN LABOUR LAW
  234. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica art. Laband, Paul
  235. ^ Independent (London) March 5th 1999
  236. ^ neumannproject.html
  237. ^ Home - Springer
  238. ^ Gabriel Riesser - a Famous Jewish "Father"of the German Constitution of 1849
  239. ^ [60]
  240. ^ Home - Springer
  241. ^ Steinle, Stephanie (2004). "George Schwarzenberger (1908–1991)". In Beatson, J.; Zimmermann, R. Jurists Uprooted: German-speaking Émigré Lawyers in Twentieth-century Britain. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 663–680. ISBN 0-19-927058-9. 
  242. ^ http://ilj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/8/1/193.pdf
  243. ^ [61]
  244. ^ Die Synagoge in Rödelsee (Kreis Kitzingen)
  245. ^ [62]
  246. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "An unbaptized Jew"
  247. ^ [63]
  248. ^ [64]
  249. ^ https://secure.peeters-leuven.be/POJ/downloadpdf.php?ticket_id=453c55926ddd9
  250. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Goshen-Gottstein, Moshe; "born in Berlin"
  251. ^ [65]
  252. ^ Jewish Year Book 2005 p215
  253. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Rabin, Chaim Menachem; "born in Giessen, Germany"
  254. ^ [66]
  255. ^ (British Jewish Year Book 1980 p183)
  256. ^ [67]
  257. ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Berlin of Jewish parents"
  258. ^ [68]
  259. ^ The religion of Ludwig Berger, director
  260. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "the only daughter of Jewish parents"
  261. ^ Patrick McGilligan, Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast, St. Martin's Press: New York (1997), page 172
  262. ^ [69]
  263. ^ Cinema: Also Showing - TIME
  264. ^ prisma.de: Michael Degen
  265. ^ Kladderadatsch
  266. ^ Ingrid Strobl, Kristallnacht
  267. ^ [70]
  268. ^ Police investigate German chat show host as cocaine and call-girl scandal deepens - Europe - World - The Independent
  269. ^ [71]
  270. ^ [72]
  271. ^ Therese Giehse
  272. ^ Wheeler's Lou Jacobs biography
  273. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "Being a Jew, Koch's life under the Nazi regime became increasingly intolerable"
  274. ^ Error - Filmography - Movies - New York Times
  275. ^ The religion of director Ernst Lubitsch
  276. ^ Plotkin, Janis. "Filmmakers, Independent European." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 1 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive.<http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/filmmakers-independent-european>. Accessed June 17, 2012.
  277. ^ Vincent Brook, Driven to Darkness: Jewish Emigré Directors and the Rise of Film Noir, Rutgers University Press, 2009, p. 1.
  278. ^ Error - Filmography - Movies - New York Times
  279. ^ [73]
  280. ^ [74]
  281. ^ H-Net Reviews
  282. ^ Jüdisches Museum Berlin
  283. ^ filmnoir
  284. ^ [75]
  285. ^ Remembering History: The Filmmaker Konrad Wolf by Marc Silberman, New German Critique, No. 49, Special Issue on Alexander Kluge. (Winter, 1990), pp. 163-191
  286. ^ Theatre Reviews: Opposites by Wilhelm Hortmann, Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 4. (Winter, 1982), pp. 513-515
  287. ^ Samuel Adler
  288. ^ [76]
  289. ^ Wiebke Hoogklimmer, Contralto and Stage Director
  290. ^ [77]
  291. ^ Jewish Orchestra Conductors
  292. ^ The Jewish Theological Seminary - THE HERMAN BERLINSKI MUSIC COLLECTION
  293. ^ [78]
  294. ^ [79]
  295. ^ a b http://www.biu.ac.il/HU/mu/min-ad/06/Lachman-R-Katz.pdf
  296. ^ Fritz Hennenberg: Paul Dessau. Eine Biographie
  297. ^ [80]
  298. ^ Alfred Einstein on Music: Selected Music Criticisms by Catherine Dower
  299. ^ Hanns Eisler
  300. ^ http://artists-in-residence.com/ljlehrman/articles/aufbau7.html
  301. ^ Jewish Chronicle, July 13, 2001 p.25 "two Jewish composers, Alexander Goehr and Robert Saxton"
  302. ^ [81]
  303. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "His was a cultured, musical Jewish family"
  304. ^ [82]
  305. ^ http://oq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/10/4/39.pdf
  306. ^ [83]
  307. ^ Kultur: Leben im Zwiespalt | ZEIT ONLINE
  308. ^ [84]
  309. ^ Records International February 2003 Catalogue
  310. ^ [85]
  311. ^ Martin Dillon, tenor | The Songs of Robert Kahn, Volume 1 | CD Baby Music Store
  312. ^ [86]
  313. ^ [87]
  314. ^ "Hermann Levi's shame and Parsifal's guilt" by Laurence Dreyfus
  315. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990508/ai_n14235233
  316. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica art. Lowinsky, Edward
  317. ^ a b c d Thomas Mann Kilchberg pictures photos
  318. ^ [88]
  319. ^ [89]
  320. ^ [90]
  321. ^ Giacomo Meyerbeer, 1791-1864 by Martin Cooper
  322. ^ [91]
  323. ^ [92]
  324. ^ "Andre Previn - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  325. ^ AJR
  326. ^ Floridian: Tearing down the walls
  327. ^ http://mq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/LXXII/1/1.pdf
  328. ^ [93]
  329. ^ William Steinberg
  330. ^ Music in the Jewish Community of Palestine 1880-1948: A Social History by Jehoash Hirshberg
  331. ^ [94]
  332. ^ Musto, John- Bio, Albums, Pictures – Naxos Classical Music
  333. ^ Musical Pointers
  334. ^ [95]
  335. ^ He Wrote the Songs | Village Voice
  336. ^ Peter Dawson- Albums, Pictures – Naxos Classical Music
  337. ^ Das Dschungelcamp 2014 | Ich bin ein Star – holt mich hier raus - RTL.de
  338. ^ Project MUSE - On the Music of Stefan Wolpe: Essays and Recollections (review)
  339. ^ [96]
  340. ^ Singing As A Path
  341. ^ [97]
  342. ^ Albers and Moholy-Nagy: from the Bauhaus to the New World | Tate
  343. ^ http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ArtistWorks?cgroupid=999999961&artistid=676&page=1&sole=y&collab=y&attr=y&sort=default&tabview=bio
  344. ^ [98]
  345. ^ Blumenfeld - beauty and mystery - SFGate
  346. ^ Alfred Eisenstaedt | Jewish Virtual Library
  347. ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born at Dortmund of Jewish parentage"
  348. ^ James Freed - architect of S.F. new Main Library - SFGate
  349. ^ Gisèle Freund
  350. ^ [99]
  351. ^ http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?cgroupid=999999961&workid=7814&searchid=11883&tabview=text
  352. ^ [100]
  353. ^ International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project: he is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Znojmo, Czech Republic; accessed 18 May 2007
  354. ^ The Jewish Museum - Press Releases
  355. ^ http://ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1911_1912_4_YearReview.pdf
  356. ^ Metroactive Arts | Peter Max
  357. ^ The Courtauld Institute of Art : Newsletter Archive
  358. ^ Looking for Open2.net? - OpenLearn - Open University
  359. ^ helmut-newton-dead
  360. ^ Architecture projects | Studio Daniel Libeskind
  361. ^ [101]
  362. ^ PACPubServer.com: The Leading PAC Pub Server Site on the Net
  363. ^ Title Search
  364. ^ 5. Charlotte Salomon: "Life? or Theater?"
  365. ^ Charlotte Salomon: Life or Theatre - Art Gallery of Ontario - Absolutearts.com
  366. ^ Markowitz, Michael (1996-04-30). "ERNA WEILL, NOTED TEANECK SCULPTOR". Bergen Record. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  367. ^ Concise Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Germany of Hungarian Jewish parents"
  368. ^ Erich Auerbach
  369. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica art. Bab, Julius
  370. ^ [102]
  371. ^ [103]
  372. ^ Jüdisches Museum Berlin
  373. ^ Otto Brahm (German critic) - Encyclopedia Britannica
  374. ^ Project MUSE - Review: Speaking Out - Jewish Voices from United Germany
  375. ^ Home Page
  376. ^ William Pomeroy, Right Wing Revises History on V-E Day Anniversary
  377. ^ Conversion in nineteenth-century France: Unusual or common practice? - Springer
  378. ^ All About Jewish Theatre - Poet of homecoming whose optimism celebrated the spirit of the new Germany : Hilde Domin (1909-2006)
  379. ^ [104]
  380. ^ [105]
  381. ^ Gale ~ Page Missing ~ Page Error Redirect
  382. ^ Joseph Goebbels | Jewish Virtual Library
  383. ^ Glückel of Hameln
  384. ^ http://site.www.umb.edu/faculty/salzman_g/Strate/Discus/2002-12-05CraigOnElon.rtf
  385. ^ "Heinrich Heine, 'Blackguard' and 'Apostate': A Study of the Earliest Attitude Towards Him" by Sol Liptzin
  386. ^ [106]
  387. ^ [107]
  388. ^ Bestselling German-Jewish Author Satirizes the Holocaust | Culture | DW.DE | 09.04.2006
  389. ^ [108]
  390. ^ The Gabriele Killert & Richard Schroetter: Obligation destruction fixes. The forgotten Jewish writer Heinrich Eduard Jacob; in: "new inhabitants of zurich newspaper" (boarding school Expenditure), NR. 78. Zurich, 5./6. April 1997, S. 50.
  391. ^ Kultur - Goethe-Institut
  392. ^ Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
  393. ^ Kultur - Goethe-Institut
  394. ^ Project MUSE - A Knock at the Door: Reading Judith Kerr's Picture Books in the Context of Her Holocaust Fiction
  395. ^ The Lesser Evil: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer 1945-1959
  396. ^ Project MUSE - "I am Prince Jussuf": Else Lasker-Schüler's Autobiographical Performance
  397. ^ Pincus, Lily Verloren, gewonnen: Mein Weg von Berlin nach London, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1980
  398. ^ Kulturserver gGmbH - CultureBase - DefaultName
  399. ^ biblewiki.be - biblewiki Resources and Information. This website is for sale!
  400. ^ Ijpa.org
  401. ^ [109]
  402. ^ Academic Publications — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  403. ^ Author of Himself, The ... The Life of Marcel Reich-Ranicki
  404. ^ Journey That Saved Curious George Wartime Escape of Margret and H. A. Rey
  405. ^ [110]
  406. ^ Nelly Sachs
  407. ^ Literary Encyclopedia | Anna Seghers
  408. ^ [111]
  409. ^ Jews in today's German culture
  410. ^ CEEOL Derekh Judaica Urbinatensia , Issue 3 /2005
  411. ^ [112]
  412. ^ [113]
  413. ^ Rahel Varnhagen The Life of a Jewish Woman by Hannah Arendt
  414. ^ [114]
  415. ^ Hymen, E. Paula & Dash Moore, Deborah. (eds) (1997) Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Routledge, ISBN 0-415-91934-7 (pp. 1463-1465)
  416. ^ [115]
  417. ^ http://www.umass.edu/defa/filmtour/sjprofmamlock.shtml
  418. ^ The immigration of Carl Zuckmayer into the USA [Content-space.de]
  419. ^ Arnold Zweig (German writer) - Encyclopedia Britannica
  420. ^ K. Grunwald, ‘Windsor Cassel: the last court Jew’, Yearbook of the Leo Baeck Institute, 14 (1969), 119–61
  421. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "born on 9 December 1831 in Munich ... His grandfather Jacob had established the family as one of the first Jewish families to acquire great wealth and social acceptability in Bavaria ... His mother came from an Orthodox Frankfurt family and ensured that the children were properly instructed in Jewish matters."
  422. ^ http://ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1987_7_WestEurope.pdf
  423. ^ Charles R. Geisst, The last partnerships: inside the great Wall Street money dynasties, p55
  424. ^ Culture Northern Ireland
  425. ^ Name: RUDI BALL
  426. ^ Gretel Bergmann
  427. ^ a b Jewish Chess Players
  428. ^ Levi Strauss & Barney Dreyfuss
  429. ^ [116]
  430. ^ [117]
  431. ^ Lasker biography
  432. ^ Foiled: Hitler's Jewish Olympian; The Helene Mayer Story: Milly Mogulof: 9781571430922: Amazon.com: Books
  433. ^ Sarah Poewe | Jewish Virtual Library
  434. ^ The Nazi Olympics (August 1936) | Jewish Virtual Library
  435. ^ Tarrasch, Englisch