List of Romanesque buildings

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Listed below are examples of surviving buildings in Romanesque style in Europe, sorted by modernday countries.

List[edit]

Austria[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

The Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Nikopol

Croatia[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

St. George's Rotunda on Říp Mountain

France[edit]

St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end
Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. Trophime, Arles
Romanesque abbey church of Jumièges, Normandy

Romanesque architecture expands in France through monasteries. Burgundy was the center of monastic life in France - one of the most important Benedictine monastery of medieval Europe was the one in Cluny. The pilgrimage also contributed to expansion of this style. Many pilgrims passed through France on their way to Santiago de Compostela.

French Romanesque schools of architecture, which are specific for every region, are characterised by the variety of stone vaulting.

  • Regions that developed distinctive styles are:

Germany[edit]

Romanesque St. Michael's Church (1010-33) in Hildesheim – a World Heritage Site
Romanesque portal of Schottenkirche, Regensburg

Hungary[edit]

The Romanesque church of Lébény
  • Calvinist church, Ócsa (e.[clarification needed] 13th century)
  • Parish church of the Annunciation of Our Lady, Türje (e.[clarification needed] 13th century)
  • Parish church of St. James the Apostle, Lébény (c. 1190-1212)
  • Parish church of St. George, Ják (c. 1220-1256)
  • Abbey Church of the Assumption of Our Lady, Belapatfalva (1232–1246)
  • Cathedral of Pécs Pécs (11th century, 1882–1891)
  • Royal palace at Esztergom Esztergom (10th-13th century)
  • Pannonhalma Archabbey (certain parts) Pannonhalma (11th-13th century)

Ireland[edit]

Carving above doorway, Clonfert Cathedral, Co. Galway, Ireland

Italy[edit]

In Italy, the prevalent diffusion is in Lombardy, in Emilia - Romagna, in Tuscany, in the continental part of Veneto and in Apulia; everyone of these "Romanesque styles" has proper characteristics, for constructing methods and for materials. For example, a characteristic of Romanesque is that to change the classic elements with Christian elements, but in Tuscany and Apulia the classic decoratings remain.

Materials depended from the local disponibility, because the importation was too expensive. In fact, in Lombardy the most used material is ceramic, because of the argillous nature of the terrain; but that is not true for Como, where there were large diponibility of stone; in Tuscany buildings in white marble (from Carrara) are frequent, with inserts of green serpentin marble.

In Lombardy and Emilia, in that age united, in Romanesque epoque there was a great artistic flowering. The most monumental churches and cathedrals are often built with the campata system, with varying columns which weigh a tutto sesto arcos. In plain the material of construction is prevalently the mattone, but buildings in stone do not lack. The greater part of the Roman cities along the via Emilia is equipped in this age of monumental cathedral, between which they already maintain to the medieval system.

Abruzzo

Aosta Valley

Emilia-Romagna

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Latium

  • Cathedral of Acquapendente (province of Viterbo)
  • Church of S. Maria della Libera (Aquino - province of Frosinone)

Lombardy

Marche

  • Church of S. Ciriaco (Ancona)
  • Pieve of S. Maria della Piazza (Ancona)
  • Pieve of S. Urbano (Apiro - province of Macerata)
  • San Vittore alle Chiuse

Piedmont

  • Vezzolano Abbey (Albugnano - province of Asti)
  • Crypt of Sant'Anastasio (Asti)
  • Pieve of San Secondo (Cortazzone - province of Asti)
  • Church of SS. Nazario e Celso (Montechiaro - province of Asti)
  • Pieve of San Lorenzo (Montiglio - province of Asti)
  • Abbey of Santi Nazario e Celso (San Nazzaro Sesia - province of Novara)
  • Abbey of Santa Fede (Cavagnolo - province of Tourin)
  • Cattedrale dell'Addolorata (Acqui Terme - province of Alessandria)
  • Church of S. Pietro (Albugnano - province of Asti)
  • Baptistery of Agrate (Agrate Conturbia - province of Novara)
  • Romanesque architecture in Canavese area Ivrea - Media related to Romanesque architecture in Canavese at Wikimedia Commons

Puglia

Sardinia

Sicily

San Galgano, Tuscany

Tuscany

Umbria

  • Cathedral of Spoleto
  • Chiesa di San Bernardino da Siena (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • Chiesa di Sant'Arcangelo (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • Eremo di San Marco e la grotta del Beato Ventura (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • Chiesa Tonda (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Maria di Pietrarossa (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Stefano di Piaggia (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Nicolò (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Fabiano (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Tommaso (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Sabino (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Pietro a Pettine (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Costanzo (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Andrea (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Egidio di Borgo (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Donato (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Leonardo del Colle (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Martino in Manciano (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Apollinare (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Stefano in Manciano (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Pietro in Bovara (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Maria di Pelan (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Paolo di Coste (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Croce in Val dell'Aquila (Trevi - province of Perugia)
  • S. Emiliano (Trevi - province of Perugia)

Veneto

  • San Zeno, Verona
  • S. Pietro in Cantalovo (Bevilacqua, province of Verona)
  • S. Salvaro (S. Pietro di Legnago, province of Verona)
  • S. Zeno (Cerea - province of Verona)
  • Chiesa della Bastia (Isola della Scala - province of Verona)
  • Santa Maria Maggiore (Gazzo, province of Verona)
  • S. Pietro (Villanova - province of Verona)
  • S. Maria (Bonavigo - province of Verona)
  • S. Michele (Belfiore - province of Verona)
  • S. Andrea (Sommacampagna - province of Verona)
  • Basilica di Santa Maria Assunta (Adria - Province of Rovigo)
  • Cathedral of Adria (Adria - Province of Rovigo)

Netherlands[edit]

Poland[edit]

Romanesque portal of St. Mary Magdalene Church, Wrocław.
Column of virtues in Strzelno, Poland

Portugal[edit]

Façade of the Old Cathedral of Coimbra (Portugal, second half of 12th century).

Serbia[edit]

Slovakia[edit]

Spain[edit]

Saint Clement of Taüll in Catalonia, Spain. Lombard Romanesque
Collegiate church of Santillana del Mar, Spain. Cloister
Inner view of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Romanesque first developed in Spain in the 10th and 11th centuries and before Cluny`s influence, in Lérida, Barcelona, Tarragona and Huesca and in the Pyrinees, simultaneously with the north of Italy, into what has been called "First Romanesque" or "Lombard Romanesque". It is a very primitive style, whose characteristics are thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches.

Romanesque architecture truly arrives with the influence of Cluny through the Way of Saint James, that ends in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. The model of the Spanish Romanesque in 12th century was the Cathedral of Jaca, with its characteristic apse structure and plan, and its "chess" decoration in strips, called taqueado jaqués. As the Christian kingdoms advanced to the South, that model spread throughout the reconquered areas with some variations. Spanish Romanesque has also influence of the Spanish pre-Romanesque styles, mainly the Asturian and the Mozarab. But there is also a strong influence of the moorish architecture, so close in space, especially the vaults of Córdoba`s Mosque, and the polylobulated arches. In the 13th century, some Romanesque churches alternated with the Gothic. Aragón, Castile and Navarra are some of the most dense areas of Spanish Romanesque.

Sweden and Scandinavia[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

Turkey[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

In England, Romanesque architecture is often termed 'Norman architecture'. Castles, cathedrals and churches of the Norman period have frequently been extended during later periods. It is normal to find Norman in combination with Gothic architecture.

  • Durham Cathedral is regarded as the finest Norman building in England and is sometimes cited as the finest Romanesque building in the world.
  • Peterborough Cathedral is an intact Norman cathedral except for the early Gothic west front and late Gothic eastern ambulatory.

Scotland[edit]

See also[edit]