List of political parties in Japan

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This article lists political parties in Japan.

Major parties[edit]

Party Diet Representation Party Leader Comments
Representatives Councillors
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
Jiyū Minshu-tō 自由民主党,
or Jimin-tō 自民党
290
115
Shinzō Abe PM Reps. Populism, Conservatism and Japanese nationalism. The LDP is Japan's largest political party. It is a conservative party and is made up of various conservative, nationalist and centrist factions. Before 2009, the LDP had been in power almost continuously since 1955, when it was formed as a merger of early postwar Japan's two conservative parties, the Liberal Party of Japan, and the Japan Democratic Party.
Democratic Party (DPJ)
Minshu-tō 民主党
("Democratic Party")
73
59
Banri Kaieda Reps. Social liberalism. The DPJ is Japan's second largest political party. It was formed in the late 1990s as a result of the merger of several anti-LDP parties, and was the ruling party in 2009-2012. The DPJ is the largest opposition party and has a shadow cabinet. Its membership covers a broad spectrum of political beliefs, but it is generally perceived as a centrist party.[1]
Innovation Party (JIP)
Ishin no Tō 維新の党
42
9
Kenji Eda Reps.
Tōru Hashimoto (Mayor of Osaka)
Japanese nationalism, neoconservatism, economic liberalism and administrative reform; formed by Kenji Eda 's Unity Party and Osaka mayor Tōru Hashimoto's Japan Restoration Party. It is considered more right wing than the Liberal Democratic Party.
Komeito (KM)
Kōmeitō 公明党
("Clean Government", "Fairness" or "Justice Party")
35
20
Natsuo Yamaguchi Coun. The Komeito Party was formerly known as the Clean Government Political Assembly, Komeito (1964-1998) and New Komeito. At its foundation, the party was center-left, but it has drifted rightwards as a participant in the LDP's governing coalitions. It is supported by the Buddhist new religious movement Sōka Gakkai. It was Japan's third largest party in the House of Representatives of Japan until the formation of People's Life First in 2012. The party dropped the word "New" from its English title in September 2014.
Communist Party (JCP)
Nihon Kyōsan-tō 日本共産党
21
11
Kazuo Shii Reps. The Japanese Communist Party is Japan's oldest party. It was formed in 1922 as an underground organization in the Empire of Japan, but was legalized after World War II during the Occupation. It used to be a communist party, but the party has recently shifted to a socialist party.

Other parties currently represented in the national Diet[edit]

Party Diet Representation Party Leader(s) Comments
Representatives Councillors
Party for Future Generations (PFG)
Jisedai no Tō 次世代の党
("Next Generation Party")
2
18
Takeo Hiranuma Reps. Japanese nationalism, Neoconservatism
People's Life Party (PLP)
Seikatsu no Tō 生活の党
2
2
Ichirō Ozawa Reps. Life Party was founded by Ichirō Ozawa and 14 other diet members who were in the Tomorrow Party of Japan after a leadership dispute between Ozawa and Yukiko Kada.
Social Democratic Party (SDP)
Shakai Minshu-tō 社会民主党
2
3
Tadatomo Yoshida Coun. SDP is a social-democratic party. It is a successor of the Japan Socialist Party, which had been Japan's largest opposition party in the 1955 System It was in the ruling coalition (1993-1996) and (2009-2010). It had a prime minister named Tomiichi Murayama from 1994 to 1996.
New Party Daichi – True Democrats
Shintō Daichi – Shinminshu 新党大地・真民主
1
0
Muneo Suzuki founded in December 2011 by New Party Daichi and ex-Democrats, Hokkaidō regionalism, opposed to joining TPP
New Renaissance Party (NRP)
Shintō Kaikaku 新党改革
("New Reform Party")
0
1
Hiroyuki Arai Coun. Conservatism, Neoliberalism
Okinawa Socialist Masses Party (OSMP)
Okinawa Shakai Taishūtō 沖縄社会大衆党
0
1
Keiko Itokazu Coun. social democracy, Okinawa regionalism

Legal status as political party (seitō) is tied to having five members in the Diet or at least two percent nationally of either proportional or local vote in the last Representatives or one of the last two Councillors elections. Political parties receive public party funding (¥ 250 per citizen, about ¥ 32 bill. in total per fiscal year, distributed according to recent national elections results – last HR general and last two HC regular elections – and Diet strength on January 1), are allowed to concurrently nominate candidates for the House of Representatives in an electoral district and on a proportional list, may take political donations from legal persons, i.e. corporations, and other benefits such as air time on public broadcaster NHK.[2]

House of Representatives Election in 2012
House of Councilors Election in 2013

Parties currently represented in prefectural and municipal assemblies (incomplete)[edit]

Note: In legal terms, all of the parties below are "political organizations" (seiji dantai), not "political parties" (seitō, see above).

  • New Socialist Party (Shin-Shakaitō), a left breakaway group from the Japanese Socialist Party, created in 1996 when the latter formed the Social Democratic Party; the New Socialist Party was represented in the national Diet from 1996 to 1998
  • Greens Japan (Midori no Tō, lit. "Green Party"), created in 2012 as successor of Greens Japan (Midori no Mirai, lit. "Green Future"), a green party formed by the merger of the conservative-green Greens Japan (Midori no Table, "Green Table") and the left-wing-green Rainbow and Greens (Niji to Midori) in 2008
  • Several member organizations of the Japan People's Political Network, a federation of local consumer movements that entered politics in the 1970s (includes the Tokyo Seikatsusha Network and the Kanagawa Network Movement)

Prefectural and local parties[edit]

Other minor parties[edit]

Existing national parties represented in the Diet in the past[edit]

Current political parties that used to be in the Diet but are not currently represented:

Other parties[edit]

Japan has other minor parties not represented in Parliament (which have never been represented before), some are new, others with communist and socialist ideologies, as well as a few nationalist, reformist, and far right-wing parties. Some of them include:

Defunct parties[edit]

Former major parties[edit]

  • Liberal Party (Jiyūtō, 1890–1898, initially Constitutional Liberal Party (Rikken Jiyūtō)), the strongest party in the early House of Representatives and the mainstream liberal opposition to government military spending and foreign policy
  • Progressive Party (Shinpotō, 1896–1898), created during a temporary alliance between Liberals and the oligarchy
  • Constitutional Party (Kenseitō, 1898–1900), formed by a merger of Liberal and Progressive Party
  • True Constitutional Party (Kensei Hontō, 1898–1910), breakaway of liberals discontented with the alliance with the government
  • Rikken Seiyūkai (1900–1940), formed in 1900 by a now permanent alliance between parts of the Meiji oligarchy, the bureaucracy and members of the liberal parties it became the dominant force in party politics throughout the Empire
  • Constitutional People's Party (Rikken Kokumintō, 1910–1922), created in a merger of the True Constitutional Party with smaller groups, the party pushed the government for an expansion of constitutional rights
  • Rikken Dōshikai (1913–1916), another attempt by Katsura Tarō to form a strong opposition to the Seiyūkai
  • Constitutional Assembly (Kenseikai, 1916-1927), the core group of the constitutional movement in the Taishō era
  • True Seiyū Party (Seiyū Hontō, 1923–1926), a Seiyūkai breakaway during the "three constitutional factions" (goken sampa) alliance between Seiyūkai, Kenseikai and Kakushin Club ("Reform Club")
  • Constitutional Democratic Party (Rikken Minseitō, 1927–1940), main opponent of the Seiyūkai in the final years of party rule and during the rise of the military
  • Japanese Liberal Party (JLP or LP; Nihon Jiyūtō, 1945–1948), mainstream democratic conservative party around former Seiyūkai politicians
  • Japanese Progressive Party (Nihon Shinpotō, 1945–1947), conservative party around former Minseitō politicians
  • Japanese Socialist Party (JSP; Nihon Shakaitō, 1945–1996, divided into leftist JSP and rightist JSP in the early 1950s), a small minority before the war, the Socialists became the main opposition to the soon united conservatives, but continually lost ground to more centrist opposition parties over the decades
  • Summer breeze assembly (Ryokufūkai, 1947–1960, reestablished several times after)), created as the largest parliamentary group in the first House of Councillors by conservatives and some liberals and moderate socialists including a number of former House of Peers members, it had a centrist approach and was willing to work with centre-left and centre-right cabinets
  • Democratic Party (DP; Minshutō, 1947–1950), created by the Progressive Party and a Liberal breakaway group, the party tried to occupy the "centre" between Liberals and Socialists, but was soon divided over cooperation with either group
  • Democratic Liberal Party (DLP or LP; Minshujiyūtō, 1948–1950), created from the Liberal Party when Democrats opposed to the coalition with the Socialists joined it
  • Liberal Party (LP; Jiyūtō, 1950–1955), created after the Democrats had finally split over cooperation with the Liberal government, but soon divided itself into followers of first JLP president Hatoyama Ichirō who returned to politics when the SCAP purge was lifted and the "Yoshida school" of his successor Yoshida Shigeru. forefather of Liberal Democratic Party
  • Japanese Democratic Party (JDP; Nihon Minshutō, 1954–1955), Hatoyama-led breakaway from the liberals merged with smaller groups including the opposition remnants of the Democratic Party; the "conservative merger" (hoshu gōdō) of 1955 united Liberal Party and Japanese Democratic Party in the Liberal Democratic Party that dominated postwar politics for decades. Forefather of Liberal Democratic Party.
  • New Frontier Party (NFP; Shinshintō, lit. "New Progressive Party", 1994–1997), formed after an anti-LDP government had collapsed to create a unified opposition party ranging from socialists to conservatives
  • Imperial Rule Assistance Association(1940-1945)

Others[edit]

Pre- and early constitutional era[edit]

  • Freedom and People's Rights Movement and liberal parties in the early House of Representatives
    • Public Party of Patriots (Aikoku Kōtō, 1874, briefly reestablished in 1890[6] and merged into the (Rikken) Jiyūtō)
    • Self-help Society (Risshisha, 1874–1883)
    • Patriot Society (Aikokusha, 1875–1880)
    • Liberal Party (Jiyūtō, 1881–1884)
    • Constitutional Progressive Party (Rikken Kaishintō, 1882–1896), merged with other groups to form the Progressive Party (Shinpotō)
    • Daidō Club (1889–1890)
    • Liberal Party (Jiyūtō, 1890), merged with other groups to form the Rikken Jiyūtō
    • Oriental Liberal Party (Tōyō Jiyūtō, 1892–1893), asianist, radical liberal
  • Opponents and "moderate faction" (onwa-ha, meaning pro-government; also ritō, "official parties") in the early House of Representatives
    • Constitutional Imperial Rule Party (Rikken Teiseitō, 1882–1883)
    • Great Achievement Association (Taiseikai, 1890–1891)
    • People's Liberal Party (Kokumin Jiyūtō, 1890–1891)
    • Central Negotiations Assembly (Chūō Kōshōkai, 1892–1893)
    • Independent Club (Dokuritsu Club)
    • People's Association (Kokumin Kyōkai, 1892–1899)
    • Same-minded Club (Dōshi Club)
    • Great Japanese Association (Dainihon Kyōkai, 1893)

Empire of Japan until 1940[edit]

Socialist and labour movement[edit]

In 1940, all remaining political parties with the exception of the Tōhōkai became part of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association or were banned.

Postwar Japan[edit]

Note: Postwar parties often give themselves "English" names which sometimes differ significantly from translations of their Japanese names.

LDP precursor and breakaway parties[edit]
  • Japanese Cooperative Party (Nihon Kyōdōtō, 1945–1946), centrist party promoting cooperativism by prewar Minseitō politician Sanehiko Yamamoto
  • Cooperative Democratic Party (Kyōdō Minshutō, 1946–1947), created by a merger of the Japanese Cooperative Party with smaller groups
  • People's Party (Kokumintō, 1946–1947), centrist party formed by independents and mini-parties
  • People's Cooperative Party (Kokumin Kyōdōtō, 1947–1950), merger of Cooperative Democratic Party and People's Party
  • Japanese Farmers' Party (Nihon Nōmintō, 1947–1949), farmers' party mostly represented in Hokkaidō
  • New Farmers' Party (Nōminshintō, 1948–1949)
  • Farmers' Cooperative Party (Nōmin Kyōdōtō, 1949–1952), in 1952 some members joined the Progressive Party, others joined the Cooperative Party, a breakaway of right-wing socialists from the JSP
  • New Political Club (Shinsei Club, 1951–1952), group around prewar Minseitō politicians returning to politics after the SCAP purge had been lifted, joined the Progressive Party
  • Japanese Reconstruction League (Nihon Saiken Renmei, 1952–1953), group around prewar Minseitō politicians returning to politics after the SCAP purge had been lifted, joined the Liberal Party
  • People's Democratic Party (Kokumin Minshutō, 1950–1952), created after the Democratic Party split by a merger of the Democratic opposition wing with the People's Cooperative Party of Takeo Miki
  • Japanese Liberal Party (Nihon Jiyūtō, 1953), generally referred to as Secessionist Liberal Party (buntōha jiyūtō) or Hatoyama Liberal Party, a first breakaway of Ichirō Hatoyama and his followers from the Liberal Party, a majority including Hatoyama returned to the Liberal Party later that year
  • Japanese Liberal Party (1953) (Nihon Jiyūtō, 1953–1954), small group from Hatoyama's Liberal Party that didn't want to return to Yoshida's Liberal Party, joined Hatoyama's Japanese Democratic Party in 1954
  • Progressive Party (Kaishintō, 1952–1954), merger of People's Democratic Party with parts of the Farmers' Cooperative Party and the Shinsei Club, became part of Hatoyama's Japanese Democratic Party in 1954
  • New Liberal Club (Shin Jiyū Club, 1976–1986), breakaway of LDP Diet members predominantly from urban constituencies, in a joint parliamentary group with the Social Democratic Federation in the early 1980s, then part of a coalition government with the LDP under Yasuhiro Nakasone, most returned to the LDP in 1986
  • Progressive Party (Shinpotō, 1987–1993), party of New Liberal Club member Seiichi Tagawa who didn't return to the LDP, dissolved after Tagawa's retirement from politics
  • Tax Party (Zeikintō, 1983–1990), party of former New Liberal Club member Chinpei Nozue
  • New Party Harbinger (Shintō Sakigake, centrist, reformist-ecologist, 1993–1998), LDP breakaway in the 1993 no-confidence vote against the Miyazawa Cabinet
  • Sakigake Party (Sakigake, lit. "Harbinger", 1998–2002), New Party Harbinger successor after some Diet members had joined the Democratic Party
  • Japan Greens (Midori no Kaigi, lit. "Green Conference", 2002–2004), Sakigake successor of Councillor (until 2004) Atsuo Nakamura
  • Japan Greens (Midori no Table, lit. "Green Table", 2004–2008), "Green Conference" successor, merged with left-wing ecologist Rainbow and Greens to form "Japan Greens" (Midori no Mirai)
  • Japan Renewal Party (Shinseitō, lit. "Renewal Party", liberal, 1993–1994), breakaway of the Hata-Ozawa faction from the LDP in the 1993 no-confidence vote against the Miyazawa Cabinet, joined the New Frontier Party
  • New Future Party (Shintō Mirai, 1994), breakaway of five Mitsuzuka faction Representatives, joined the New Frontier Party
  • Kōshikai (1994), breakaway of LDP Diet members opposed to the Grand Coalition with the JSP, joined the New Frontier Party
  • Sunrise Party (Taiyō no Tō, "Party of the Sun"), formed in November 2012 by Takeo Hiranuma's Sunrise Party of Japan (Tachiagare Nippon, "Rise up, Japan") and Shintarō Ishihara who resigned as governor of Tokyo to return to national politics, merged into Japan Restoration Party in November 2012
  • People's New Party (PNP; Kokumin Shintō,2005-2013 )
JSP breakaway parties[edit]
  • Socialist Reform Party (Shakai Kakushintō, 1948–1951), renamed
  • Social Democratic Party (Shakaiminshutō, 1951–1952), renamed
  • Cooperative Party (Kyōdōtō, 1952), (re-)joined the right-wing Socialists
  • Workers and Farmers Party (Rōdōshanōmintō, 1948–1957), rejoined the JSP
  • Democratic Socialist Party (Japan) (Minshu-shakaitō, abbreviated and later officially Minshatō, social-democratic, 1960–1994), broke off from the JSP over the US-Japanese security treaty of 1960, joined the NFP
  • Socialist Citizens' Federation (Shakai Shimin Rengō, 1977–1978), right-wing JSP breakaway around Saburō Eda
  • Socialist Club (Shakai Club, 1977–1978), right-wing JSP breakaway around Hideo Den
  • Social Democratic Federation (Shakaiminshu Rengō, 1978–1994), merger of Socialist Citizens' Federation and Socialist Club, led by Hideo Den, then by Eda's son Satsuki, in a joint parliamentary group with the New Liberal Club in the early 1980s, dissolved in 1994, most members joined Japan New Party
  • New Party 'Liberals for Protecting the Constitution' (Shintō Goken Liberal, 1994–1995), party around Hideo Den, opposed to the NFP and supporting the JSP-LDP Murayama Cabinet, split into Heiwa Shimin (Peace – Citizens) and Kenpō Midori-nō no Rentai (Constitution, Green Agriculture Collective), Den joined the Sangiin Forum
  • Citizens' League (Shimin Rengō, 1995–1996), JSP breakaway opposed to the "Grand" Coalition with the LDP around Sadao Yamahana and Banri Kaieda, joined the Democratic Party
Other NFP and DPJ precursor and breakaway parties[edit]
  • Japan New Party (Nihon Shintō, liberal, 1992–1994)
  • New Kōmei Party (Kōmei Shintō, "New Justice Party", 1994), one of two groups resulting from the dissolution of Kōmeitō
  • Democratic Party of Japan (1996-1998) (Minshutō, "Democratic Party", liberal, 1996–1998), formed by Naoto Kan Yukio Hatoyama and of New Party Harbinger, then part of the Grand Coalition with LDP and SDP, together with SDP and NFP politicians; after the dissolution of the NFP most successor parties joined the DPJ parliamentary group and merged a few months later to form the "new" Democratic Party
  • Sun Party (Taiyōtō, liberal reformist, 1996–1998), NFP breakaway around Tsutomu Hata, joined Minseitō
  • From Five (1997–1998), NFP breakaway around Morihiro Hosokawa, joined Minseitō
  • Voice of the People (Kokumin no Koe, 1998), NFP successor around Michihiko Kano, joined Minseitō
  • Good Governance Party (Minseitō, "Democratic Party", liberal, 1998), merger of three member parties of the DPJ parliamentary group
  • New Fraternity Party (Shintō Yūai, liberal reformist, 1998), NFP successor around Kansei Nakano
  • Reform Club (Kaikaku Club, 1998–2002), NFP successor around Tatsuo Ozawa
  • New Peace Party (Shintō Heiwa, 1998), NFP successor of former Kōmeitō Representatives, reestablished Kōmeitō
  • Dawn Club (Reimei Club, 1998), NFP successor of former Kōmeitō Councillors, merged with Kōmei and reestablished Kōmeitō
  • Liberal Party (1998) (Jiyūtō, liberal, 1998–2003), party of Ichirō Ozawa followers after the New Frontier Party had dissolved, joined the LDP in a coalition government from 1999 to 2000
  • Conservative Party (Japan) (Hoshutō, liberal, 2000–2002), breakaway group from the Liberal Party wanting to continue the coalition with the LDP and Kōmeitō
  • New Conservative Party (Hoshushintō, liberal, 2002–2003), merger of parts of the Conservative Party (others returned to the LDP) with a breakaway group from the Democratic Party, joined the LDP
  • Rengō no Kai (1989–1993), formed as political arm of the newly formed RENGO trade union federation (a merger of JSP-aligned Sōhyō and DSP-aligned Dōmei), helped win an opposition majority in the House of Councillors in 1989, renamed
  • Democratic Reform Party (Minshu Kaikaku Rengō, lit. "Democratic Reform League", 1993–1998), joined the "new" Democratic Party
  • Japan Renaissance Party (Kaikaku Club, lit. "Reform Club", conservative, 2008–2010), formed during the "twisted Diet" (nejire kokkai, opposition majority in the House of Councillors) by Democratic and independent Councillors ready to cooperate with the LDP-Kōmeitō government, formed New Renaissance Party
  • Kizuna Party (Shintō Kizuna, "New Kizuna Party"), founded in December 2011 by former Ozawa Democrats, opposed to VAT hike, opposed to joining TPP, merged into People's Life First in 2012
  • People's Life First (Kokumin no Seikatsu ga Daiichi, LF), founded by Ichirō Ozawa and other DPJ Diet members opposing a planned sales tax increase in Summer 2012, merged into TPJ in November 2012
Others[edit]
  • Kōmei ("Justice", 1994–1998), one of two groups resulting from the dissolution of Kōmeitō, merged with Reimei Club and reestablished Kōmeitō
  • House of Councillors Forum (Sangiin Forum, 1995–1996), group formed by ex-SDF Councillor Hideo Den and independents (Motoo Shiina and others)
  • Independents (Mushozoku no Kai, lit. "assembly of independents", centrist, 1999–2004)
    • formerly House of Councillors Club (Sangiin Club, centrist, 1998–1999), parliamentary group of Motoo Shiina, Masami Tanabu and others
  • Liberal League (Jiyū Rengō, libertarian, 1994–2005)
  • Sports and Peace Party (Supōtsu Heiwa Tō, centrist, 1989–2004)
  • Rainbow and Greens (Niji to Midori, green, 1998–2008)
  • Welfare Party (Fukushitō, 1983–?), party of Representative Eita Yashiro who joined the LDP in 1984, the party never won a seat in the Diet again and eventually dissolved
  • Truth Party (Shinritō, 1989–?), party of Ōmu Shinrikyō founder Shōkō Asahara, its 25 candidates in the 1990 House of Representatives election altogether but a few thousand votes
  • Japanese Women's Party (Nihon Joseitō, 1977), short-lived party of feminist leader Misako Enoki
  • The Spirit of Japan Party (Nippon Sōshintō, lit. "Japan Innovation Party"), formed by prefectural and municipal politicians in 2010, dissolved to join Japan Restoration Party in 2012
  • Genzei Nippon ("Tax Cuts Japan"), party founded by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura in 2010, mainly active in Nagoya municipal and Aichi prefectural politics, won some seats in other areas in the 2011 local elections, had its first National Diet member in 2011, achieved party status in 2012, decided to merge into Datsu-Genpatsu in November 2012
  • "Anti-TPP, Nuclear Phaseout, Consumption Tax Hike Freeze Realization Party" (Han-TPP - Datsu-Genpatsu - Shōhizei Zōzei Tōketsu wo Jitsugen Suru Tō; Han-TPP), founded by Masahiko Yamada and Shizuka Kamei in November 2012 following their respective departures from the DPJ and the PNP,[7] merged with Genzei Nippon in November 2012.
  • Tax Cuts Japan (Genzei Nippon – Han TTP – Datsu-Genpatsu o Jitsugen suru Tō, "Tax Cuts Japan, Anti-TPP, Nuclear Phaseout Realization Party"; Datsu-Genpatsu), founded in a merger of Genzei Nippon ("Tax Cuts Japan") and Han-TPP in November 2012, merged into TPJ in November 2012
  • Tomorrow Party of Japan Nippon Mirai no Tō, shortlived anti-nuclear party formed by a merger between Ichirō Ozawa's People's Life First and the Datsu-Genpatsu ("nuclear phaseout") party, itself a merger of Masahiko Yamada's Han-TPP ("anti-TPP") and Takashi Kawamura's Genzei Nippon ("Tax cuts Japan"), and the Representatives who had joined Green Wind. Lost all of its seats and dissolved into Green Wind in 2013.
  • Green Wind - Another short-lived anti-nuclear party. Dissolved in 2013.
Political parties in U.S. Okinawa[edit]
  • Okinawa People's Party (Okinawa Jinmintō, communist, 1947–1973), joined the Japanese Communist Party after the return to the mainland
  • Okinawa Socialist Mass Party (Okinawa Shakai Taishūtō, pro-reversion, socialist, 1950–), after the return to the mainland, a merger with the Japanese Socialist Party was planned, its only Representative joined the DSP, but the party continues to exist as a regional party
  • Ryukyu Democratic Party (Ryūkyū Minshutō, conservative, 1952–1959)
  • Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party (1959) (Okinawa Jiyūminshutō, 1959–?), split over the "Caraway whirlwind" of High Commissioner Lt. Gen. Paul W. Caraway
  • Democratic Party (Minshutō, 1964–1967), renamed
  • Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party (1967) (Okinawa Jiyūminshutō, 1967–1970), became the prefectural federation of the mainland Liberal Democratic Party

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Hrebenar, Ronald J. et al. Japan's New Party System. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
  • Hunter, Janet. Concise Dictionary of Modern Japanese History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Mashiba, Yasuhiro (間柴泰治) and Yanase, Akiko (柳瀬晶子): 主要政党の変遷と国会内勢力の推移 ("Changes of the main parties and their strength in the Diet"). レファレンス ("Reference", an NDL monthly (Archive)) 651 (April 2005), p. 70–81. Chiyoda, Tokyo: National Diet Library, 2005.
  1. ^ The Democratic Party of Japan is widely described as centrist:
  2. ^ Laws regulating political parties include the 公職選挙法 (Public Offices Election Act), the 政治資金規正法 (Political Funds Control Act) and the 政党助成法 (Political Parties Subsidies Act). (Note: Translations have no legal effect and are by definition "unofficial".) Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications: General information and published reports about political party funding (In Japanese)
  3. ^ Ainu Party
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ [2][dead link]
  6. ^ Hunter, p.4
  7. ^ Asahi Shimbun, November 19, 2012: 新党「反TPP」結成 代表に山田氏、亀井氏は幹事長 (retrieved in November 2012)