Political parties in Russia

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This article lists political parties in Russia. Russia has a multi-party system. Currently there are four parties that make up the federal parliament, the State Duma, with one dominant party (United Russia).

After Perestroika, in the 1990s there were over 100 registered parties in Russia, but people elected in State Duma only a small number of parties. Since 2000, during Vladimir Putin's presidency, the number of parties very quickly decreased. Last years from 2008 to 2012 there were only 7 parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new independent parties was blocked. The last registered party was government-organized Right Cause. Before 2011 parliamentary elections, about 10 opposition parties were refused in registration. But after a series of mass protests and thanks to a 2011 European Court decision on Case of the Republican Party of Russia, the law was changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 in December 2012. About 200 parties are in creation stage (as 2012) according to the Justice Ministry website.

History[edit]

After the dissolution of the Supreme Soviet, and the adoption of the new constitution in October 1993, the first multiparty elections took place in the Russian Federation in December 1993. Numerous political parties and movements were set up during the early days of the new Russian state. There were, however, a number of difficulties for parties that greatly hindered them in reaching the voters. Lack of money was one large problem, but also the widespread negative association towards parties by the public.[1]

Political parties were associated by many with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its totalitarian methods. The result was that parties and political organisations were concentrated on individuals with a personal following. Some observers have noted that political entrepreneurs tend to see parties merely as instrumental and therefore invest very little in strengthening party organisations, but instead rely on their own informal network.[2]

Until the beginning of the 2000s Russia’s political parties were very fractured and institutionalised. In particular the frequent change of party labels and the merging of various parties into wider platforms reduced the clarity of party ideology. As a consequence, parties failed to aggregate social interests, represent specific constituencies, structure votes during elections, or serve as intermediaries between state and society. After the 2003 parliamentary elections it became evident that party competition would for the next elections concentrate on two parties, United Russia and the Communist Party. Research has also made clear that contrary to the 1990s, voters no longer choose parties based solely on the personalities of party leaders. Rather voters are choosing parties based on assessments of economic performance and a general evaluation of the incumbent president.[3]

Party of power[edit]

In Russian politics, the party of power is the specially established party which unconditionally supports current president or prime minister in the parliament.

These parties were considered as parties of power:

Legislation[edit]

Certificate of state registration of political parties in Russia, issued by the Ministry of Justice of Russia

The key legislation governing the formation and registration of political parties in Russia is the Federal Law "On political parties" of 11 July 2001, No.95. This law defined a political party as an organization that consistently takes part in elections, has a membership of at least 10,000 and branches in at least 50 regions, with each branch having a membership of at least 100. An amended version of the law which came into force at the beginning of January 2006 requires each political party to have a minimum of 50,000 members and more than 45 regional branches with a minimum membership of 500 each.[4] In the discussion on amending the law on parties, the question of state funding was also raised. Before the 2004 amendments, electoral associations were entitled to modest compensation of their campaign expenses. The previous party law envisaged permanent state funding for parties that obtained at least 3% of the list vote in Duma elections or had at least single-member district candidates elected.

On early 2012 in response to the protests that came following the 2011 State Duma elections, President Dmitry Medvedev initiated a bill that rolls back some of the more stringent restrictions. It reduced the number of members required for registration from 40,000 to 500, lessens the restrictions on party activities, and shortens the registration process itself. Supporters of the bill maintained that the bill represents a drastic democratization of the country's election laws. After approved by the two houses of the Federal Assembly of Russia, it was signed into law by President Medvedev in early May.[5]

Social composition of voters[edit]

Regarding the social composition of party voters, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation has mainly been supported by people with low incomes and low levels of education, especially pensioners. Its rather elderly members tend to live in medium-sized towns and have limited access to organizational networks. Supporters of the Political party LDPR show similar characteristics, and are moreover primarily male. Right Forces and Fatherland – All Russia both receive support from a larger group of well-educated people, mainly female, mostly living in big cities with access to large organisational networks. Right Forces stood out as receiving support from younger voters but also from urban professionals with high incomes, which was also the case for Fatherland – All Russia.

According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of government employees, pensioners and military personnel, who are dependent on the state for their livelihood.[6] Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. According to researchers[who?], this could be because women place a great value on stability. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.[7]

Registered parties[edit]

All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The list is placed on the Justice Ministry website. On December 2012 there are 48 registered parties in Russia, 4 of them are currently represented in the State Duma.

Currently represented in the State Duma[edit]

Name Abbr. Ideology Leader MPs
United Russia
Единая Россия
ER
ЕР
Conservatism, Statism, Pragmatism, Centrism, Neoconservatism Dmitry Medvedev 238
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации
KPRF
КПРФ
Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Patriotism, Left-wing Nationalism Gennady Zyuganov 92
Political party LDPR
Политическая партия ЛДПР
LDPR
ЛДПР
Russian nationalism, Pan-Slavism, Neo–Imperialism, Mixed economy Vladimir Zhirinovsky 56
A Just Russia
Справедливая Россия
SR
СР
Social democracy, Democratic socialism Nikolai Levichev 64

Currently represented in regional parliaments[edit]

Municipal (local self-government) parliaments[edit]

All currently registered parties[edit]

[8] Name (Russian name) Abbr. Ideology Affiliations Position Leader(s) Created Registration
1 United Russia
(Единая Россия)
ER (ЕР) Russian Conservatism, Social conservatism, Pragmatism, Centrism Centrist Democrat International (observer),
European People's Party[9][10] (unofficially),
All-Russia People's Front
Centre, sincretic Dmitry Medvedev,
Vladimir Putin,
Sergey Neverov
2001 2003
2 Communist Party of the Russian Federation
(Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации)
CPRF, KPRF (КПРФ) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Socialist patriotism, Neo-Stalinism Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union Far-left Gennady Zyuganov 1990 2002
3 Political party LDPR
(Политическая партия ЛДПР)
LDPR (ЛДПР) Russian nationalism, Pan-Slavism, Neo–Imperialism, Mixed economy Liberal Democratic Party (Belarus),
Liberal Democratic Party of Pridnestrovie,
National Front (France)[11]
Far-right, sincretic Vladimir Zhirinovsky 1992 2002
4 Patriots of Russia
(Патриоты России)
Social democracy, Left-wing nationalism All-Russia People's Front Left Gennady Semigin 2005 2003
5 Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"
(Российская объединенная демократическая партия «Яблоко»)
Social liberalism, Environmentalism Liberal International,
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
Centre-left Sergey Mitrokhin,
Grigory Yavlinsky
1995 2003
6 A Just Russia
(Справедливая Россия)
СР Social democracy, Democratic socialism Socialist International Centre-left Nikolai Levichev,
Sergey Mironov
2006 2002
7 Right Cause
(Правое дело)
ПД Conservatism/Liberal conservatism, Russian nationalism and patriotism elements International Democrat Union (suspended) Right Andrei Dunaev 2008 2009
8 Republican Party of Russia – People's Freedom Party
(Республиканская партия России — Партия народной свободы)
RPR-PARNAS (РПР-ПАРНАС) Liberalism, Liberal democratic, Federalism, Human rights Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (partly) Centre-right Vladimir Ryzhkov,
Mikhail Kasyanov,
Boris Nemtsov
1990 2002
9 Democratic Party of Russia
(Демократическая партия России)
ДПР Conservatism Centre-right Andrei Bogdanov 1990 2012
10 People's Party for the Women of Russia
(Народная партия «За женщин России»)
Neoconservatism Galina Khavrayeva 2012
11 Alliance of Greens – The People's Party
(Альянс зелёных — Народная партия)
Green politics, Liberalism European Green Party Gleb Fetisov
Oleg Mitvol
2012
12 Union Towns People
(Союз Горожан)
СГ Dmitry Popkov 2012
13 People's Party of Russia
(Народная партия России)
НПР Centrism Stanislav Aranovich 2012
14 Social Democratic Party of Russia
(Социал-демократическая партия России)
СДПР Social democracy Viktor Militaryov 2012 2012
15 Communist Party of Social Justice
(Коммунистическая партия социальной справедливости)
КПСС Socialism Yury Morozov 2012
16 Party of Pensioners' of Russia
(Партия пенсионеров России)
ППР Nikolay Chebotaryov 2012
17 Cities of Russia
(Города России)
ГРОСС Yury Babak 2012
18 Young Russia
(Молодая Россия)
МОЛРОСС Nikolay Stolyarchuk 2012
19 New Russia
(Новая Россия)
Social liberalism Vyacheslav Grishin 2012
20 Party of Free Citizens
(Партия свободных граждан)
ПСГ Constitutionalism Pavel Sklyanchuk 2012
21 Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"
(Российская экологическая партия «Зелёные»)
РЭП Зелёные Environmentalism, Centrism, Green politics Anatoly Panfilov 1993 2012
22 Communists of Russia
(Коммунисты России)
КОМРОС Marxism−Leninism Maksim Suraykin 2009 2012
23 Agrarian Party of Russia
(Аграрная партия России)
АПР Agrarian socialism, Social conservatism Olga Bashmachnikova
Vladimir Plotnikov
1993 2012
24 Russian All-People's Union
(Российский общенародный союз)
РОС Russian nationalism, Patriotism, Conservatism, partly socialism Sergey Baburin 1991 2012
25 Party for Justice
(Партия за справедливость)
ПАРЗАС 2012
26 Political Party of Social Protection
(Политическая партия социальной защиты)
2012
27 Civilian Power
(Гражданская сила)
Liberalism, Green politics Alexandr Ryavkin 2007 2012
28 Russian Party of Pensioners for Justice
(Российская партия пенсионеров за справедливость)
РППС Social conservatism Igor Zotov 1997 2012
29 Clever Russia
(Умная Россия)
РОСУМ Civil nationalism Nikita Borovikov,
Vasily Yakemenko
2012
30 Home Country
(Родная страна)
РС Patriotism 2012
31 Monarchist Party
(Монархическая партия)
Monarchism Anton Bakov 2012
32 Party of Peace and Unity
(Российская политическая Партия Мира и Единства)
ПМЕ Democratic socialism Sazhi Umalatova 1996 2012
33 Civic Platform
(Гражданская платформа)
Liberalism Mikhail Prokhorov 2012 2012
34
(«ЧЕСТНО» /Человек. Справедливость. Ответственность/)
Sergey Zamuruev 2012
35
(Партия налогоплательщиков России)
ПНР Yevgeny Sivkov 2012
36 Democratic Choice
(Демократический выбор)
ДВ National liberalism, Liberal conservatism, Civil nationalism Vladimir Milov 2010 2012
37 Will
(Партия Воля)
Narodnik, Democratic socialism, Left conservatism Svetlana Peunova 2007 2012
38
(Трудовая партия России)
Liberalism, Social conservatism Sergey Vostretsov 2012 2012
39
(Интернет Партия Российской Федерации)
ИПРФ E-democracy, Internet culture, Technology, Centrism Kirill Fyodorov
Georgy Yefremov
2012 2012
40 Against All
(Партия ПРОТИВ ВСЕХ)
Liberal conservatism Pavel Mihalchenkov 2012
41 Russian Socialist Party
(Российская Социалистическая партия)
Sergey Cherkashin 2012 2012
42 Party of Spiritual Transfiguration of Russia
(Партия Духовного Преображения России)
ПДПР Inna Bozhko 2012 2012
43 Party of Veterans of Russia
(Партия ветеранов России)
ПВР Patriotism, Social conservatism 2012
44 Russian United Labour Front
(Российский Объединённый Трудовой Фронт)
ROT Front (РОТ Фронт) Marxism−Leninism, Socialism Viktor Tyulkin 2010 2012
45 Party Action
(Партия дела)
Konstantin Babkin 2012
46 Party of National Security of Russia
(Партия Национальной безопасности России)
ПНБР Alexandr Fedulov 2012
47 Rodina
(Родина)
All-Russia People's Front Aleksey Zhuravlyov 2012
48 Union of Labor
(Союз Труда)
Alexandr Shershukov 2012
49 Russian Party of People's Administration
(Российская партия народного управления)
Albert Mukhamedyarov 2012
50 Women's Dialogue
(Женский Диалог)
Yelena Semerikova 2012
51 Born in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(Рожденные в Союзе Советских Социалистических Республик)
Communism 2013
52 Party of Renaissance of selo
(Партия Возрождения Села)
2013
53 Defenders of the Fatherland
(Защитники Отечества)
Nikolay Sobolev 2013
54 Cossack's Party of the Russian Federation
(Казачья партия Российской Федерации)
КаПРФ Sergey Bondaryov 2013
55 Development of Russia
(Развитие России)
Aleksey Kaminskiy 2013
56 United Agro-Industrial Party of Russia
(Объединенная аграрно-промышленная партия России)
2013
57 Democratic Legal Russia
(Демократическая правовая Россия)
Igor Trunov 2013
58 Party of Social Reforms
(Партия Социальных Реформ)
Stanislav Polishchuk 2013
59 Party of Social Solidarity
(Партия Социальной Солидарности)
Alexandr Voznesenskiy 2013
60 Dignity Party
(Партия ДОСТОИНСТВО)
Stanislav Bychinskiy 2013
61 Social Progressive Party of Russia
(Социально-прогрессивная партия России)
Dmitry Okorokov 2013
62 Great Fatherland
(Великое Отечество)
ПВО Conservatism, Patriotism Nikolai Starikov,
Igor Ashmanov
2012 2013
63 Russian Party of Gardeners
(Российская партия садоводов)
Igor Kasyanov 2013
64 Civil Position, early - Party of Social Networks
(Гражданская Позиция, early - Партия социальных сетей)
Social liberalism Dmitry Chirov 2012
65 Revival of Agrarian Russia
(Возрождение аграрной России)
Vasily Krylov 2013
66 Civic Initiative
(Гражданская инициатива)
Democracy, Liberalism Andrey Nechaev 2013
67 Party of Russia's Rebirth
(Партия Возрождения России)
Socialism, Social state Gennadiy Seleznyov
Viktor Arkhipov
2013
68 All-Russian Socialist People's Party "Fatherland"
(Всероссийская социалистическая народная партия «Отчизна»)
Anatoly Chaganov, Yury Prokofiev 2013
69
(КОЛОКОЛ)
Nikolay Dizhur 2013
70
(Национальный курс)
Andrey Kovalenko 2013

Parties without official registration[edit]

Parties currently in creation[edit]

According to the Ministry of Justice, there are currently 196 parties in the creation stages.[when?]

Active unregistered parties[edit]

Historical parties[edit]

Banned parties in Russia[edit]

Soviet parties[edit]

Parties of the Russian Empire[edit]

Other historical parties[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oversloot, Hans, and Ruben Verheul, ―Managing Democracy: Political Parties and the State in Russia, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 22, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 384.
  2. ^ Oversloot, Hans, and Ruben Verheul, ―Managing Democracy: Political Parties and the State in Russia‖, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 22, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 386.
  3. ^ Treisman, Daniel, "Presidential Popularity in a Hybrid Regime: Russia under Yeltsin and Putin", University of California, p.10.
  4. ^ accessed English translation of the law
  5. ^ "1st Party Registered Under New Rules in Russia". RIA Novosti. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Russia Analytical Digest (102). University of Basel, Center for Security Studies Zürich, Forschungsstelle Osteuropa Bremen. 26 November 2011. pp. 2–6. 
  7. ^ Yevgeny Utkin. Seven parties, one virtually certain outcome Russia Beyond the Headlines. (2011-11-23)
  8. ^ http://minjust.ru/nko/gosreg/partii/spisok
  9. ^ http://www.ntv.ru/novosti/181823/
  10. ^ http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/1289978
  11. ^ Владимир Жириновский: "Марин Ле Пен <...> мы поздравили. Это Национальный Фронт нам наиболее близок. Мы сотрудничаем, встречаемся. Они к нам приезжали. Мы к ним. Нельзя сказать, что теплые отношения, но с другими у нас просто нет..."

External links[edit]