London Borough of Newham

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London Borough of Newham
London borough
Coat of arms of London Borough of Newham
Coat of arms
Official logo of London Borough of Newham
Council logo
Newham shown within Greater London
Newham shown within Greater London
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region London
Ceremonial county Greater London
Status London borough
Admin HQ East Ham
Created 1 April 1965
Government
 • Type London borough council
 • Body Newham London Borough Council
 • Leadership Mayor & Cabinet (Executive Mayor: Labour)
 • Executive mayor Sir Robin Wales
 • MPs Lyn Brown
Stephen Timms
 • London Assembly John Biggs AM for City and East
 • EU Parliament London
Area
 • Total 13.98 sq mi (36.22 km2)
Area rank 298th (of 326)
Population (2011 est.)
 • Total 310,500
 • Rank 28th (of 326)
 • Density 22,000/sq mi (8,600/km2)
 • Ethnicity[1]

16.7% White British
0.7% White Irish
0.2% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
11.4% Other White
1.3% White & Black Caribbean
1.1% White & Black African
0.9% White & Asian
1.3% Other Mixed
13.8% Indian
9.8% Pakistani
12.1% Bangladeshi
1.3% Chinese
6.5% Other Asian
12.3% Black African
4.9% Black Caribbean
2.4% Other Black
1.1% Arab

2.3% Other
 • ONS code 00BB
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcodes E
Police force Metropolitan Police
Website www.newham.gov.uk

The London Borough of Newham Listeni/ˈnjəm/ is a London borough formed from the former Essex county boroughs of West Ham and East Ham, within East London.

It is situated 5 miles (8 km) east of the City of London, and is north of the River Thames. Newham was one of the six host boroughs for the 2012 Summer Olympics and contains most of the Olympic Park including the Olympic Stadium. According to 2010 estimates, Newham has one of the highest ethnic minority populations of all the districts in the country, with no particular ethnic group dominating. The local authority is Newham London Borough Council, the second most deprived in England,[2] although other reports using different measures show it differently.[3]

The borough's motto, from its Coat of Arms, is "Progress with the People." The Coat of Arms was derived from that of the County Borough of West Ham, while the motto is a translation of the County Borough of East Ham's Latin "Progressio cum Populo".[4]

History[edit]

The borough was formed by merging the former area of the Essex county borough of East Ham and the county borough of West Ham as a borough of the newly formed Greater London, on 1 April 1965. Green Street and Boundary Road mark the former boundary between the two. North Woolwich also became part of the borough (previously being in the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich, in the County of London) along with a small area west of the River Roding which had previously been part of the Municipal Borough of Barking. Newham was devised for the borough as an entirely new name.[5]

Governance[edit]

Unlike most English districts, its council is led by a directly elected mayor of Newham. From 2002 to 2009 one of the councillors had been appointed as the "civic ambassador" and performed the civic and ceremonial role previously carried out by the mayor. The post has been discontinued.[6]

The borough is considered part of Outer London for purposes such as funding. This is because the majority of Newham was not part of the 1889-1965 County of London. Economically it is one of the more deprived districts. The council is actively campaigning to have Newham officially considered part of Inner London in order to increase its level of government grant by £60 million.

At the borough elections held on 6 May 2010, the Labour Party won all 60 of the seats on the Council. Sir Robin Wales was re-elected as the borough's Executive Mayor with 68% of the first preference votes cast.

Demography[edit]

Population
Year Pop. ±%
1801 8,875 —    
1811 11,166 +25.8%
1821 13,005 +16.5%
1831 15,553 +19.6%
1841 17,758 +14.2%
1851 24,875 +40.1%
1861 69,355 +178.8%
1871 113,835 +64.1%
1881 158,314 +39.1%
1891 259,155 +63.7%
1901 338,506 +30.6%
1911 442,158 +30.6%
1921 448,081 +1.3%
1931 454,096 +1.3%
1941 377,508 −16.9%
1951 313,837 −16.9%
1961 271,858 −13.4%
1971 235,496 −13.4%
1981 209,131 −11.2%
1991 221,146 +5.7%
2001 243,737 +10.2%
2011 307,984 +26.4%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time, citing Census population

Newham has the youngest overall population and one of the lowest White British populations in the country according to the 2011 Census. The borough has the second highest percentage of Muslims in Britain at 32%.

When using Simpson's Diversity Index on 10 aggregated ethnic groups, the 2001 census identified Newham as the most ethnically diverse district in England and Wales, with 9 wards in the top 15.[7] However, when using the 16 ethnic categories in the Census so that White Irish and White Other ethnic minorities are also included in the analysis, Newham becomes the 2nd most ethnically diverse borough[8] with 6 out of the top 15 wards, behind Brent with 7 out of the top 15 wards.

Statistics from the 2011 census showed that 29.0% of the population was White (16.7% White British, 0.7% White Irish, 0.2% Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 11.4% Other White), 4.6% of mixed race (1.3% White and Black Caribbean, 1.1% White and Black African, 0.9% White and Asian, 1.3% Other Mixed), 43.5% Asian (13.8% Indian, 12.21 Bangladeshi, 9.8% Pakistani, 1.3% Chinese, 6.5% Other Asian), 19.6% Black (12.3% African, 4.9% Caribbean, 2.4% Other Black), 1.1% Arab and 2.3% of other ethnic heritage.[9] Newham has the highest fertility rate in the country at 2.87 children born per woman, as of 2009, compared to the national average of 1.95.[10] However, this statistic may be skewed by the use of ONS population figures as a denominator, which underestimated the number of resident females in Newham, which should be corrected with re-based 2011 Census data.

Newham has the lowest percentage of White British residents of all of London's boroughs. The White British proportion of the population fell from 33.8% in 2001 to 16.7% in 2011; this decrease of 37.5 percentage points is the largest of any local authority in England and Wales between the two censuses.[11] The joint-lowest wards with White British population are Green Street East and Green Street West, both having 4.8% - the third lowest behind Southall Broadway and Southall Green in Ealing. East Ham North is closely followed, at 4.9%.[12]

People of White British ancestry nevertheless remain the largest single ethnic group in the borough. The largest non-White British ethnic groups are Indian (14%), African (12%), Bangladeshi (12%) and Pakistani (10%). Newham has had for many decades a large Indian community. The ethnic group to increase the most in number since 1991 is the Bangladeshi community.[13]

Education[edit]

Schools and colleges[edit]

The Borough is the education authority for the district providing education in a mix of Foundation, community and voluntary aided schools.[14] The borough also owns and operates Debden House, a residential adult education college in Loughton, Essex. The Essex Primary School in Sheridan Road with over 900 pupils is one of the biggest primary schools in London.

University[edit]

The University of East London has two campuses in Newham:

Birkbeck Stratford is a collaboration between Birkbeck, University of London and UEL to increase participation in adult learning. This is currently based on the UEL Stratford campus, but is planned to move to its own facilities.

The University of East London had formed a partnership with the United States Olympic Committee which resulted in the United States Olympic Team using University of East London campuses as training bases during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.[15]

Places of interest[edit]

Newham Town Hall in East Ham (E6)

Community[edit]

  • The Hub, a community resource centre built by the local community, in Star Lane, E16, featuring up to the minute "green" features
  • Grassroots, also built by the local community and another innovative green resource centre built by the community. Grassroots is in Memorial Recreation Ground, E15

Libraries[edit]

Newham has ten libraries (Beckton, Canning Town, Custom House, East Ham, Green Street, Manor Park, North Woolwich, Plaistow, Stratford and Forest Gate).

Canning Town Library was first opened in 1893 and still operates in the original building on Barking Road (albeit with repairs and a reconstructed interior following damage from air raids in 1940 and 1941). Its opening hours are Monday, Tuesday, Friday and Saturday: 9:30am–5:30pm, Wednesday and Sunday: Closed, Thursday: 9:30am–8:00pm.[16]

Museums[edit]

Markets[edit]

There are a number of local markets in the Borough, including Queens Market, which the Council is controversially seeking to redevelop. These proposals are being fought by Friends of Queens Market.

Parks and open spaces[edit]

80 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt.

Performance[edit]

Green Street where the population is predominantly South Asian

Shopping and exhibitions[edit]

Sport[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

The local newspaper is the Newham Recorder.[19]

Districts[edit]

Logo on the roadside at sunset
Building 1000 - Newham Council Headquarters

Transport[edit]

Transport in Newham is undergoing a major upgrade, with the completed Docklands Light Railway and Jubilee Line Extension, with new or improved stations at Canning Town, West Ham and Stratford. Stratford International station on High Speed 1 opened in late 2009. The Crossrail scheme will also improve rail connections to several stations in the borough. The Docklands Light Railway was extended to serve London City Airport.

List of stations[edit]

Travel to work[edit]

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 23.0% of all residents aged 16–74; driving a car or van, 7.6%; bus, minibus or coach, 7.6%; train, 7.2%; on foot, 4.1%; work mainly at or from home, 1.4%; bicycle, 1.0%.[20]

International services[edit]

Bus routes[edit]

London Buses routes 5, 25, 58, 69, 86, 97, 101, 104, 108, 115, 147, 158, 173, 238, 241, 257, 262, 276, 300, 308, 309, 323, 325, 330, 339, 366, 376, 388, 425, 473, 474, D8, W19, School buses routes 673, 678 and Night route N8, N15, N86, N205, N550 and N551.[22]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Office for National Statistics (2012). See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the 2011 Census.
  2. ^ Slum Landlords: Down and out in London - The Economist date accessed 2 January 2012
  3. ^ http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/statistics/pdf/1871208.pdf
  4. ^ "The Civic Ambassador, The Coat of Arms". Archive.Newham.Gov.UK. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Mills, Anthony David (2001). Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280106-6
  6. ^ The Civic Ambassador London Borough of Newham, accessed 13 December 2006
  7. ^ Simpson's diversity indices by ward 1991 and 2001 - GLA Data Management and Analysis Group (page 11, Table 3) Greater London Authority, January 2006), accessed 13 December 2006
  8. ^ Focus on Newham 2006 - local people and local conditions - London Borough of Newham, Corporate Research Unit (chapter 2, page 24) (2006) date accessed 31 March 2007
  9. ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  10. ^ Stoddard, Katy (25 May 2010). "Birth statistics: Birth and fertility rates across England and Wales". The Guardian (London). 
  11. ^ "600,000 move out in decade of 'white flight' from London: White Britons are now in minority in the capital". Daily Mail. 
  12. ^ http://britishdemocraticparty.org/the-ethnic-cleansing-of-london-part-2/
  13. ^ http://www.ethnicity.ac.uk/census/local/CoDE-Newham-Geographies-Of-Diversity-Census-Briefing.pdf
  14. ^ Education and Learning London Borough of Newham, accessed 24 March 2008
  15. ^ "University of East London Olympic Partnerships". 
  16. ^ Cherry, Bridget et al. London 5: East: the Buildings of England, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005
  17. ^ http://mgov.newham.gov.uk/ieDecisionDetails.aspx?AIId=22977
  18. ^ Green Street London E7
  19. ^ Newham news, sport, leisure, property, jobs and motors Newham Recorder
  20. ^ "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 November 2013.  Percentages are of all residents aged 16-74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only pick one mode, specified as the journey’s longest part by distance.
  21. ^ "Eurostar 'will not stop' at Stratford International". BBC News. 25 May 2010. 
  22. ^ http://www.tfl.gov.uk/gettingaround/maps/buses/newham.aspx

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°31′N 0°02′E / 51.517°N 0.033°E / 51.517; 0.033