Marjoram (Origanum majorana, syn. Majorana hortensis Moench, Majorana majorana (L.) H. Karst) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors. In some Middle-Eastern countries, marjoram is synonymous with oregano, and there the names sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram are used to distinguish it from other plants of the genus Origanum.
The name marjoram (Old French majorane, Medieval Latin majorana) does not directly derive from the Latin word maior (major). Marjoram is indigenous to Cyprus and southern Turkey, and was known to the Greeks and Romans as a symbol of happiness.
Leaves are smooth, simple, petiolated, ovate to oblong-ovate, (0.5-1.5 cm) long, (0.2-0.8 cm) wide, with obtuse apex, entire margin, symmetrical but tapering base and reticulate venation. The texture is extremely smooth due to presence of numerous hairs.
Marjoram is cultivated for its aromatic leaves, either green or dry, for culinary purposes; the tops are cut as the plants begin to flower and are dried slowly in the shade. It is often used in herb combinations such as herbes de Provence and za'atar. The flowering leaves and tops of marjoram are steam-distilled to produce an essential oil that is yellowish in color (darkening to brown as it ages). It has many chemical components, some of which are borneol, camphor and pinene.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare, sometimes listed with marjoram as Origanum majorana) is also called wild marjoram. It is a perennial common in southern Europe in dry copses and on hedge-banks, with many stout stems 30–80 cm high, bearing short-stalked, somewhat ovate leaves and clusters of purple flowers. It has a stronger flavor than marjoram.
Pot marjoram or Cretan oregano (Origanum onites) has similar uses to marjoram.
Hardy marjoram or French marjoram, a cross of marjoram with oregano, is much more resistant to cold, but is slightly less sweet. Origanum pulchellum is known as showy marjoram or showy oregano.
Marjoram is used for seasoning soups, stews, dressings and sauce.
- "Origanum majorana information from NPGS/GRIN". ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- "Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)". Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- Marjoram, Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper, November 2001
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- Learn 2 Grow: Origanum majorana
- M. G. Kains (1912). American Agriculturist, ed. Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses (English). ORANGE JUDD COMPANY.
- Origanum majorana List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Databases)
- Origanum majorana (Plants For A Future database)
- "Marjoram". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. Media related to Origanum majorana at Wikimedia Commons
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