2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)
Insignia of the 2nd Division
|Active||1809 – 2012|
|Branch||British Army (Regular and Territorial)|
|Role||Training and Administration
Military Aid to the Civil Community
Military Aid to the Civil Power
|Part of||Land Forces|
|Garrison/HQ||Craigiehall, near Edinburgh|
First World War
Second World War
The 2nd Division was a regular division of the British army, with a long history. Its existence as a permanently embodied formation dated from 1809, when it was established by Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley (later to become the Duke of Wellington), as part of the Anglo-Portuguese Army, for service in the Peninsular War. (Prior to this, it was common for formations with the same number to be temporarily established for a single campaign and disbanded immediately afterwards; divisions remained a permanent part of the British Army's structure only after the Napoleonic Wars).
The division was associated with the north of England. The divisional insignia, the Crossed Keys of Saint Peter, were originally part of the coat of arms of the Diocese of York, and were adopted before or during the First World War. It was disbanded on 1 April 2012.
- 1 Peninsular War
- 2 Waterloo
- 3 Crimean War
- 4 Anglo-Egyptian War
- 5 Boer War
- 6 First World War
- 7 Second World War
- 8 Post-Second World War
- 9 Recent Commanders
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
- 13 See also
In 1811, Major General the Hon. William Stewart became commander of the division. Stewart was apparently a magnificent Lieutenant Colonel, but a disastrous General. The division suffered heavy casualties at the Battle of Albuera. For the rest of 1812, the division was part of a detachment (essentially a corps) under Rowland Hill which covered the southern flank of Wellington's main army. It thus acquired the nickname of the "Observing Division", but was also known as the "Surprisers", after taking the French by surprise in engagements at Arroyo Molinos and Almaraz.
In 1813 and 1814, the division remained part of Hill's detachment. It contained three British brigades and one Portuguese brigade. It took part in the Battle of Vitoria on the right flank of Wellington's army. It subsequently was briefly driven from a position at the Battle of Maya after Stewart retired the division prematurely to camp, but fought in the later engagements of the Battle of the Pyrenees and the battles in southern France.
Peninsular War Formation
(Battle of Albuera, 16 May 1811)
Commanding General: Major General William Stewart
- 1st Brigade: commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John Colborne
- 2nd Brigade: commanded by Major General Daniel Hoghton
- 3rd Brigade: commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Abercromby
- 3 Coys, 5/60th Regiment of Foot
(from January 1813)
- 1st Brigade: Major General Cadogan
- 2nd Brigade: Major General Byng
- 3rd Brigade: Major General Wilson
- Portuguese Brigade: Brigadier General Charles Ashworth
- 1/6th Portuguese Line Regiment
- 2/6th Portuguese Line Regiment
- 1/18th Portuguese Line Regiment
- 2/18th Portuguese Line Regiment
- 6th Caçadores
The division fought at the Battle of Waterloo, part of Wellington's II Corps commanded again by Rowland Hill. It consisted at Waterloo of a brigade of British light infantry and riflemen, a brigade of the King's German Legion and a brigade of Hanoverian Landwehr. The division began the day in reserve behind Wellington's right flank, but took part in the defeat of Napoleon's attacks later in the day.
Commander: Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton
3rd British Brigade Major-General Frederick Adam
- 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry) Lt-Colonel. Sir John Colborne
- 71st (Glasgow Highland) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry)
- 2nd Battalion, 95th Regiment of Foot (Rifles)
- 3rd Battalion, 95th Regiment of Foot (Rifles)
- 1st Line Battalion, KGL
- 2nd Line Battalion, KGL
- 3rd Line Battalion, KGL
- 4th Line Battalion, KGL
3rd Hanoverian Brigade Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Halkett
- Landwehr Battalion Bremervörde
- Landwehr Battalion 2nd Duke of York's (Osnabrück)
- Landwehr Battalion 3rd Duke of York's (Quakenbrück)
- Landwehr Battalion Salzgitter
Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Gold
- Bolton's Battery R. A.
- Sympher's Horse Battery King's German Legion
The division formed part of the British army under Lord Raglan which landed in the Crimea and attempted to capture the port of Sebastopol. It was commanded by Lieutenant General Sir George de Lacy Evans, and fought at the battles of the Alma and Inkerman, where it suffered heavy casualties.
Crimean War Formation
Commanding General: Lieutenant General Sir George de Lacy Evans
- 3rd Brigade: Brigadier General Adams
- 4th Brigade: Brigadier General John Lysaght Pennefather
- Two field batteries Royal Artillery
In 1882, the division formed part of the Expeditionary Force under Lieutenant General Sir Garnet Wolseley which was sent to Egypt after a rebellion (the Urabi Revolt) threatened British control of the Suez Canal. During the subsequent 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War, the division was commanded by Major General Edward Bruce Hamley. One of its brigades was used as a garrison of Alexandria, and did not take part in the main actions of the war, but the other brigade and the divisional headquarters took part in the decisive Battle of Tel-el-Kebir.
Anglo-Egyptian War formation
Commander: Lieutenant General Sir Edward Hamley
3rd (Highland) Infantry Brigade (Major General Sir Edward Alison)
- 2nd Battalion, Highland Light Infantry
- 1st Battalion, Black Watch (Royal Highlanders)
- 1st Battalion, Cameron Highlanders
- 1st Battalion, Gordon Highlanders
4th Infantry Brigade (Major General Sir Evelyn Wood VC)
- 1st Battalion, The Royal Sussex Regiment
- 1st Battalion, Royal Berkshire Regiment (Princess Charlotte’s)
- 1st Battalion, The South Staffordshire Regiment
- 1st Battalion, The King’s Shropshire Light Infantry
- 19th Hussars (2 Sqns)
- 3rd Battalion, The King’s Royal Rifle Corps
- I Battery, 2nd Field Brigade, Royal Artillery
- N Battery, 2nd Field Brigade, Royal Artillery
- 26 Field Company, Royal Engineers
- 11 Company, Army Commissariat and Transport Corps
- 2 Bearer Company, Army Hospital Corps (Half)
- 4 Field Hospital, Army Hospital Corps
- 5 Field Hospital, Army Hospital Corps
The division was part of an Army Corps called the Natal Field Force under General Sir Redvers Buller which was sent to South Africa when the Boer War broke out in 1899. The division's commander was Lieutenant General Sir Francis Clery. The division, or parts of it, suffered defeats at the Battle of Colenso and the Battle of Spion Kop before gaining victory at the Battle of the Tugela Heights during the Relief of Ladysmith. It subsequently took part in operations which drove the Boers from Natal and the eastern Transvaal.
First World War
The division was subsequently stationed on Salisbury Plain, and designated to be part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) which would be despatched in the case of general European war. When war did break out, the BEF was sent to support the French and Belgian armies. The division's commander at this point was Major General Charles Monro. The division took part in the long retreat from Mons, and suffered heavy casualties in the First Battle of Ypres.
The division served on the Western Front for the duration of the war. Although most of the division's regulars became casualties or were transferred to other formations, the division never lost its standing and reputation as a Regular formation. It fought in all the major battles on the Western Front.
After the war the division was part of the occupation force stationed at Cologne.
First World War formation
- 2nd Battalion, the Grenadier Guards
- 2nd Battalion, the Coldstream Guards
- 3rd Battalion, the Coldstream Guards
- 1st Battalion, the Irish Guards
- 1/1st Battalion, the Hertfordshire Regiment (to 6th Bde. August 1915)
The brigade left the division on 20 August 1915 to join the Guards Division and was renamed the 1st Guards Brigade.
- 2nd Battalion, the Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
- 2nd Battalion, the Highland Light Infantry
- 17th (Service) Battalion, the Royal Fusiliers (from 99th Bde. December 1915, to 6th Bde. in February 1918)
- 24th (Service) Battalion (2nd Sportsman's), the Royal Fusiliers (from 99th Bde. December 1915)
The following battalions were part of the brigade during 1915.
- 1/7th Battalion, The King's (Liverpool Regiment) (September 1915 to November 1915)
- 2nd Battalion, the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (January 1915 to July 1915)
- 2nd Battalion, The Worcestershire Regiment (August 1914 to December 1915)
- 1/9th Battalion (Glasgow Highlanders), the Highland Light Infantry (November 1914 to January 1916)
- 1st Battalion, The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment) (July 1915 to December 1915)
- 1st Battalion, The King's (Liverpool Regiment)
- 2nd Battalion, The South Staffordshire Regiment
- 13th (Service) Battalion (West Ham), The Essex Regiment
- 1st Battalion, the King's Royal Rifle Corps (to 99th Bde. December 1915)
The following battalions were part of the brigade during 1915.
- 1st Battalion, the Royal Berkshire Regiment (August 1914 to December 1915)
- 1/5th Battalion, The King's (Liverpool Regiment) (February 1915 to December 1915)
- 1/7th Battalion, The King's (Liverpool Regiment) (March 1915 to September 1915)
- 1/1st Battalion, The Hertfordshire Regiment (August 1915 to June 1916)
The 17th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers joined the brigade from the 5th Brigade in February 1918.
19th Brigade (19 August 1915 to 25 November 1915) :
- 2nd Battalion, the Royal Welch Fusiliers
- 1st Battalion, the Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)
- 1/5th Battalion, the Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)
- 1st Battalion, The Middlesex Regiment
- 2nd Battalion, the Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders
- 22nd (Service) Battalion, the Royal Fusiliers
- 23rd (Service) Battalion, (1st Sportsman's) the Royal Fusiliers
- 1st Battalion, the Royal Berkshire Regiment (from 6th Bde. December 1915)
- 1st Battalion, the King's Royal Rifle Corps (from 6th Bde. December 1915)
The brigade joined the division from the 33rd Division in November 1915. The following battalions left the brigade shortly afterwards:
- 17th (Service) Battalion, the Royal Fusiliers (to 5th Bde. December 1915)
- 24th (Service) Battalion, the Royal Fusiliers (to 5th Bde. December 1915)
- 1/5th Battalion, The King's (Liverpool Regiment) (from 6th Bde. December 1915)
Second World War
Battle of France
Following its return from Germany, the division continued to be a regular army formation stationed in Britain. In 1939, it once again became part of a British Expeditionary Force sent to fight alongside French armies. Its commander was Major General Henry Loyd. In 1940, the British Expeditionary Force, including the 2nd Division, was driven from France in the Dunkirk evacuation, with few casualties but losing almost all its equipment.
India and Burma
The 2nd Division was re-equipped in Britain. In December 1941, Japan entered the war. After British and Commonwealth forces in the Far East suffered disastrous defeats in early 1942, the division was sent to India, which was threatened by Japanese advances and internal disorder. For some time, the division was involved in internal security operations and training for amphibious operations.
In 1944, the Japanese launched an invasion of India. The 2nd Division was sent to recapture the vital position at Kohima. After driving the Japanese back at the Battle of Kohima, the division relieved a besieged Indian corps at Imphal. The epitaph carved on the memorial of the 2nd Division in the large cemetery for the Allied war dead at Kohima reads,
|“||When You Go Home, Tell Them Of Us And Say,
For Your Tomorrow, We Gave Our Today
This has become world-famous as the Kohima Epitaph. The verse is attributed to John Maxwell Edmonds and is thought to have been inspired by the epitaph written by Simonides to honour the Greek who fell at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC.
The division continued to serve as part of British Fourteenth Army during its offensive into Burma. It was withdrawn to India at the end of March 1945, as it could not be maintained nor kept up to strength. It was rebuilt in India and was intended for further amphibious operations, but the war ended before it saw further action.
In September 1945 the divisional headquarters was in Malaya under Headquarters XXXIV Corps, with the three brigades en route to Japan, in Malaya, and in Burma earmarked for Malaya.
The division was withdrawn to India on 12 April 1945. The division transferred to the command of HQ Allied Land Forces South East Asia on that date, moving back to the Southern Army on the 7th June 1945. The 5th Brigade left the division in October 1945 (following reorganisation) to become part of the Brinjap Division within the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan. The 6th Brigade (again reorganised) sailed to Singapore in December 1945. The division was disbanded in India in October 1946.
Second World War formation
(On Deployment to India, April 1942)
- 4th Infantry Brigade
- 5th Infantry Brigade
- 1st Bn, The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders
- 2nd Bn, The Dorsetshire Regiment
- 7th Bn, The Worcestershire Regiment
- 6th Infantry Brigade
- 1st Bn, The Royal Berkshire Regiment
- 1st Bn, The Royal Welsh Fusiliers
- 2nd Bn, Durham Light Infantry
- 2nd Reconnaissance Regiment RAC
- 2nd Bn, The Manchester Regiment
- 3rd Carabiniers (Prince of Wales's Dragoon Guards)
- 10th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 16th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 99th (Buckinghamshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 100th (Gordon Highlanders) Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery
Post-Second World War
The division was amalgamated with the 36th Division and reformed at St. David's Barracks in Hilden in Germany in February 1947. It also amalgamated with the disbanding 6th Armoured Division in 1958 and moved to Tunis Barracks at Lübbecke in September 1959.
Until the late 1970s, it consisted of the 4th Armoured Brigade and 12th Mechanised Brigade, but from 1976 to 1983 it was reorganised as a small armoured division, incorporating two brigade-sized headquarters, Task Force Charlie (TFC) and Task Force Delta (TFD), which controlled five tank/mechanised infantry battle groups (one armoured and two infantry in TF Charlie, and one armoured and one infantry in TF Delta). The 2nd Armoured Division was the first British division in Germany to undergo this reorganisation, and the division's commander while this establishment was tested was Major General Frank Kitson.
In a major reorganisation of British forces in 1982 and 1983, the division returned to the United Kingdom. Its new headquarters was at Imphal Barracks in York, and it consisted of three infantry brigades: the regular 24th Airmobile Brigade, and the 15th Brigade and 49th Brigade from the Territorial Army. Its role would have been to cross the Channel and protect I (BR) Corps rear area in the event of a Soviet invasion of Western Europe.
Each of its two TA brigades had a Fox-equipped reconnaissance regiment. These two yeomanry regiments were regarded as 'mobile anti-armour' reserves for their respective brigades in the Corps rear area.
Following the end of the Cold War, the division disbanded in 1992, but the title was resurrected for the amalgamation of several military districts - North East District and part of Eastern District, when the formation reformed on 1 April 1995. The 1998 Strategic Defence Review led to a reorganisation of Land Command. The 2nd Division absorbed Scotland District and its headquarters moved to Craigiehall, near Edinburgh in April 2000.
Following further reshuffing, 52nd Infantry Brigade was reformed as an operational, rather than regional, brigade consisting of several light infantry battalions, and left the formation to join 3 Division in 2007.
The Division reported to Army Headquarters at Andover. It was tasked with maintaining the infrastructure and resources and the command and control responsibilities, for the training and administration of all Regular Army and Territorial Army units in Scotland, Northern Ireland and the North of England and as such the deputy commander was always a Territorial Army officer at the rank Of Brigadier.
The new HQ Support Command in Aldershot began operation in January 2012 when HQ 4th Division in Aldershot disbanded. HQ 2nd division in Edinburgh and HQ 5th division in Shrewsbury were disbanded in April 2012.
Despite the closure of HQ 2nd Division in Edinburgh the Army will retain a General Officer Commanding (GOC) Scotland, in addition to a small number of staff, in order to maintain the level of senior representation in Scotland required to oversee the rebasing changes. In the longer term HQ 1 (UK) Armoured Division, currently based in Germany, is expected to re-locate to Scotland by 2020 and will take over the GOC Scotland role.
The division HQ controlled Catterick Garrison and four Regional Brigades:
Recent Commanders have been:
GOC 2nd Division
- 1899-1901 Major-General Francis Clery
- 1902-1904 Major-General Charles Douglas
- 1904-1907 Lieutenant-General Sir Bruce Hamilton
- 1907-1910 Major-General Theodore Stephenson
- 1910-1914 Major-General Henry Lawson
- Aug-Dec 1914 Major-General Charles Monro
- 1914-1915 Major-General Henry Horne
- 1915-1916 Major-General William Walker
- 1916-1919 Major-General Sir Cecil Pereira
- 1919-1923 Major-General Sir Richard Butler
- 1923-1926 Major-General Sir Peter Strickland
- 1926-1928 Major-General Sir Edmund Ironside
- 1928-1935 Major-General Thomas Cubitt
- 1931-1935 Major-General Henry Jackson
- 1935-1937 Major-General Archibald Wavell
- 1937-1939 Major-General Henry Wilson
- 1939-1940 Major-General Henry Loyd
- May-Aug 1940 Major-General Noel Irwin
- 1940-1941 Major-General Daril Watson
- 1941-1944 Major-General John Grover
- 1944-1946 Major-General Cameron Nicholson
- 1946-1947 Major-General Robert Arkwright
- 1947-1949 Major-General Philip Balfour
- 1949-1951 Major-General Colin Callander
- 1951-1954 Major-General Basil Coad
- 1954-1956 Major-General John Wilsey
- 1956-1958 Major-General Cosmo Nevill
- 1958-1960 Major-General William Stirling
- 1960-1962 Major-General Edward Williams
- 1962-1964 Major-General Mervyn Butler
- 1964-1966 Major-General Norman Wheeler
- 1966-1967 Major-General John Sharp
- 1968-1970 Major-General Chandos Blair
- 1970-1972 Major-General Rollo Pain
- 1972-1974 Major-General John Archer
- 1974-1976 Major-General Desmond Mangham
- 1976-1977 Major-General Frank Kitson
- Note: from 1977 to 1983 2nd Division operated as an Armoured Division: see 2nd Armoured Division
GOC 2nd Infantry Division
- 1983-1984 Major-General Patrick Palmer
- 1984-1986 Major-General Peter Inge
- 1986-1987 Major-General Charles Guthrie
- 1987-1989 Major-General Murray Naylor
- 1989-1991 Major-General Michael Rose
- 1991-1992 Major-General Michael Walker
GOC 2nd Division
- 1995-1996 Major General Patrick Cordingley
- 1996-1999 Major General Dair Farrar-Hockley
- 1999-2002 Major General Robert Gordon
- 2002-2004 Major General Nick Parker
- 2004-2007 Major General Euan Loudon
- 2007-2009 Major General David McDowall
- May 2009-September 2009 Major General Andrew Mackay
- October 2009-January 2012 Major General David Shaw
- January 2012-March 2012 Major General Nick Eeles
- 2006-2009 Brigadier Joseph Gerard d'Inverno
- 2009–2012 Brigadier Simon Bell
- Moorsom, W S, (ed). "Historical Record of the Fifty-Second Regiment (Oxfordshire Light Infantry) from the year 1755 to the year 1858". 2nd edition. London: Richard Bentley, 1860 p267 (facsimile printed by The Naval & Military Press Ltd, East Sussex, England)
- Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War, p. 284
- 2nd Infantry Division British Military History
- BAOR locations
- General Sir Frank Kitson at Debrett's People of Today 1994
- Sanders, T J, “Reconnaissance in the 2020’s: An open letter to the author of our article in the May 1989 issue, from Brigadier T J Sanders CBE” Tank: The Journal of the Royal Tank Regiment, p. 8, (February 1990, Vol.72, No.711)
- "TA Command Structure 1967 - 2000". Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Shots fired at Scottish Army headquarters near Edinburgh Daily Record, 22 June 2011
- "New Army's HQ Land Forces base is opened in Andover". BBC News. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- First tranche of Army unit moves confirmed Defence News, 10 November 2011
- House of Commons Library: Standard Note: SN06038
- Army Commands
- The Catholic Who's Who by Francis Cowley Burnand, p.10
- Service appointments
- New Head of the Army in Scotland
- "Scotland's Army Head installed as Edinburgh Castle Governor". Ministry of Defence. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Jon Latimer, Burma: The Forgotten War, London: John Murray, 2004 ISBN 0-7195-6576-6
- Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War, New York: Random House 1979.
- 2nd Division Website
- 2 Infantry Division at Orders of Battle.com?
- British Unit History Site
- The British Army in the Great War: The 2nd Division
- British Military History: 2 Division (1930-38)
- British Military History: 2 Infantry Division (1939)
- British Military History: 2 Infantry Division (1940)
- British Military History: 2 Infantry Division (1944-45)
- List of British divisions in WWI
- British Divisions in World War II
- British Army Order of Battle - September 1939