Module file

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For other uses, see Module.

Module files (MOD music, tracker music) are a family of music file formats originating from the MOD file format on Amiga systems used in the late 1980s. Those who produce these files (using the software called trackers) and listen to them, form the worldwide MOD scene, a part of the demoscene subculture.

The mass interchange of "MOD music" or "tracker music" (music stored in module files created with trackers) evolves from early FIDO networks. Many websites host large numbers of these files, the most comprehensive of them being the Mod Archive.

Nowadays most module files, including ones in zipped form, are supported by most popular media players such as Winamp, VLC, Foobar2000, Amarok, Exaile and many others.


Module files store several "patterns" or "pages" of music data in a form similar to that of a spreadsheet. These patterns contain note numbers, instrument numbers, and controller messages. The number of notes that can be played simultaneously depends on how many "tracks" there are per pattern. They also contain digitally recorded samples as well as coding for sequencing the samples in playback. The programs that are used to create these files provide composers with the means to control an manipulate sound samples in almost limitless ways to produce music.

Module files are also referred to as "tracker modules", and the process of composing modules is known as tracking, simply because the first ever module creating program was Ultimate Soundtracker, created by Karsten Obarski in 1987.[1][2] Soundtracker was cloned many times, with programs such as NoiseTracker and ProTracker being direct descendants from the original Soundtracker code, and others such as MED/OctaMED and Oktalyzer being written from scratch.[2] Such programs are called trackers in general. What is unique about these programs is that, in the hands of sophisticated composers, the resultant product rivals studio-recorded music in production quality.

A disadvantage of module files is that there is no real standard specification in how the modules should be played back properly, which may result in modules sounding slightly different in different players. This is mostly due to effects that can be applied to the samples in the module file and how the authors of different players choose to implement them.[3]


32 second sample from a module file written in FastTracker 2

Problems playing this file? See media help.

For the time of the existence of module files, people concerned with them formed world-wide, multi-thousand populated, so called MOD scene which is closely related to the Demoscene due to its nature. It started on the Commodore 64 with SID music used on video game cracks.[4] It spread to the Amiga and eventually to the PC.[5] The process of composing module files, known as tracking, is a highly creative and skillful activity that involves a much closer contact with musical sound than conventional composition, because every aspect of each sonic event is coded, from pitch and duration to exact volume, panning, and laying in numerous effects such as echo, tremolo and fades.[6] Due to this, tracker musicians are, at the same time, the composers and the performers of their music. Tracker music is characteristic in that it is made by hand, distributed as open source, and executed in real-time.[7][8][9] It has seen tens of thousands of members come and go and has developed several styles of music unique to the genre. Composers adapt to the technical limitations as well as the cultural conditions, where resources were often reserved for the visual content.[10]

Once the module file is finished, it is released to the tracker community. The composer uploads the newly composition to one or more of several sites where module files are archieved, making it available to his or her audience, who will download the file on their own computers. By encoding textual information within each module file, composers maintain contact with their audiences and with one another by including their email addresses, greetings to fans and other composers, and virtual signatures.[6] Although trackers can be considered to have some technical limitations, it does not prevent a creative individual from producing music that is indiscernible from professionally created music.[11] Many tracker musicians gained international prominence within MOD software users and some of them went on to work for high-profile video game studios, or started their own.[12] Notable artists include Andrew Sega, Jeroen Tel, Bjørn Lynne, Alexander Brandon, Skaven, Jonne Valtonen, Dan Gardopée, Jesper Kyd, Markus Kaarlonen, and Michiel van den Bos. Deadmau5 and Erez Eisen of Infected Mushroom have both used Impulse Tracker in their early career.[13][14]

Tracker music has been featured in numerous computer games, as well as in electronic dance music productions.[15] A well-known example of a game featuring tracker music is the science fiction shooter Unreal, developed by Epic Games.[16] Unreal Tournament, Deus Ex and Hitman: Codename 47[17] also featured tracker music.

Popular formats[edit]

Each module file format builds on concepts introduced in its predecessors.

Sound/Pro/Noisetracker module (file extension .mod, or mod. prefix on Amiga systems)
This is the original module format. Uses inverse-frequency note numbers. 4 voices, with up to 32 in later variations of the format. Pattern data is not packed. Instruments are simple volume levels; samples and instruments correspond one-to-one. 15 instruments in the original Soundtracker, 31 in later trackers. This format was originally created to be easily playable with the Amiga hardware, since it was equipped with a four-channel DAC. The CPU has to do very little work to play these modules on an Amiga.[citation needed] Many games utilize this format - often with small player programs included. In the early 1990s, usage of this format with games was widespread across platforms, with games on PC and Nintendo systems utilizing it, as well.
The original .mod extension is actually not a suffix on the Amiga, but a prefix; mod.* is the standard naming convention on the Amiga, and same prefix standard is used in basically all the other various sample/synth-trackers ever made for the Amiga - Art of Noise, AHX/THX, Musicline, Startrekker, FutureComposer, SidMon, Brian Postma's SoundMon etc. The majority of the "oldschool format"-players for Windows, Linux, Mac OS etc. will, when trying to load an "original" mod.*-file (or ahx.*, bp.*, fc14.* and so on), simply not play it due not analysing the file to determine the type - they only check for a filename extension as a suffix. Simply renaming the file from "mod.filename" to "filename.mod" is usually a sufficient workaround.
Oktalyzer (originated on Amiga computers)
This was an early effort to bring 8 channel sound to the Amiga. Later replayers have improved on the sound quality attainable from these modules by more demanding mixing technologies.
MED/OctaMED (originated on Amiga computers)
This format is very similar to sound/pro/noisetracker, but the way the data is stored is different. MED was not a direct clone of SoundTracker, and had different features and file formats. OctaMED was an 8-channel version of MED, which eventually evolved into OctaMED Soundstudio (which offers 128-channel sound, optional synth sounds, MIDI support and lots of other high-end features).
AHX (originated on Amiga computers)
This format is a synth-tracker. There are no samples in the module file, rather descriptions of how to synthesize the required sound. This results in very small audio files (AHX modules are typically 1k-4k in size), and a very characteristic sound. AHX is designed for music with chiptune sound. The AHX tracker requires Kickstart 2.0 and 2 mb RAM memory.
.s3m (originated in ScreamTracker version 3 for PC)
Up to 16 or more voices. Samples can specify any playback frequency for middle C. Simple packing of pattern data. Introduction of several new controllers and a dedicated "volume column" in each voice to replace volume controllers. Predictable support for stereo panning and AdLib FM synthesis instruments (although the latter is rarely supported in playback software).[18]
.xm (originated in Fast Tracker)
Introduction of instruments with volume and panning envelopes. Basic pattern compression, no sample compression. Added ping-pong loops to samples.[18]
.it (originated in Impulse Tracker)
New Note Actions let the previous note in a track fade out on top of the next note (providing greater effective polyphony). Instruments can now share a sample. Adds some new effects such as a resonant filter. Better pattern compression. Added sample compression. Added sustain loops to samples.[18]
Created by Ian Luck to use MP3/Ogg compressed samples
MultiTracker modules
Unreal/Tournament music package. This is actually a standard Unreal package file that wraps one .mod, .s3m, .it or .xm file so it can be accessed from within the game.[19]

Software module file players and converters[edit]

OpenCubic Player, example of a typical MOD player with STFT spectrum Audio visualization

Many of the listed software use the modplug engine from the open source multimedia framework gstreamer.[20]


Converters and trackers[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Olga Guriunova. Art Platforms and Cultural Production on the Internet. Routledge. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-415-89310-7. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  2. ^ a b Rouwe (23 July 2011). "Tracker / MOD History". ChipMusic. Retrieved 2014-09-03. 
  3. ^ Karen Collins; Bill Kapralos; Holly Tessler. The Oxford Handbook of Interactive Audio. Oxford. p. 624. ISBN 978-0-19-979722-6. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  4. ^ "The History of Sound Cards and Computer Game Music". MacGateWay. July 13, 2012. Retrieved 2014-09-08. 
  5. ^ "Tracker music". Giant Bomb. Retrieved 2014-09-08. 
  6. ^ a b Rene T. A. Lysloff; Jr. Leslie C. Gay; Andrew Ross. Music and Technoculture. Wesleyan University Press. p. 352. ISBN 978-0819565143. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  7. ^ Peter Moormann. Music and Game: Perspectives on a Popular Alliance. Springer VS. p. 223. ISBN 978-3-531-18913-0. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  8. ^ "Tracker". ByteNoise. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  9. ^ Holmes, Kevin (12 April 2012). "Demoscene - The Art of the Algorithms Looks At The History Of A Digital Subculture". TheCreatorsProject. Retrieved 2014-09-03. 
  10. ^ Weasel, Wild (6 November 2011). "Demoscene". Hardcoregaming101. Retrieved 2014-09-03. 
  11. ^ "Demoscene: Interview with Romeo Knight!". OpenBytes. 17 October 2010. Retrieved 2014-09-04. 
  12. ^ Kopstein, Joshua (10 April 2012). "A brief video history of the demoscene in memory of Commodore boss Jack Tramiel". The Verge. Retrieved 2014-08-21. 
  13. ^ Burns, Todd L. (September 30, 2008). "Deadmau5: It's complicated". Resident Advisor. Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  14. ^ Levine, Mike (September 1, 2009). "Geeking Out With Infected Mushroom". Electronic Musician. Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  15. ^ Mitch Gallagher. The Music Tech Dictionary: A Glossary of Audio-Related Terms and Technologies. Course Technology. p. 256. ISBN 978-1598635829. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  16. ^ Winifred Philips. A Composer's Guide to Game Music. MIT Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-262-02664-2. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  17. ^ In the official Jesper Kyd forum which is now offline, Kyd himself admitted on using tracker software to compose music for Hitman: Codename 47.
  18. ^ a b c Matsuoka, Claudio (2007-11-04). "Tracker History Graphing Project". Retrieved 2011-01-29. "Tracker History Graph" 
  19. ^ Composing Music for Unreal - Alexander Brandon, (1999)
  20. ^ GStreamer Bad Plugins 0.10 Plugins Reference Manual
  21. ^ "Neutron Music Player". Retrieved September 11, 2014. 

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