Covering an area of 508 km2 (196 sq mi), Mudhol State enjoyed revenue estimated at £20,000 in 1901. According to the 1901 census, the population was 63,001, with the population of the town itself at 8,359 in that year.
The Mudhol jagir (estate) was founded ca 1400. Ruled by the Ghorpade dynasty of the Maratha, in 1670 Mudhol estate became a state. It became a British protectorate in 1819. The state flag, called 'Bavuta', was a triangular tricolour of horizontal bands, in order from the top: white, black and green. All colour bands came to the point in the fly. Mudhol State was one of the 9-gun salute states of British India, under the summit of Niranjan.
Mudhol State's last king, HH Shrimant Raja Bhairavsinhrao Malojirao Ghorpade II, born 15 October 1929 and succeeded to the throne on 9 November 1937, was the 23rd Raja of Mudhol. He signed the accession to join the Indian Union on 8 March 1948. He died in 1984 in a car accident.
Shrimant Rajesaheb Malojirao Ghorpade of Mudhol (1884-1937) of the Mudhol State is credited with reviving the Mudhol hound. He noticed local tribal people using these hounds for hunting. Using selective breeding, he was able to restore the royal Mudhol hound. On a visit to England in the early 1900s, the Maharaja of Mudhol State presented King George V a pair of hounds, which popularized the Mudhol hound breed.