Orchha State

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Orchha State
ओर्छा
Princely State of British India
c. 1250–1950

Flag of Orchha

Flag

History
 -  Established c. 1250
 -  Accession to the Union of India 1950
Area
 -  1901 9,700 km2 (3,745 sq mi)
Population
 -  1901 321,364 
Density 33.1 /km2  (85.8 /sq mi)
Orchha Princely State

Orchha State,[1] a princely state of Bundelkhand region, in present Madhya Pradesh state, India, during the time of the British Raj.

The Chaturbhuj Temple was built, during the time of Akbar, by the Queen of Orchha,[2] while Raj Mandir was built by 'Madhukar Shah' during his reign, 1554 to 1591.[3][4] During British Raj, it became part of the Bundelkhand Agency within the Central India Agency in 1811, and eventually post-independence of India in 1947, it acceded to Union of India, in 1950.

History[edit]

Memorial Chhatris of the ruler of Orchha, on the bank of the Betwa River
Lakshmi Temple, Orchha
Lakshmi Narayan Temple, Orchha
The capture of Orchha by invading Mughal forces (October 1635)
Orchha stamp, dated 1914

Orchha State was founded in the 1501 AD,[5] by the Bundela chief, Rudra Pratap Singh, who became the first King of Orchha, (r. 1501-1531) and also built the Fort of Orchha.[6] During the rule of Mughal Emperor, Jahangir, his ally, Bir Singh Deo (r. 1605-1627) reigned here, and it was during this period that Orchha reaches its height, and many extant palaces are a reminder of its architectural glory, including Jahangir Mahal (b. ca 1605) and Sawan Bhadon Mahal.[7]

In the early 17th century, Raja Jujhar Singh rebelled against the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, whose armies devastated the state and occupied Orchha from 1635 to 1641. Orchha and Datia were the only Bundela states not subjugated by the Marathas in the 18th century. The town of Tehri, Tikamgarh, about 52 miles (84 km) south of Orchha, became the capital of Orchha state in 1783, and is now the district town; Tehri was the site of the fort of Tikamgarh, and the town eventually took the name of the fort.[8]

Hamir Singh, who ruled from 1848 to 1874, was elevated to the style of Maharaja in 1865. During his reign the allied forces of Orchha and Datia invaded Jhansi in 1857 intending to divide the Jhansi territory between them. However they were defeated by Rani Lakshmibai's army and her allies in August 1857. (She intended at this time to hold Jhansi on behalf of the British who had no forces there at the time.)[9] Maharaja Pratap Singh (born 1854, died 1930), who succeeded to the throne in 1874, devoted himself entirely to the development of his state, himself designing most of the engineering and irrigation works that were executed during his reign.

In 1901, the state was within the Bundelkhand Agency and had an area of 2,000 sq mi (5,200 km2), and population of 52,634. It was the oldest and highest in rank of all the Bundela states, with a 15-gun salute, and its Maharajas bore the hereditary title of First of the Prince of Bundelkhand. Vir Singh, Pratap Singh's successor, merged his state with the Union of India on January 1, 1950. The district became part of Vindhya Pradesh state, which was merged into Madhya Pradesh state in 1956.

Today Orchha is almost a nondescript town with a small population, and its importance is maintained only due to its rich architectural heritage and tourism.

Books on the rich history of Orchha are available in local shops, mostly in the Hindi language. Only a thorough reading of some of this material will tell about the rich and varied history of this place.

Rulers of Orchha[edit]

Vir Singh
Maharaja Pratap Singh of Orchha

Rajas[edit]

  • Raja Rudra Pratap (1501–1531)
  • Raja Bharatichand (1531–1554)
  • Raja Madhukarshah (1554–1592)
  • Raja Vir Singh Deo (Bir Singh Deo) (1592–1627)
  • Raja Jujhar Singh (1627–1636)(Brother of Hardaul Singh)
  • Raja Devi Singh (1635–1641)
  • Raja Pahar Sing (1641-1653)
  • Raja Sujan Singh (1653-1672)
  • Raja Indramani Singh (1672-1675)
  • Raja Jaswant Singh (1675-1684)
  • Raja Bhagwat Singh (1684–1689)
  • Raja Udwat Singh (1689–1735)
  • Raja Prithvi Singh (1735–1752)
  • Raja Sanwant Singh (1752–1765)
  • Raja Hati Singh (1765–1768)
  • Raja Man Singh (1768–1775)
  • Raja Bharti Singh (1775–1776)
  • Raja Vikramajit (1776–1817) died 1834.
  • Raja Dharam Pal (1817–1834) died 1834.
  • Raja Vikramajit (restored 1834)
  • Raja Tej Singh (1834–1841)
  • Raja Sajjan Singh (1841–1854)

Maharajas[edit]

  • Maharaja Hamir Singh (raja 1854-1865, maharaja 1865-March 15, 1874)
  • Maharaja Pratap Singh (June 1874-March 3, 1930) born 1854, died 1930.
  • Maharaja Vir Singh II (March 4, 1930-acceded January 1, 1950) born 1899, died 1956.

Postal history[edit]

Postage stamps of this feudatory state were prepared for use in 1897 but were never issued. The first Orchha State stamps were issued in 1913 (half anna and one anna); in 1914 there was another issue of four stamps (half anna to 4 annas). The third issue was in 1939 when a range of stamps bearing the maharajah's portrait were issued which included stamps of half anna to 8 annas and one rupee to 10 rupees.[10] Separate stamps were discontinued on 30 April 1950 after the state was merged with the Union of India early that year.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ DSAL.uchicago.edu
  2. ^ Orchha British Library.
  3. ^ Genealogy of Orchha
  4. ^ Raj Mandir British Library.
  5. ^ Orchha Tikamgarh district Official website.
  6. ^ Mausoleum of Raja Rudra Pratap British Library.
  7. ^ Swan Bhadon Palace, Orcha British Library.
  8. ^ Orchha state The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, vol. 19, p. 241.
  9. ^ Edwardes, Michael (1975) Red Year. London: Sphere Books, p. 117
  10. ^ Stanley Gibbons Ltd. Stanley Gibbons' Simplified Stamp Catalogue; 24th ed., 1959. London: Stanley Gibbons Ltd. p. 1063

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 25°21′N 78°38′E / 25.35°N 78.64°E / 25.35; 78.64