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Nelarabine structure.svg
Nelarabine ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
AHFS/ monograph
Licence data EMA:Link, US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat.
Legal status
Routes Intravenous
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability n/a
Protein binding <25%
Metabolism By adenosine deaminase, to 9-β-D-arabinofuranosylguanine
Half-life 30 minutes (nelarabine)
3 hours (ara-G)
Excretion Renal
CAS number 121032-29-9 YesY
ATC code L01BB07
PubChem CID 3011155
DrugBank DB01280
ChemSpider 2280207 YesY
UNII 60158CV180 YesY
KEGG D05134 N
Chemical data
Formula C11H15N5O5 
Mol. mass 297.268 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Nelarabine is a chemotherapy drug used in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was previously known as 506U78.

Nelarabine is a purine nucleoside analog converted to its corresponding arabinosylguanine nucleotide triphosphate (araGTP), resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis and cytotoxicity. Pre-clinical studies suggest that T-cells are particularly sensitive to nelarabine. In October 2005, it was approved by the FDA for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma that has not responded to or has relapsed following treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens. It was later approved in the European Union in the October of 2005. Complete responses have been achieved with this medication.

It is marketed in the US as Arranon and as Atriance in the EU by GlaxoSmithKline.