New World crops

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The phrase "New World Crops" is usually used to describe crops that were native to North and South America before 1492 and not found anywhere else in the world at that time. Many of these crops have since come to be grown around the world and have often become an integral part of various old world cultures' cuisines.

Examples[edit]

Table of Ancient New World Crops[1]
Grains Little barley, maize (corn), maygrass, wild rice
Pseudograins Amaranth, knotweed, goosefoot (quinoa), sunflower
Beans Common bean, lima bean, peanut, scarlet runner bean, tepary bean
Fiber Agave, yucca
Roots and Tubers Arrowroot, jicama, Camas root, hopniss, leren, manioc (yuca, cassava), mashua, oca, potato, sweet potato, ulluco, yacon
Fruits Avocado, blueberries, cherimoya, cranberries,[citation needed] guava (guayaba), huckleberries, papaya, pawpaw, passionfruit, pepper, pineapple, prickly pear (tuna), tomato, tomatillo
Melons Chayote, squashes
Meat and poultry coypu, guinea pig, llama, muscovy duck, turkey
Nuts Black walnuts, Brazil nut, cashews, hickory, pecans, shagbark hickory, American chestnut
Other Achiote (annatto), canna, chocolate, chicle (key ingredient in chewing gum and rubber), rubber, coca, cochineal (red dye), logwood, maple syrup, poinsettia, tobacco, vanilla

Agriculture[edit]

The new world developed agriculture much later than the fertile crescent in the middle east. The following tables illustrate the crops that were grown and the chronology of domestication.

Timeline of New World Crop Cultivation
Date Crops Location
8000BC[2] Squash Oaxaca, Mexico
5500BC Peanut [3] South America
8000-5000 BC Potato [4] Peruvian Andes
6000-4000BC[5] Peppers Oaxaca, Mexico
2500BC[6] Cotton Peru
2300-2200BC[2][7] Maize Mexico, Central America
5000BC[8]
Avocados
Mexico
4000BC Common Bean Central America
2000BC Sunflowers
Beans
1500BC Cocoa[9] Mexico

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, p. 126.
  2. ^ a b Smith, Bruce D. (February 2001). "Documenting plant domestication: The consilience of biological and archaeological approaches". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 98 (4): 1324–1326. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.4.1324. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  3. ^ "Earliest-Known Evidence Of Peanut, Cotton And Squash Farming Found". Science Daily. June 29, 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Spooner, DM; et al. (2005). "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping". PNAS 102 (41): 14694–99. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507400102. PMC 1253605. PMID 16203994. 
  5. ^ Perry, Linda; Kent V. Flannery (July 17, 2007). "Precolumbian use of chili peppers in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 104 (29): 11905–11909. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704936104. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  6. ^ "Cotton: The Fiber of Life". McGraw Hill. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  7. ^ Ranere, Anthony J.; Dolores R. Piper, Irene Holst, Ruth Dickau and José Iriarte (January 23, 2009). "The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (13): 5014–5018. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812590106. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  8. ^ Maestri, Nicoletta. "Avocado History: Domestication and History of Avocado". Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  9. ^ http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/chocolate/the-history-of-chocolate.asp