Obesity in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Obesity in america)
Jump to: navigation, search
According to 2007 statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States has the highest prevalence of overweight adults in the Anglosphere.[1]
Historical U.S. obesity rate, 1960–2004[2]

Obesity in the United States has been increasingly cited as a major health issue in recent decades. While many industrialized countries have experienced similar increases, obesity rates in the United States are among the highest in the world.[3]

Obesity has continued to grow within the United States. There are many reasons why obesity has increased, some of which are related to finance and physical fitness. As a result, many people with obesity have or will experience medical complications. Diet and physical activity are methods of preventing and reducing obesity. People who partake in regular exercise and eat healthy foods will feel the personal benefits as well. Many overweight Americans have not realized the health importance of a lower body weight and therefore have done nothing to reduce their obesity.[clarification needed]

Two out of every three Americans is now considered to be overweight or obese. During the early 21st century, America often contained the highest percentage of obese people in the world. Obesity has led to over 120,000 preventable deaths each year in the United States. An obese person in America is likely to incur $1,497 more in medical expenses annually. Approximately $190 billion is spent in added medical expenses per year within the United States. Obesity is a preventable condition that has been increasing within the United States. Health authorities anticipate no change to this vector.

The United States had the highest rate of obesity for large countries, until obesity rates in Mexico surpassed that of the United States in 2013.[4] From 13% obesity in 1962, estimates have steadily increased. The following statistics comprise adults age 20 and over living at or near the poverty level. The obesity percentages for the overall US population are higher.[clarification needed] reaching 19.4% in 1997, 24.5% in 2004,[5] 26.6% in 2007,[6] and 33.8% (adults) and 17% (children) in 2008.[7][8] In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported higher numbers once more, counting 35.7% of American adults as obese, and 17% of American children.[9] In 2013 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) found that 27.6% of American citizens were obese. The organization estimates that 3/4 of the American population will likely be overweight or obese by 2020.[10]

According to a study in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), in 2008, the obesity rate among adult Americans was estimated at 32.2% for men and 35.5% for women; these rates were roughly confirmed by the CDC again for 2009–2010. Using different criteria, a Gallup survey found the rate was 26.1% for U.S. adults in 2011, up from 25.5% in 2008. Though the rate for women has held steady over the previous decade, the obesity rate for men continued to increase between 1999 and 2008, the JAMA study notes. Moreover, "The prevalence of obesity for adults aged 20 to 74 years increased by 7.9 percentage points for men and by 8.9 percentage points for women between 1976–1980 and 1988–1994, and subsequently by 7.1 percentage points for men and by 8.1 percentage points for women between 1988–1994 and 1999–2000."[11][12]

Obesity has been cited as a contributing factor to approximately 100,000–400,000 deaths in the United States per year[13] and has increased health care use and expenditures,[14][15][16][17] costing society an estimated $117 billion in direct (preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services related to weight) and indirect (absenteeism, loss of future earnings due to premature death) costs.[18] This exceeds health-care costs associated with smoking or problem drinking[17] and accounts for 6% to 12% of national health care expenditures in the United States.[19]

Prevalence[edit]

Obesity rates have increased for all population groups in the United States over the last several decades.[13] Between 1986 and 2000, the prevalence of severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) quadrupled from one in two hundred Americans to one in fifty. Extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2) in adults increased by a factor of five, from one in two thousand to one in four hundred.[20]

There have been similar increases seen in children and adolescents, with the prevalence of overweight in pediatric age groups nearly tripling over the same period. Approximately nine million children over six years of age are considered obese. Several recent studies have shown that the rise in obesity in the US is slowing, possibly explained by saturation of health-oriented media or a biological limit on obesity.[20]

Race[edit]

Rates of obesity in US by race.

Obesity is distributed unevenly across racial groups in the United States.[21]

Caucasian[edit]

The obesity rate for Caucasian adults (over 30 BMI) in the US in 2010 was 26.8%.[22] For adult Caucasian men, the rate of obesity was 27.5% in 2010.[23] For adult Caucasian women, the rate of obesity was 24.5% in 2010.[23]

Black or African American[edit]

The obesity rate for Black adults (over 30 BMI) in the US in 2010 was 36.9%.[22] For adult Black men, the rate of obesity was 31.6% in 2010.[23] For adult Black women, the rate of obesity was 41.2% in 2010.[23]

American Indian or Alaska Native[edit]

The obesity rate for American Indian or Alaska Native adults (over 30 BMI) in the US in 2010 was 39.6%.[22] No gender breakdown was given for American Indian or Alaska Native adults in the CDC figures.[22]

Asian[edit]

The obesity rate for Asian adults (over 30 BMI) in the US in 2010 was 11.6%.[22] No gender breakdown was given for Asian adults in the CDC figures.[22]

Hispanic or Latino[edit]

The obesity rate for the Hispanic or Latino adults category (over 30 BMI) in the US in 2010 was 31.9%.[22] For the overall Hispanic or Latino men category, the rate of obesity was 30.7% in 2010.[23] For the overall Hispanic or Latino women category, the rate of obesity was 33.1% in 2010.[23]

Mexican or Mexican Americans[edit]

Within the Hispanic or Latino category, obesity statistics for Mexican or Mexican Americans were provided, with no gender breakdown.[22] The obesity rate for Mexican or Mexican Americans adults (over 30 BMI) in the US in 2010 was 34.1%.[22]

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander[edit]

The obesity rate for Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander adults (over 30 BMI) in the US in 2010 was 43.5%.[22] No gender breakdown was given for Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander adults in the CDC figures.[22]

Gender[edit]

Over 66 million adults in U.S. are obese (30 million men and 36 million women). 74 million are overweight (42 million men and 32 million women).[24]

Age group[edit]

Historically, obesity primarily affected adults. This has changed in the last two decades. 15-25 percent of American children and adolescents are now obese. Children and adolescents who are obese are likely to be obese in adulthood and to develop obesity-related health problems.[25]

Newborns[edit]

Some newborns are oversized. This is more often a problem associated with a medical disorder. Unlike adults, neonates do not develop obesity. The number one cause of big babies is diabetes in their mother. The baby is not considered obese.[citation needed]

Children and teens[edit]

The rise of overweight among ages 6-19 in the US.

From 1980 to 2008, the prevalence of obesity in children aged 6 to 11 years tripled from 6.5% to 19.6%. The prevalence of obesity in teenagers more than tripled from 5% to 18.1% in the same time frame.[26]

Data from NHANES surveys (1976–1980 and 2003–2006) show that the prevalence of obesity has increased: for children aged 2–5 years, prevalence increased from 5.0% to 12.4%; for those aged 6–11 years, prevalence increased from 6.5% to 19.6%; and for those aged 12–19 years, prevalence increased from 5.0% to 17.6%.[27]

In 2000, approximately 19% of children (ages 6–11) and 17% of adolescents (ages 12–19) were overweight and an additional 15% of children and adolescents were at risk to becoming overweight, based on their BMI.[28]

Analyses of the trends in high BMI for age showed no statistically significant trend over the four time periods (1999–2000, 2001–2002, 2003–2004, and 2005–2006) for either boys or girls. Overall, in 2003-2006, 11.3% of children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years were at or above the 97th percentile of the 2000 BMI-for-age growth charts, 16.3% were at or above the 95th percentile, and 31.9% were at or above the 85th percentile[29]

Trend analyses indicate no significant trend between 1999–2000 and 2007-2008 except at the highest BMI cut point (BMI for age 97th percentile) among all 6- through 19-year-old boys. In 2007-2008, 9.5% of infants and toddlers were at or above the 95th percentile of the weight-for-recumbent-length growth charts. Among children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years, 11.9% were at or above the 97th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts; 16.9% were at or above the 95th percentile; and 31.7% were at or above the 85th percentile of BMI for age.[30]

In summary, between 2003 and 2006, 11.3% of children and adolescents were obese and 16.3% were overweight. A slight increase was observed in 2007 and 2008 when the recorded data shows that 11.9% of the children between 6 and 19 years old were obese and 16.9% were overweight. The data recorded in the first survey was obtained by measuring 8,165 children over four years and the second was obtained by measuring 3,281 children.

"More than 80 percent of affected children become overweight adults, often with lifelong health problems."[31] Children are not only highly at risk of diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure but obesity also takes a toll on the child's psychological development. Social problems can arise and have a snowball effect, causing low self-esteem which can later develop into eating disorders.

Elderly[edit]

Although obesity is reported in the elderly, the numbers are still significantly lower than the levels seen in the young adult population. It is speculated that socioeconomic factors may play a role in this age group when it comes to developing obesity.[32] Obesity in the elderly increases healthcare costs.[clarification needed] Nursing homes are not equipped with the proper equipment needed to maintain a safe environment for the obese residents.[citation needed] If a heavy bedridden patient is not turned will increase the chances of a bed sore. If the sore is untreated, the patient will need to be hospitalized and have a wound vac placed.[citation needed]

In the military[edit]

An estimated sixteen percent of active duty U.S. military personnel were obese in 2004, with the cost of remedial bariatric surgery for the military reaching US$ 15 million in 2002. Obesity is currently the largest single cause for the discharge of uniformed personnel.[33]

In 2005, 9 million adults of ages 17 to 24, or 27%, were too overweight to be considered for service in the military.[34]

According to a 2012 research on young servicemen's autopsies revealed a large case of coronary disease problems occurring in large numbers to younger individuals who due to obesity had high cholesterol and blood pressure, which was prior to this commonly known in elderly folks.[35]

Prevalence by state[edit]

Obesity in the U.S., 2011, by state
Obesity rates in the U.S., 1985–2010 by state

The following figures were averaged from 2005–2007 adult data compiled by the CDC BRFSS program[36] and 2003–2004 child data from the National Survey of Children's Health.[37][38]

Care should be taken in interpreting these numbers, because they are based on self-report surveys which asked individuals (or, in case of children and adolescents, their parents) to report their height and weight. Height is commonly overreported and weight underreported, sometimes resulting in significantly lower estimates. One study estimated the difference between actual and self-reported obesity as 7% among males and 13% among females as of 2002, with the tendency to increase.[39]

The long-running REGARDS study, published in the journal of Obesity in 2013, brought in individuals from the nine census regions and measured their height and weight. The data collected disagreed with the data in the CDC's phone survey used to create the following chart. REGARDS found that the West North Central region (North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, and Iowa), and East North Central region (Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana) were the worst in obesity numbers, not the East South Central region (Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Kentucky) as had been previously thought.[40] Dr.P.H., professor in the Department of Biostatistics in the UAB School of Public Health George Howard explains that "Asking someone how much they weigh is probably the second worst question behind how much money they make," "From past research, we know that women tend to under-report their weight, and men tend to over-report their height." Howard said as far as equivalency between the self-reported and measured data sets, the East South Central region showed the least misreporting. "This suggests that people from the South come closer to telling the truth than people from other regions, perhaps because there’s not the social stigma of being obese in the South as there is in other regions."[41]

State and District of Columbia Obese adults Overweight (incl. obese) adults Obese children and adolescents Obesity rank
Alabama 30.1% 65.4% 16.7% 3
Alaska 27.3% 64.5% 11.1% 14
Arizona 23.3% 59.5% 12.2% 40
Arkansas 28.1% 64.7% 16.4% 9
California 23.1% 59.4% 13.2% 41
Colorado 21.0% 55.0% 9.9% 51
Connecticut 20.8% 58.7% 12.3% 49
District of Columbia 22.1% 55.0% 14.8% 43
Delaware 25.9% 63.9% 22.8% 22
Florida 23.3% 60.8% 14.4% 39
Georgia 27.5% 63.3% 16.4% 12
Hawaii 20.7% 55.3% 13.3% 50
Idaho 24.6% 61.4% 10.1% 31
Illinois 25.3% 61.8% 15.8% 26
Indiana 27.5% 62.8% 15.6% 11
Iowa 26.3% 63.4% 12.5% 19
Kansas 25.8% 62.3% 14.0% 23
Kentucky 28.4% 66.8% 20.6% 7
Louisiana 29.5% 64.2% 17.2% 4
Maine 23.7% 60.8% 12.7% 34
Maryland 25.2% 61.5% 13.3% 28
Massachusetts 20.9% 56.8% 13.6% 48
Michigan 27.7% 63.9% 14.5% 10
Minnesota 24.8% 61.9% 10.1% 30
Mississippi 34.4% 67.4% 17.8% 1
Missouri 27.4% 63.3% 15.6% 13
Montana 21.7% 59.6% 11.1% 45
Nebraska 26.5% 63.9% 11.9% 18
Nevada 23.6% 61.8% 12.4% 36
New Hampshire 23.6% 60.8% 12.9% 35
New Jersey 22.9% 60.5% 13.7% 42
New Mexico 23.3% 60.3% 16.8% 38
New York 23.5% 60.0% 15.3% 37
North Carolina 27.1% 63.4% 19.3% 16
North Dakota 25.9% 64.5% 12.1% 21
Ohio 26.9% 63.3% 14.2% 17
Oklahoma 28.1% 64.2% 15.4% 8
Oregon 25.0% 60.8% 14.1% 29
Pennsylvania 25.7% 61.9% 13.3% 24
Rhode Island 21.4% 60.4% 11.9% 46
South Carolina 29.2% 65.1% 18.9% 5
South Dakota 26.1% 64.2% 12.1% 20
Tennessee 29.0% 65.0% 20.0% 6
Texas 27.2% 64.1% 19.1% 15
Utah 21.8% 56.4% 8.5% 44
Vermont 21.1% 56.9% 11.3% 47
Virginia 25.2% 61.6% 13.8% 27
Washington 24.5% 60.7% 10.8% 32
West Virginia 30.6% 66.8% 20.9% 2
Wisconsin 25.5% 62.4% 13.5% 25
Wyoming 24.0% 61.7% 8.7% 33

Epidemiology[edit]

Obesity is a chronic health problem. It is one of the biggest factors for a type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It is also associated with cancer (e.g. colorectal cancer), osteoarthritis, liver disease, sleep apnea, depression and other medical conditions that affect mortality and morbidity.[42]

According to the NHANES data, African American and Mexican American adolescents between 12 and 19 years old are more likely to be overweight than non-Hispanic White adolescents. The prevalence is 21%, 23% and 14% respectively. Also, in a national survey of American Indian children 5–18 years old, 39 percent were found to be overweight or at risk for being overweight.[43]

A 2007 study found that receiving Food Stamps long term (24 months) was associated with a 50% increased obesity rate among female adults.[44]

Looking at the long-term consequences, overweight adolescents have a 70 percent chance of becoming overweight or obese adults, which increases to 80 percent if one or more parent is overweight or obese. In 2000, the total cost of obesity for children and adults in the United States was estimated to be US$ 117 billion (US$ 61 billion in direct medical costs).

Food consumption has increased with time. For example, annual per capita consumption of cheese was 4 pounds (1.8 kg) in 1909; 32 pounds (15 kg) in 2000; the average person consumed 389 grams (13.7 oz) of carbohydrates daily in 1970; 490 grams (17 oz) in 2000; 41 pounds (19 kg) of fats and oils in 1909; 79 pounds (36 kg) in 2000. In 1977, 18% of an average person's food was consumed outside the home; in 1996, this had risen to 32%.[45]

Contributing factors to obesity epidemic[edit]

Obesity levels per county 2004–2009.

According to Cleveland Clinic, cultural, social, and environmental factors, among others, all affect eating behaviors.[46]

Diet[edit]

Fast food has been cited as a contributing factor to obesity in the United States by various sources over the years.[47] Around one third of children aged 4 to 19 eat fast food every day in the U.S.[48]

Many popular American favorite foods, including hamburgers, french fries, bacon, and doughnuts, are high in fat and carbohydrate content. These food items are also relatively inexpensive and available at fast food chains across the country (for ex. value menu). These convenience foods are frequently fried and are high in calories. Consumption of foods exceedingly high in fat calories can lead to obesity. Many menu items at fast food establishments do not fulfill basic nutritional requirements of a healthy meal. In a 2010 report by the Rudd Center for Food Policy it was noted that less than 1% of children's meals combinations met nutrition standards recommended by experts.[49]

Fast food chains and restaurants have experienced improved sales with larger portion sizes.[50][51] Research cited by the Center for Disease Control estimates restaurant meal sizes to be four times larger than they were in the 1950s.[52][53]

Three studies published in the United States shows a correlation between sweet soda and fruit drinks to obesity.[54] The consumption of sweet soda and fruit drinks has more than doubled since the 1970s.[54] The first study showed that "drinking sugary drinks was affecting genes that regulate weight and increased the genetic predisposition of a person to gain weight."[54] The other two studies showed that "giving to children and adolescents calorie-free drinks like mineral water or soft drinks sweetened with artificial sweeteners resulted in weight loss."[54]

One of the other two studies was conducted by Boston Children's Hospital who examined two groups of adolescents.[54] The group which was encouraged to consume water or light sodas for a year gained 0.68 kilograms (1.5 lb). The other group, which consumed sugary drinks, gained 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb).[54] The third study was conducted by Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands.[54] They studied 641 children ages four to eleven over 18 months.[54] They were split into two groups. One group drank sweet and fruity drinks and the other group drank the same drink with sugarless sweeteners.[54] The group that drank the drink that had sugarless sweeteners gained 6.39 kilograms (14.1 lb) on average compared to 7.36 kilograms (16.2 lb) on average by the other group.[54]

Sedentary lifestyle[edit]

A sedentary lifestyle is another possible contributing factor to obesity. A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with no or irregular physical activity. Sedentary activities include sitting, reading, watching television, playing video games, and computer use for much of the day with little or no vigorous physical exercise. A sedentary lifestyle can contribute to many preventable causes of death. Screen time is the amount of time a person spends watching a screen such as a television, computer monitor, or mobile device. Excessive screen time is linked to negative health consequences.[55][56][57][58] Much of the United States gets insufficient exercise. As Americans have become more sedentary in their lifestyles, obesity rates have risen. More than 60% of U.S. adults do not exercise as recommended, and approximately 25% of U.S adults are not active at all.[59] Exercise prevents excess weight and helps maintain weight loss. Despite the well-known benefits of physical activity, many adults and many children lead a relatively sedentary lifestyle[60][61] and are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Being active boosts high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and decreases unhealthy triglycerides.[24]

Social changes[edit]

People are generally social which carries over into their eating habits. As Sidney Mintz, professor of anthropology at Johns Hopkins University said, "Interaction over food is the single most important feature of socializing."[62] The business world typically transacts business deals over food. Along with other activities, such as when people get together to catch up, food is served. At parties, there is food everywhere, at sports gatherings, food concession stands are ubiquitous. Funerals become wakes where mourners eat as part of mourning.

Technology such as televisions, cellular devices, and video games add on to the epidemic by increasing time spent in the home versus the time that could be spent being outside or doing some kind of physical activity. Not only have studies proven that children who watch more TV tend to have higher body fat percentage but that what they actually view can affect their eating habits.[63] The approximate $10 billion spent annually for commercials to advertise food instills brand recognition and loyalty with children.[64]

But in 2011, researchers assessed the causal relationship between recent increases in female labor force participation and the increased prevalence of obesity among women and found no such causal link.[65] However, as families have become increasingly busy, quality family time has decreased. Research has shown that families who frequently spend significant time eating dinner as a family tend to have lower rates of obesity among children.[66]

Total costs to the US[edit]

There has been an increase in obesity-related medical problems, including type II diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and disability.[14] In particular, diabetes has become the seventh leading cause of death in the United States,[67] with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimating in 2008 that fifty-seven million adults aged twenty and older were pre-diabetic, 23.6 million diabetic, with 90–95% of the latter being type 2-diabetic.[68]

Obesity has also been shown to increase the prevalence of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Babies born to obese women are almost three times as likely to die within one month of birth and almost twice as likely to be stillborn than babies born to women of normal weight.[69]

Obesity has been cited as a contributing factor to approximately 100,000–400,000 deaths in the United States per year[13] (including increased morbidity in car accidents)[70] and has increased health care use and expenditures,[14][15][16][17] costing society an estimated $117 billion in direct (preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services related to weight) and indirect (absenteeism, loss of future earnings due to premature death) costs.[18] This exceeds health-care costs associated with smoking or problem drinking[17] and accounts for 6% to 12% of national health care expenditures in the United States.[19]

The Medicare and Medicaid programs bear about half of this cost.[17] Annual hospital costs for treating obesity-related diseases in children rose threefold, from US$ 35 million to US$ 127 million, in the period from 1979 to 1999,[71] and the inpatient and ambulatory healthcare costs increased drastically by US$ 395 per person per year.[16]

These trends in healthcare costs associated with pediatric obesity and its comorbidities are staggering, urging the Surgeon General to predict that preventable morbidity and mortality associated with obesity may surpass those associated with cigarette smoking.[15][72] Furthermore, the probability of childhood obesity persisting into adulthood is estimated to increase from approximately twenty percent at four years of age to approximately eighty percent by adolescence,[73] and it is likely that these obesity comorbidities will persist into adulthood.[74]

Anti-obesity efforts[edit]

By 2013, there is evidence that some Americans have addressed the concern about obesity. This was done voluntarily, through dieting, and through legal means, by bans on junk food in schools.

There was a decrease in obesity rates. However, there was a significant increase in Americans who have slipped into the "extremely obese" category. The extremely obese category includes individuals who are roughly 100 pounds (45 kg) over a healthy weight.[75]

Under pressure from parents and anti-obesity advocates, many school districts moved to ban sodas, junk foods, and candy from vending machines and cafeterias.[76] State legislators in California, for example, passed laws banning the sale of machine-dispensed snacks and drinks in elementary schools in 2003, despite objections by the California-Nevada Soft Drink Association. The state followed more recently with legislation to prohibit their soda sales in high schools starting July 1, 2009, with the shortfall in school revenue to be compensated by an increase in funding for school lunch programs.[77] A similar law passed by the Connecticut General Assembly in June 2005 was vetoed by governor Jodi Rell, who stated the legislation "undermines the control and responsibility of parents with school-aged children."[78]

In mid-2006, the American Beverage Association (including Cadbury Schweppes, Coca Cola, and PepsiCo) agreed to a voluntary ban on the sale of all high-calorie drinks and all beverages in containers larger than 8, 10 and 12 ounces in elementary, middle and high schools, respectively.[79][80]

Non-profit organizations such as HealthCorps work to educate people on healthy eating and advocate for healthy food choices in an effort to combat obesity.[81]

The American First Lady Michelle Obama is leading an initiative to combat childhood obesity entitled "Let's Move". Mrs. Obama says she aims to wipe out obesity "in a generation". Let's Move! has partnered with other programs.[82] Walking and bicycling to school helps children increase their physical activity.[83]

In 2008, the state of Pennsylvania enacted a law, the "School Nutrition Policy Initiative," aimed at the elementary level. These “interventions included removing all sodas, sweetened drinks, and unhealthy snack foods from selected schools, 'social marketing' to encourage the consumption of nutritious foods and outreach to parents.”[84] The results were a “50 percent drop in incidence of obesity and overweight”, as opposed to those individuals who were not part of the study.[85]

In the past decade there have been school-based programs that target the prevention and management of childhood obesity. There is evidence that long term school-based programs have been effective in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. [86]

For two years, Duke University psychology and global health professor Gary Bennett and eight colleagues followed 365 obese patients who had already developed hypertension. They found that regular medical feedback, self-monitoring, and a set of personalized goals can help obese patients in a primary care setting lose weight and keep it off.[87]

Major United States manufacturers of processed food, aware of the possible contribution of their products to the obesity epidemic, met together and discussed the problem as early as April 8, 1999; however, a proactive strategy was considered and rejected. As a general rule, optimizing the amount of salt, sugar and fat in a product will improve its palatability, and profitability. Reducing salt, sugar and fat, for the purpose of public health, had the potential to decrease palatability and profitability.[88]

Food labeling[edit]

Ultimately, federal and local governments in the U.S. are willing to create political solutions that will reduce obesity ratings by “recommending nutrition education, encouraging exercise, and asking the food and beverage industry to promote healthy practices voluntarily.”[89] In 2008 New York City was the first city to pass a “labeling bill” that “require[d] restaurants” in several cities and states to “post the caloric content of all regular menu items, in a prominent place and using the same font and format as the price.”[90]

Accommodations[edit]

Along with Obesity came the accommodations made of American products. Child-safety seats in 2006 became modified for the 250,000 obese U.S. children ages six and below. [91] The obese incur extra costs for themselves and airlines when flying. Weight is a major component to the formula that goes into the planes take off and for it to successfully fly to the desired destination. Due to the weight limits taken in consideration for flight in 2000, airlines spent $275 million on 350 million additional gallons of fuel for compensation of additional weight to travel.[91]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lauren Streib (8 February 2007). "World's Fattest Countries". Forbes. 
  2. ^ "Statistics Related to Overweight and Obesity". CDC. 2006. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  3. ^ "Most obese countries". Reuters. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  4. ^ Global Post July 8, 2013, 4: 19 PM (2013-07-08). "Mexico takes title of "most obese" from America". CBS News. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  5. ^ Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data From the 2004 National Health Interview Survey (PDF), CDC NCHS, 2005-06-21, retrieved 2008-03-15 
  6. ^ Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data From the January–June 2007 National Health Interview Survey (12/2007) (PDF), CDC NCHS, 2007-11-19, retrieved 2008-03-15 
  7. ^ "Table 71". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2010. 
  8. ^ "U.S. Obesity trends". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  9. ^ National Obesity Trends, CDC NCHS, 2010, retrieved 2012-03-26 
  10. ^ "The 10 Healthiest States in America". University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  11. ^ Wihbey, John (January 5, 2012). "U.S. Obesity Trends and Neighborhood Effects". Journalist's Resource (Harvard Shorenstein Center). Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  12. ^ "How Much Physical Activities Do Adults Need?". 
  13. ^ a b c Blackburn, G L; Walker, W A (July 1, 2005), Science-based solutions to obesity: What are the roles of academia, government, industry, and health care?, The American journal of clinical nutrition (American Society for Clinical Nutrition) 82 (1): 207–210, PMID 16002821 
  14. ^ a b c Andreyeva, Tatiana; Sturm, Roland; Ringel, Jeanne S (2004), Moderate and Severe Obesity Have Large Differences in Health Care Costs, Obesity Research 12 (12): 1936–1943, doi:10.1038/oby.2004.243, PMID 15687394 
  15. ^ a b c Wolf, A M (1998), What is the economic case for treating obesity?, Obesity Research 6 (1): 2S–7S, doi:10.1002/j.1550-8528.1998.tb00682.x, PMID 9569170 
  16. ^ a b c Sturm, Roland (2002), The Effects of Obesity, Smoking, and Drinking on Medical Problems and Costs (PDF), Health Affairs 21 (2): 245–253, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.21.2.245, PMID 11900166 
  17. ^ a b c d e Finkelstein, E.A. Fiebelkorn (2003), National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who’s paying (PDF), Health Affairs 3 (1): 219–226, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.w3.219 
  18. ^ a b Statistics related to overweight and obesity: Economic costs related to overweight and obesity, Weight-control Information Network, 2006, retrieved 2009-02-22 
  19. ^ a b Thompson, D. Wolf; Wolf, AM (2001), The medical-care cost burden of obesity, Obesity Reviews 2 (3): 189–197, doi:10.1046/j.1467-789x.2001.00037.x, PMID 12120104 
  20. ^ a b U.S. obesity rates reaching a resting point, studies show
  21. ^ CDC 2012. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: 2010. Table 31
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k CDC 2012. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: 2010. Table 31, page 106.
  23. ^ a b c d e f CDC 2012. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: 2010. Table 31, page 107.
  24. ^ a b Rippe, James, Obesity: Prevention and treatment. Portland, OR. Book News Inc. 2012. Print.
  25. ^ Epidemic obesity and childhood MedicineNet. Retrieved on 2010-02-04
  26. ^ "Childhood Obesity Statistics". Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  27. ^ "Childhood Overweight and Obesity". Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  28. ^ "Obesity Statistics". Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  29. ^ "High Body Mass Index for Age Among USA Children and Adolescents 2003/2006". Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  30. ^ "Prevalence of High Body Mass Index in US Children and Adolescents, 2007-2008". Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  31. ^ Berk, Laura. E. Exploring Lifespan Development. 2nd ed. Boston: Allan & bacon, 2010. Print.
  32. ^ An overview on obesity Emedicine Health. Retrieved on 2010-02-04
  33. ^ Basu, Sandra (2004-03-25). "Military Not Immune From Obesity Epidemic. Retrieved on 2014-04-24". U.S. Medicine. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  34. ^ Shalikashvili, John M. (30 April 2010). "The new national security threat:obesity". Washington, DC: Washington Post. pp. A19. 
  35. ^ Blanchard, Kathleen. "Military autopsies: What new findings reveal about heart disease could come as a surprise." EmaxHealth. 31 Dec. 2012. Web. 5 Nov. 2013.
  36. ^ Levi, Jeffrey; Vinter, Serena; St Laurent, Rebecca; Segal, Laura M (August 2008), F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies are Failing in America, 2008 (PDF), Trust For America's Health, pp. 10–11 . Note: Defines "overweight" as BMI ≥25, "obese" as BMI ≥30
  37. ^ Overweight and Physical Activity Among Children: A Portrait of States and the Nation 2005 (PDF), HRSA, 2005, retrieved 2008-03-15 . Note: data is for children aged 10-17; defines "overweight" as BMI ≥95th percentile.
  38. ^ Blumberg, S J; Olson, L; Frankel, MR; Osborn, L; Srinath, K P; Giambo, P (2005), Design and operation of the National Survey of Children’s Health (PDF), Vital and Health Statistics 1 (43) 
  39. ^ Majid Ezzati et al (2006). "Trends in national and state-level obesity in the USA after correction for self-report bias: analysis of health surveys". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 99 (5): 250–7. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.5.250. PMC 1457748. PMID 16672759. 
  40. ^ The Geographic Distribution of Obesity in the US and the Potential Regional Differences in Misreporting of Obesity. http://www.regardsstudy.org/content/geographic-distribution-obesity-us-and-potential-regional-differences-misreporting-obesity Note: study disagrees with findings of CDC cell phone survey, and obesity prevelence by state chart
  41. ^ Wyatt, Nicole (April 11, 2013). "South not the fattest part of U.S. after all, study say". UAB News (University of Alabama at Birmingham). 
  42. ^ Rippe, James. Obesity; Prevention and Treatment. Portland, OR. 2012. Book News, Ink.
  43. ^ "Childhood Obesity". Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  44. ^ "The Effects of Food Stamps on Obesity". Retrieved 2012-06-02. 
  45. ^ Smith, Peter (August 2011). "Eat your veggies". Sky (Delta): 52–53. 
  46. ^ ed. "The Psychology of Eating." Cleveland Clinic. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 7 Nov 2008. Web. 28 May 2012. <http://my.clevelandclinic.org/healthy_living/weight_control/hic_the_psychology_of_eating.asp&xgt
  47. ^ "America's Move to Raise A Healthier Generation of Kids: Learn the Facts". Letsmove.gov. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  48. ^ "Fast Food Linked To Child Obesity". CBS News. January 5, 2004. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  49. ^ "Fast Food FACTS 2013: Fast Food Companies Still Target Kids with Marketing for Unhealthy Products". Yale Rudd Center. November 5, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  50. ^ "By Any Other Name it's Still a Supersize". NBC News. October 19, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  51. ^ "UNC study confirms that food portion sizes increased in U.S. over two decades". University of North Carolina. January 21, 2003. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  52. ^ L. Young. et al. (2002). "The Contribution of Expanding Portion Sizes to the US Obesity Epidemic". Am J Public Health. 92 (2): 246–249. doi:10.2105/ajph.92.2.246. PMC 1447051. PMID 11818300. 
  53. ^ "The New (Ab)Normal: Portion Sizes Today vs. In The 1950s". Huffington Post. May 23, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Three studies link obesity to sweet drinks". Toronto Sun. September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  55. ^ Amy E. Mark, M.sc.1 and Ian Janssen, Ph.D.1,2 (2008-03-28). "Relationship between screen time and metabolic syndrome in adolescents". Jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2013-11-30. 
  56. ^ "Elsevier". Ambulatorypediatrics.org. Retrieved 2013-11-30. 
  57. ^ "Elsevier". Jpeds.com. Retrieved 2013-11-30. 
  58. ^ Olds, T.; Ridley, K.; Dollman, J. (2006). "Screenieboppers and extreme screenies: The place of screen time in the time budgets of 10–13 year-old Australian children". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 30 (2): 137–142. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2006.tb00106.x. PMID 16681334.  edit
  59. ^ Rippe, James. Obesity: Prevention and Treatment. Portland, OR. Book News Inc. 2012. Print.
  60. ^ "Physical Activity Statistics". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  61. ^ "Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England, February 2009". National Health Service. Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  62. ^ Kluger, Jefferey. "America's Obesity Crisis: Eating Behavior: Why We Eat." Time magazine US. 07 Jun 2004: 01-05. Web. 27 May. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,994388,00.html>
  63. ^ Berk, Laura. Exploring Lifespan Development. 2nd ed. Boston: Allon & Bacon, 2010. Print.
  64. ^ Staff, MyHealthNewsDaily. "Obese Children More Influenced By Food Ads Than Healthy-Weight Kids (STUDY)." Huffingtonpost.com. Huff Post Parents, 3 Dec. 2012. Web. 11 Oct. 2013
  65. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, The Effects of Female Labor Force Participation on Obesity, October 2011
  66. ^ "More Time at Family Dinners might Curb Obesity in Kids." U.S.News & World Report 01 2013: 1. ProQuest. Web. 3 Oct. 2013. <http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2013/01/23/more-time-at-family-dinners-might-curb-obesity-in-kids>
  67. ^ Chamberlain, Joan (2008), Fact sheet: Type 2 diabetes (PDF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 
  68. ^ Diabetes Prevention Program (PDF), Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 
  69. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona (5 June 2010). "Growing Obesity Increases Perils of Childbearing". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2010. 
  70. ^ Rice, T. M.; Zhu, M. (21 January 2013). "Driver obesity and the risk of fatal injury during traffic collisions". Emergency Medicine Journal. doi:10.1136/emermed-2012-201859. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  71. ^ Wang, Guijing; Dietz, William H (2002), Economic Burden of Obesity in Youths Aged 6 to 17 Years: 1979–1999, Pediatrics 109 (5): e81, doi:10.1542/peds.109.5.e81 
  72. ^ The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity (PDF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001, retrieved 2008-02-22 
  73. ^ Guo, W C; Chumlea (March 27, 1999), Tracking of body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood, The American journal of clinical nutrition 70 (1): 145–148 
  74. ^ Wisemandle, W; Maynard, L M; Guo, S S; Siervogel, R M (2000), Childhood Weight, Stature, and Body Mass Index Among Never Overweight, Early-Onset Overweight, and Late-Onset Overweight Groups, Pediatrics 106 (1): e14, doi:10.1542/peds.106.1.e14, PMID 10878143 
  75. ^ Hellmich, Nanci (24 December 2013). "Obesity levels off, but extreme cases tipping the scales". USA Today. Retrieved 25 December 2013. 
  76. ^ Otto, Mary; Aratani, Lori (2006-05-04). "Soda Ban Means Change at Schools". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  77. ^ Finz, Stacy (2006-05-22). "State high school soda ban expected on books by 2009". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  78. ^ Cowan, Alison Leigh (2005-06-15), Rell Vetoes Junk-Food Limit in Connecticut's Public Schools, New York Times, retrieved 2009-11-30 
  79. ^ Mayer, Caroline (2006-05-03). "Sugary Drinks To Be Pulled From Schools: Industry Agrees to Further Limit Availability to Children". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  80. ^ Burros, Marian; Warner, Melania (2006-05-04). "Bottlers Agree to a School Ban on Sweet Drinks". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  81. ^ "Program Teaches Teens Proper Nutrition". ABC News. ABC News Internet Ventures. 2008. 
  82. ^ Fuel Up to Play 60 http://fueluptoplay60.com/
  83. ^ Rippe,James. Obesity: Prevention and Treatment. Portland, OR. Book News, Inc. 2012 Print
  84. ^ Kersh, 2009 p. 306
  85. ^ Kersh, 2009, p. 306
  86. ^ Gonzalez-Suarez. "School-based interventions on childhood obesity: a meta-analysis.". 
  87. ^ Cloud, John (2012-03-14). "A Weight-Loss Solution: Don't Eat Less. Just Don't Eat More | TIME.com". Healthland.time.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  88. ^ Michael Moss (February 20, 2013). "The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 1, 2013. 
  89. ^ Kersh, 2009 p. 301
  90. ^ Kersh, 2009 p. 304
  91. ^ a b Stahl, Jason. "20 Things You Didn't Know about... Obesity". Discover Magazine. discoverymagazine.com 24 July 2006. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

External links[edit]