Foreign relations of the United States
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Australia||1940||See Australia–United States relations
Australia's relations with the United States are excellent. Australia and the United States have long been close and stragetic allies and have traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations. It has, however, strengthened its relationship with the United States since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia declined, to establish its current position as a staunch American ally. At the governmental level, United-States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement.
|Cook Islands||2005 or before||See Foreign relations of the Cook Islands
In November 2005, the U.S. Ambassador McCormick stated "I’ve been ...accredited to... the Cook Islands." and he participated in various activities in the region. The statement of the U.S. Ambassador signifies that there are established diplomatic relations between the two states, but neither this nor the accreditation of the Ambassador are mentioned at the CIA's World Factbook website of 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012. The Cook Islands have a Honorary Consul in and recognized by the U.S. since 1995.
|Fiji||1971||See Fiji–United States relations
Relations are currently poor, due to the United States' opposition to Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup.
|Kiribati||1980||See Kiribati–United States relations
Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The U.S. Peace Corps maintained a program in Kiribati from 1974 to 2008.
|Marshall Islands||1986||See Marshall Islands–United States relations
The Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation in "free association" with the United States. The Marshall Islands and the United States maintain excellent relations. After more than a decade of negotiation, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed the Compact of Free Association on June 25, 1983. The Compact gives the U.S. full authority and responsibility over defense of the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands and the United States both lay claim to Wake Island. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the Marshall Islands is the same one that binds the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia.
|Federated States of Micronesia||1986||See Federated States of Micronesia–United States relations
Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 U.S. federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. The United States and the FSM share very strong relations. Under the Amended Compact, the U.S. has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the FSM is the same one that binds the United States to the Marshall Islands and to Palau.
|Nauru||1976||See Nauru–United States relations
Relations between Nauru and the United States are complicated. While the new U.S. Ambassador to Fiji has promised Nauru assistance in economic development, there have been disagreements about Cuba and Foreign policy of the United States, and the United States does not have an embassy in Nauru; instead, the U.S. Embassy staff in Suva, Fiji make periodical visits
|New Zealand||1942||See New Zealand–United States relations
Relations are strong, but complex. The United States has historically assisted New Zealand in times of turmoil; for instance, during World War II and with the 2010 Canterbury earthquake. New Zealand has reciprocated; for example, by participating in the Vietnam War. However, the United States suspended its mutual defense obligations to New Zealand because of that state's non-nuclear policies.
|Palau||1996||See Palau–United States relations
On October 1, 1994, after five decades of U.S. administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.
|Papua New Guinea||1975||See Papua New Guinea–United States relations|
|Samoa||1962||See Samoa–United States relations|
|Solomon Islands||1978||See Solomon Islands–United States relations
After independence in 1978, the United States kept its close relations with the Solomon Islands. Both cooperate within regional organizations in the Pacific, and the United States has an embassy at Port Moresby.
|Tonga||1886; 1972||See Tonga–United States relations|
|Tuvalu||1978||See Tuvalu–United States relations
Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.
|Vanuatu||1986||See United States–Vanuatu relations
The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in U.S. aid to Vanuatu.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Argentina||1823||See Argentina–United States relations
The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counter-terrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,and the U.S.), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
|Bolivia||1849||See Bolivia–United States relations
Although President Evo Morales has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Bolivia had a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the U.S. remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. Government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.
|Brazil||1824||See Brazil–United States relations
The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil, doing so in 1808. Brazil-United States relations have a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues. The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America. As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.
|Canada||1926||See Canada–United States relations
Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is ten times larger in population and GDP.
|Chile||1824||See Chile–United States relations
Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics. Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement.
|Colombia||1822||See Colombia–United States relations
Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current U.S. policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that U.S. influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia. Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the U.S. has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism.
|Costa Rica||1851||See Costa Rica–United States relations|
|Ecuador||1832||See Ecuador–United States relations|
|El Salvador||1824; 1849||See El Salvador–United States relations|
|Guatemala||1824; 1844||See Guatemala–United States relations|
|Haiti||1862||See Haiti–United States relations|
|Honduras||1824; 1853||See Honduras–United States relations|
|Mexico||1822||See Mexico–United States relations
The United States of America shares a unique and often complex relationship with the United Mexican States. The two countries have close economic ties, being each other's first and third largest trading partners. They are also closely connected demographically, with over one million U.S. citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and in fire arms have been causes of differences but also of cooperation.
|Nicaragua||1824; 1849||See Nicaragua–United States relations|
|Panama||1903||See Panama–United States relations
Relations have been generally strong, with 25,000 U.S. citizens present in Panama and a mutual healthcare program.
|Paraguay||1852||See Paraguay–United States relations|
|Peru||1826||See Peru–United States relations|
|Uruguay||1836||See United States–Uruguay relations
In 2002, Uruguay and the U.S. created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the U.S. signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 U.S.-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market U.S. goods and services.
|Venezuela||1835||See United States–Venezuela relations
After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States and particularly after the Venezuelan failed coup attempt in 2002 against Chavez, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the U.S. Relations showed signs of improvement in 2009 with the election of the new U.S. President Barack Obama, including the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in June 2009.
The term "Caribbean" is used loosely to refer to countries in or near the Caribbean Sea other than those included under "Latin America".
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|People's Republic of China||1844 (Qing)
|See Sino-American relations
The United States acknowledges the People's Republic's One-China policy.
| Hong Kong
|||See Hong Kong–United States relations and Macau–United States relations|
||See Japan–United States relations
Since 1945, U.S.–Japan relations have improved greatly.
|Mongolia||1987||See Mongolia–United States relations|
|North Korea||N/A (No relations)||See North Korea–United States relations
The United States has no diplomatic relations with the North Korean government. For decades, the U.S. and North Korea have been locked in a stalemate over nuclear weapons.
|South Korea||1882 (Joseon); 1949 (Republic)||See South Korea–United States relations|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||1911 (ended 1979)||See Taiwan–United States relations
The U.S. recognized the Nationalist Government as the legitimate government of all of China throughout the Chinese Civil War. The U.S. continued to recognize the Republic of China until 1979, when it shifted its recognition to the People's Republic of China in accordance with the One China policy. The U.S. continued to provide Taiwan with military aid after 1979, and continued informal relations through the American Institute in Taiwan.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Brunei||1984||See Brunei–United States relations
The U.S. welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the U.S. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.
|Burma||1948||See Burma–United States relations
The political relationship between the United States and Burma worsened after the 1988 military coup and violent suppression of pro-democracy demonstrations. Subsequent repression, including the brutal crackdown on peaceful protestors in September 2007, further strained the relationship. After 2010 elections and reforms started by President Than Sein and subsequent endorsement of reforms by leader of National League for Democracy (NLD) Aung San Suu Kyi and participation in April 2012 by-elections to parliament has led to thawing of relationship with United States President Barack Obama visiting Burma a first by United States President
|Cambodia||1950||See Cambodia–United States relations|
|East Timor||2002||See East Timor–United States relations|
|Indonesia||1949||See Indonesia–United States relations|
|Laos||1950||See Laos–United States relations|
|Malaysia||1957||See Malaysia–United States relations|
|Philippines||1946||See Philippines–United States relations
The Philippines and the United States have an extremely strong relationship with each other due to their long standing alliance. The Philippines was also a U.S. colony from 1902-1946. The Philippines is also the oldest and one of the closest U.S. allies in Asia.
The U.S. and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Islamic insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.
The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with 100,000+ U.S. citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 2 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The U.S. is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.
The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The U.S. military also conduct humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two major U.S. allies in South East Asia.
|Singapore||1965||See Singapore–United States relations|
|Thailand||1833||See Thailand–United States relations|
|Vietnam||1995||See United States–Vietnam relations
After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco.
South and Central Asia
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Afghanistan||1935||See Afghanistan–United States relations|
|Bangladesh||1972||See Bangladesh–United States relations
Today the relationship between the two countries are based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.
|Bhutan||N/A (Informal relations)||See Bhutan–United States relations
The U.S. has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 alleged Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven U.N. refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.
|India||1947||See India–United States relations|
|Kazakhstan||1991||See Kazakhstan–United States relations|
|Kyrgyzstan||1991||See Kyrgyzstan–United States relations|
|Maldives||1965||See Maldives–United States relations|
|Nepal||1947||See Nepal–United States relations|
|Pakistan||1947||See Pakistan–United States relations|
|Sri Lanka||1947||See Sri Lanka–United States relations|
|Tajikistan||1991||See Tajikistan–United States relations|
|Turkmenistan||1991||See Turkmenistan–United States relations
The U.S. Embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.
|Uzbekistan||1991||See United States–Uzbekistan relations
Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to U.S., regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.
North Africa and Middle East
The United States and the Kingdom of Persia recognized each other in 1850. Diplomatic relations were established in 1883 and severed in 1980.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Arab League||See Arab–American relations
The Arab League has an Embassy, and several Offices in the U.S.
|Algeria||1962||See Algeria–United States relations
The official U.S. presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the U.S. Embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.
|Azerbaijan||1918-1928,1991||See Azerbaijan–United States relations
After 1928 in Azerbaijan beginning Sovetian occupation
|Bahrain||1971||See Bahrain–United States relations|
|Egypt||1922||See Egypt–United States relations
After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance U.S.-Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.
|Iraq||1931; 2004||See Iraq–United States relations|
|Israel||1949||See Israel–United States relations|
|Jordan||1949||See Jordan–United States relations|
|Kuwait||1961||See Kuwait–United States relations|
|Lebanon||1944||See Lebanon–United States relations|
|Libya||1951||See Libya–United States relations
In 2011, the United States cut diplomatic relations with the Gaddafi regime. The United States recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya on July 15, 2011.
|Morocco||1776||See Morocco–United States relations
Morocco was the first sovereign nation to recognize the United States of America in 1776. American-Moroccan relations were formalized in a 1787 treaty, which is still in force and is the oldest unbroken bilateral treaty in American history.
|Oman||1972||See Oman–United States relations|
|Qatar||1972||See Qatar–United States relations|
|Saudi Arabia||1940||See Saudi Arabia–United States relations|
|Sudan||1956||See Sudan–United States relations|
|Syria||1944||Syrian Arab Republic cut off relations with United States in 2012 in response to American support of the Syrian rebels. See Syria–United States relations|
|Tunisia||1795||See Tunisia–United States relations|
|Turkey||1831||See Turkey–United States relations|
|United Arab Emirates||1972||See United Arab Emirates–United States relations
The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries have enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and U.S. had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of U.S.-UAE relations increased dramatically as a result of the U.S.-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more U.S. Navy ships than any port outside the U.S.
|Yemen||1946||See United States–Yemen relations
Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the War on Terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional U.S. support.
- Bhutan (Contact is made via the Government of India at the U.S. Embassy, and Bhutan consulates in New York City)
- Cook Islands (The U.S. recognizes the Cook Islands as part of the Realm of New Zealand)
- Iran (inactive, U.S. Interests Section at the Swiss Embassy acts as de facto embassy. Since December 2011, the United States has also maintained a virtual embassy online.)
- North Korea (Contact is made via the Government of Sweden through its embassy in Pyongyang)
- Antigua and Barbuda (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Antigua and Barbuda are located in Barbados)
- Dominica (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Dominica are located in Barbados)
- Grenada (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Grenada are located in Barbados)
- Niue (The U.S. recognizes Niue as part of the Realm of New Zealand)
- Saint Kitts and Nevis (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Saint Kitts and Nevis are located in Barbados)
- Saint Lucia (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Saint Lucia are located in Barbados)
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are located in Barbados)
- Guinea-Bissau (Contact is made at the U.S. Embassy in Senegal and there is also a presence of the U.S. in Guinea-Bissau through a Liaison Office in Bissau and a virtual presence post online, there are currently no Guinea-Bissauan consulates for the U.S., except for a Permanent mission to the UN in New York)
- Somalia (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Somalia are located in Nairobi, Kenya and there is also a presence of the U.S. in Somalia through a virtual presence post online, Somali Embassy and Consulates are located in Washington, D.C.)
- Arctic Policy of the United States
- Foreign policy of the United States
- List of diplomatic missions in the United States
- List of diplomatic missions of the United States
- Major non-NATO ally
- Watching America
- "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Australia".
The United States recognized Australia on January 8, 1940, when the Governments of the United States and Australia announced the establishment of bilateral diplomatic relations.
- "Australia is America's closest ally".
"The United States does not have a closer or better ally than Australia," Mr Obama said after the pair's meeting.
- US ambassador accredited to the Cook Islands
- US WANTS JOINT VENTURE EXPLORATION INTO COOK ISLANDS MANGANESE RESOURCE
- American ambassador to New Zealand, Samoa, and the Cook Islands
- These CIA World Factbook sites have the following entry for Ambassador to the Cook Islands: "Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)"
- Foreign Consulates in California: The Honorable Metua Ngarupe, Honorary Consul of the Cook Islands
- Foreign Consular Offices in the United States - Cook Islands - NAME AND RANK: MR. METUA NGARUPE, HONORARY CONSUL - DATE OF RECOGNITION: Feb. 22, 1995
- "Fiji military stages coup, U.S. suspends aid". Reuters. 2006-12-05.
- HUFFER, Elise, Grands hommes et petites îles: La politique extérieure de Fidji, de Tonga et du Vanuatu, Paris: Orstom, 1993, ISBN 2-7099-1125-6, p.278
- Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. U.S. Army War College. 2004-04-03.
- US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations
- James Tagg reports that Canadian university students have a profound fear that "Canadian culture, and likely Canadian sovereignty, will be overwhelmed." Tagg, "'And, We Burned down the White House, Too': American History, Canadian Undergraduates, and Nationalism," The History Teacher, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2004), pp. 309-334 in JSTOR; J. L. Granatstein. Yankee Go Home: Canadians and Anti-Americanism (1997)
- John Barry, From Drug War to Dirty War: Plan Colombia and the U.S. Role in Human Rights Violations in Colombia, 12 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 161, 164 (Spring, 2002).
- Marc Grossman. Subsecretario de Estado para Asuntos Políticos. Universidad de Georgetown. Conferencia Uniendo esfuerzos por Colombia. US Embassy of Colombia (September 2, 2002). Available at http://bogota.usembassy.gov/wwwsmg13.shtml. Retrieved on March 27, 2006. (Spanish) (English version available)
- "Cuban Democracy Act of 1992". State Department.
- "U.S. formally recognizes Libyan rebels as legitimate government". Kansas City star. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- Sharp, Jeremy M. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations (RL34170) (PDF). Congressional Research Service (January 22, 2009). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Background Note: Benin". U.S. Department of State (June 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "U.S. Set to Recognize Somali Government". VOA. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Obama congratulates Tsvangirai". NewsToday.co.za. February 13, 2009.
- AFP 2009.