Foreign relations of the United States

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For discussion of United States foreign policy, see Foreign policy of the United States. For the book series, see Foreign Relations Series.

The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code.

Diplomatic foreign relations of the United States of America Countries with diplomatic relations with the United States of America
  Countries that the United States of America has diplomatic relations with and maintains a U.S. embassy in the country
Countries with no diplomatic relations with the United States of America
  Countries that the United States of America has no diplomatic relations with
  Countries that the United States of America does not recognize as existing


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1940[1] See Australia–United States relations

Australia's relations with the United States are excellent.[2] Australia and the United States have long been close and stragetic allies and have traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations. It has, however, strengthened its relationship with the United States since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia declined, to establish its current position as a staunch American ally. At the governmental level, United-States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement.[citation needed]

 Cook Islands 2005 or before See Foreign relations of the Cook Islands

In November 2005, the U.S. Ambassador McCormick stated "I’ve been ...accredited to... the Cook Islands."[3] and he participated in various activities in the region.[4][5] The statement of the U.S. Ambassador signifies that there are established diplomatic relations between the two states, but neither this nor the accreditation of the Ambassador are mentioned at the CIA's World Factbook website of 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012.[6] The Cook Islands have a Honorary Consul in and recognized by the U.S. since 1995.[7][8]

 Fiji 1971[9] See Fiji–United States relations

Relations are currently poor, due to the United States' opposition to Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup.[10]

 Kiribati 1980[11] See Kiribati–United States relations

Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The U.S. Peace Corps maintained a program in Kiribati from 1974 to 2008.

 Marshall Islands 1986 See Marshall Islands–United States relations

The Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation in "free association" with the United States. The Marshall Islands and the United States maintain excellent relations. After more than a decade of negotiation, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed the Compact of Free Association on June 25, 1983. The Compact gives the U.S. full authority and responsibility over defense of the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands and the United States both lay claim to Wake Island. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the Marshall Islands is the same one that binds the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia.

 Federated States of Micronesia 1986[12] See Federated States of Micronesia–United States relations

Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 U.S. federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. The United States and the FSM share very strong relations. Under the Amended Compact, the U.S. has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the FSM is the same one that binds the United States to the Marshall Islands and to Palau.

 Nauru 1976[13] See Nauru–United States relations

Relations between Nauru and the United States are complicated. While the new U.S. Ambassador to Fiji has promised Nauru assistance in economic development, there have been disagreements about Cuba and Foreign policy of the United States, and the United States does not have an embassy in Nauru; instead, the U.S. Embassy staff in Suva, Fiji make periodical visits

 New Zealand 1942[14] See New Zealand–United States relations

Relations are strong, but complex. The United States has historically assisted New Zealand in times of turmoil; for instance, during World War II and with the 2010 Canterbury earthquake. New Zealand has reciprocated; for example, by participating in the Vietnam War. However, the United States suspended its mutual defense obligations to New Zealand because of that state's non-nuclear policies.

 Palau 1996[15] See Palau–United States relations

On October 1, 1994, after five decades of U.S. administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.

 Papua New Guinea 1975[16] See Papua New Guinea–United States relations
 Samoa 1962[17] See Samoa–United States relations
 Solomon Islands 1978[18] See Solomon Islands–United States relations

After independence in 1978, the United States kept its close relations with the Solomon Islands. Both cooperate within regional organizations in the Pacific, and the United States has an embassy at Port Moresby.

 Tonga 1886; 1972[19] See Tonga–United States relations
 Tuvalu 1978[19] See Tuvalu–United States relations

Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.

 Vanuatu 1986[20] See United States–Vanuatu relations

The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.[21] Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in U.S. aid to Vanuatu.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1823[22] See Argentina–United States relations

The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counter-terrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,and the U.S.), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

 Bolivia 1849[23] See Bolivia–United States relations

Although President Evo Morales has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Bolivia had a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the U.S. remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. Government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

 Brazil 1824[24] See Brazil–United States relations

The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil, doing so in 1808. Brazil-United States relations have a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[25] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[26] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[27]

 Canada 1926[28] See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is ten times larger in population and GDP.[29]

 Chile 1824[30] See Chile–United States relations

Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics. Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement.

 Colombia 1822[31] See Colombia–United States relations

Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries[citation needed] to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current U.S. policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that U.S. influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia.[32] Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the U.S. has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism.[33]

 Costa Rica 1851[34] See Costa Rica–United States relations
 Ecuador 1832[35] See Ecuador–United States relations
 El Salvador 1824; 1849[36] See El Salvador–United States relations
 Guatemala 1824; 1844[37] See Guatemala–United States relations
 Haiti 1862[38] See Haiti–United States relations
 Honduras 1824; 1853[39] See Honduras–United States relations
 Mexico 1822[40] See Mexico–United States relations

The United States of America shares a unique and often complex relationship with the United Mexican States. The two countries have close economic ties, being each other's first and third largest trading partners. They are also closely connected demographically, with over one million U.S. citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and in fire arms have been causes of differences but also of cooperation.

 Nicaragua 1824; 1849[41] See Nicaragua–United States relations
 Panama 1903[42] See Panama–United States relations

Relations have been generally strong, with 25,000 U.S. citizens present in Panama and a mutual healthcare program.

 Paraguay 1852[43] See Paraguay–United States relations
 Peru 1826[44] See Peru–United States relations
 Uruguay 1836[45] See United States–Uruguay relations

In 2002, Uruguay and the U.S. created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the U.S. signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 U.S.-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market U.S. goods and services.

 Venezuela 1835[46] See United States–Venezuela relations

After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States and particularly after the Venezuelan failed coup attempt in 2002 against Chavez, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the U.S. Relations showed signs of improvement in 2009 with the election of the new U.S. President Barack Obama, including the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in June 2009.


The term "Caribbean" is used loosely to refer to countries in or near the Caribbean Sea other than those included under "Latin America".

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981[47] See United States-Antigua and Barbuda relations
 Aruba See Aruba–United States relations
 Bahamas 1973[48] See Bahamas–United States relations
 Barbados 1966[49] See Barbados–United States relations
 Belize 1981[50] See United States-Belize relations
 Bermuda See Bermuda–United States relations
 Cayman Islands See Cayman Islands–United States relations
 Cuba 1902[51] See Cuba–United States relations

Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations had deteriorated substantially, and until recently have been marked by tension and confrontation. The United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Cuba but has lifted an embargo for some business and educational purposes. U.S. diplomatic representation in Cuba is handled by the United States Interests Section in Havana and a similar Cuban Interests Section remains in Washington, D.C.; both are officially part of the respective embassies of Switzerland. The United States has initiated the embargo due to the Cuban regime refusal to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights,[52] hoping to see democratization that took place in Eastern Europe. On 17 December 2014, it was announced that relations between the two countries would resume.

 Dominican Republic 1866[53] See Dominican Republic–United States relations
 Dominica 1978[54] See Dominica–United States relations
 Grenada 1974[55] See Grenada–United States relations
 Guyana 1966[56] See Guyana–United States relations
 Jamaica 1962[57] See Jamaica–United States relations
 Netherlands Antilles See Netherlands Antilles–United States relations
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983[58] See Saint Kitts and Nevis–United States relations
 Saint Lucia 1979[59] See Saint Lucia–United States relations
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981[60] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–United States relations
 Suriname 1975[61] See Suriname–United States relations
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962[62] See Trinidad and Tobago–United States relations

East Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 People's Republic of China 1844 (Qing)[63]
1979 (PRC)
See Sino-American relations
The United States acknowledges the People's Republic's One-China policy.
 Hong Kong
[citation needed] See Hong Kong–United States relations and Macau–United States relations
 Japan 1854 [64]
See Japan–United States relations

Since 1945, U.S.–Japan relations have improved greatly.

 Mongolia 1987[65] See Mongolia–United States relations
 North Korea N/A (No relations) See North Korea–United States relations
The United States has no diplomatic relations with the North Korean government.[citation needed] For decades, the U.S. and North Korea have been locked in a stalemate over nuclear weapons.
 South Korea 1882 (Joseon);[66] 1949 (Republic)[67] See South Korea–United States relations
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 1911 (ended 1979) See Taiwan–United States relations
The U.S. recognized the Nationalist Government as the legitimate government of all of China throughout the Chinese Civil War. The U.S. continued to recognize the Republic of China until 1979, when it shifted its recognition to the People's Republic of China in accordance with the One China policy. The U.S. continued to provide Taiwan with military aid after 1979, and continued informal relations through the American Institute in Taiwan.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Brunei 1984[68] See Brunei–United States relations

The U.S. welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the U.S. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.

 Burma 1948[69] See Burma–United States relations

The political relationship between the United States and Burma worsened after the 1988 military coup and violent suppression of pro-democracy demonstrations. Subsequent repression, including the brutal crackdown on peaceful protestors in September 2007, further strained the relationship. After 2010 elections and reforms started by President Than Sein and subsequent endorsement of reforms by leader of National League for Democracy (NLD) Aung San Suu Kyi and participation in April 2012 by-elections to parliament has led to thawing of relationship with United States President Barack Obama visiting Burma a first by United States President

 Cambodia 1950[70] See Cambodia–United States relations
 East Timor 2002[71] See East Timor–United States relations
 Indonesia 1949[72] See Indonesia–United States relations
 Laos 1950[73] See Laos–United States relations
 Malaysia 1957[73] See Malaysia–United States relations
 Philippines 1946[74] See Philippines–United States relations

The Philippines and the United States have an extremely strong relationship with each other due to their long standing alliance. The Philippines was also a U.S. colony from 1902-1946. The Philippines is also the oldest and one of the closest U.S. allies in Asia.[75]

The U.S. and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Islamic insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.

The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with 100,000+ U.S. citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 2 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The U.S. is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.

The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The U.S. military also conduct humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two major U.S. allies in South East Asia.

 Singapore 1965[76] See Singapore–United States relations
 Thailand 1833[77] See Thailand–United States relations
 Vietnam 1995[78] See United States–Vietnam relations

After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco.

South and Central Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1935[79] See Afghanistan–United States relations
 Bangladesh 1972[80] See Bangladesh–United States relations

Today the relationship between the two countries are based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.

 Bhutan N/A (Informal relations)[81] See Bhutan–United States relations

The U.S. has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 alleged Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven U.N. refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.

 India 1947[82] See India–United States relations
 Kazakhstan 1991[83] See Kazakhstan–United States relations
 Kyrgyzstan 1991[84] See Kyrgyzstan–United States relations
 Maldives 1965[85] See Maldives–United States relations
   Nepal 1947[86] See Nepal–United States relations
 Pakistan 1947[87] See Pakistan–United States relations
 Sri Lanka 1947[88] See Sri Lanka–United States relations
 Tajikistan 1991[89] See Tajikistan–United States relations
 Turkmenistan 1991[90] See Turkmenistan–United States relations

The U.S. Embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.

 Uzbekistan 1991[91] See United States–Uzbekistan relations

Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to U.S., regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1922[92] See Albania–United States relations
 Andorra 1995[93] See Foreign relations of Andorra#Relations with the United States
 Armenia 1920; 1991[94] See U.S.–Armenia relations
 Austria 1921[95] See Austria–United States relations
 Belarus 1991[96] See Belarus–United States relations
The United States has tense relations with Belarus relating to Belarus' human rights record and election irregularities.
 Belgium 1832[97] See Belgium–United States relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992[98] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–United States relations
 Bulgaria 1903[99] See Bulgaria–United States relations
 Croatia 1992[100] See United States–Croatia relations
 Cyprus 1960[101] See Cyprus–United States relations
 Czech Republic 1993[102] See Czech Republic–United States relations
 Denmark 1801[103] See Denmark–United States relations
 Estonia 1922; 1991[104] See Estonia–United States relations
 European Union See United States–European Union relations
 Finland 1919[105] See Finland–United States relations
 France 1778[106] See France–United States relations
 Georgia 1992[107] See Georgia–United States relations
 Germany 1797[108] See Germany–United States relations
 Greece 1868[109] See Greece–United States relations
 Holy See 1984[110] See Holy See–United States relations
 Hungary 1921[111] See Hungary–United States relations
 Iceland 1944[112] See Iceland–United States relations
 Ireland 1924[113] See Ireland–United States relations
 Italy 1861[114] See Italy–United States relations
 Kosovo 2008[115] See Kosovo–United States relations
The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Kosovo.
 Latvia 1922; 1991[116] See Latvia–United States relations
 Liechtenstein 1997[117] See Liechtenstein–United States relations
 Lithuania 1922; 1991[118] See Lithuania–United States relations
 Luxembourg 1903[119] See Luxembourg–United States relations
 Malta 1964[120] See Malta–United States relations
 Moldova 1992[121] See Moldova–United States relations
 Monaco 2006[122] See Monaco–United States relations
 Montenegro 1905; 2006[123] See Montenegro–United States relations
 Netherlands 1781[124] See Netherlands–United States relations
The Dutch colony of Sint Eustatius was the first foreign state to recognize the independence of the United States, doing so in 1776. However, the Dutch Republic neither authorized the recognition nor ratified it, therefore Morocco remains the first sovereign nation to officially recognize the United States.
 Norway 1905[125] See Norway–United States relations
 Poland 1919[126] See Poland–United States relations
 Portugal 1791[127] See Portugal–United States relations
 Republic of Macedonia 1995[128] See Republic of Macedonia–United States relations
 Romania 1880[129] See Romania–United States relations
 Russia 1809; 1991[130] See Russia–United States relations
 San Marino 1861[131] See San Marino–United States relations
 Spain 1783[132] See Spain–United States relations
 Serbia 1882;2000[133] See Serbia–United States relations
 Slovakia 1993[134] See Slovakia–United States relations
 Slovenia 1992[135] See Slovenia–United States relations
 Sweden 1818[136] See Sweden–United States relations
  Switzerland 1853[137] See Switzerland–United States relations
 Ukraine 1991[138] See Ukraine–United States relations
 United Kingdom 1783[139] See United Kingdom–United States relations

13 U.S. States declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1776. Since World War II, the two countries have shared a Special Relationship.

North Africa and Middle East[edit]

The United States and the Kingdom of Persia recognized each other in 1850. Diplomatic relations were established in 1883 and severed in 1980.[144]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Arab League See Arab–American relations

The Arab League has an Embassy, and several Offices in the U.S.

 Algeria 1962[140] See Algeria–United States relations

The official U.S. presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the U.S. Embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.

 Azerbaijan 1918-1928,1991[141] See Azerbaijan–United States relations

After 1928 in Azerbaijan beginning Sovetian occupation

 Bahrain 1971[142] See Bahrain–United States relations
 Egypt 1922[143] See Egypt–United States relations

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance U.S.-Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

 Iraq 1931; 2004[145] See Iraq–United States relations
 Israel 1949[146] See Israel–United States relations
 Jordan 1949[147] See Jordan–United States relations
 Kuwait 1961[148] See Kuwait–United States relations
 Lebanon 1944[149] See Lebanon–United States relations
 Libya 1951[150] See Libya–United States relations

In 2011, the United States cut diplomatic relations with the Gaddafi regime. The United States recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya on July 15, 2011.[151]

 Morocco 1776[152] See Morocco–United States relations

Morocco was the first sovereign nation to recognize the United States of America in 1776. American-Moroccan relations were formalized in a 1787 treaty, which is still in force and is the oldest unbroken bilateral treaty in American history.

 Oman 1972[153] See Oman–United States relations
 Qatar 1972[154] See Qatar–United States relations
 Saudi Arabia 1940[155] See Saudi Arabia–United States relations
 Sudan 1956[156] See Sudan–United States relations
 Syria 1944[157] Syrian Arab Republic cut off relations with United States in 2012 in response to American support of the Syrian rebels. See Syria–United States relations
 Tunisia 1795[158] See Tunisia–United States relations
 Turkey 1831[159] See Turkey–United States relations
 United Arab Emirates 1972[160] See United Arab Emirates–United States relations

The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries have enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and U.S. had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of U.S.-UAE relations increased dramatically as a result of the U.S.-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more U.S. Navy ships than any port outside the U.S.

 Yemen 1946[161] See United States–Yemen relations

Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the War on Terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional U.S. support.[162]

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Angola 1994[163] See Angola–United States relations

Relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the U.S. government backed UNITA rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Marxism in 1992.

 Benin 1960[164] See United States–Benin relations

The two nations have had an excellent history of relations in the years since Benin embraced democracy. The U.S. Government continues to assist Benin with the improvement of living standards that are key to the ultimate success of Benin's experiment with democratic government and economic liberalization, and are consistent with U.S. values and national interest in reducing poverty and promoting growth. The bulk of the U.S. effort in support of consolidating democracy in Benin is focused on long-term human resource development through U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.[165]

 Botswana 1966[166] See Botswana–United States relations
 Burkina Faso 1960[167] See Burkina Faso–United States relations
 Burundi 1962[168] See Burundi–United States relations
 Cameroon 1960[169] See Cameroon–United States relations
 Cape Verde 1975[170] See Cape Verde–United States relations
 Central African Republic 1960[171] See Central African Republic–United States relations
 Chad 1960[172] See Chad–United States relations
 Comoros 1977[173] See Comoros–United States relations
 Côte d'Ivoire 1960[174] See Côte d'Ivoire–United States relations
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960[175] See Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Djibouti 1977[176] See Djibouti–United States relations
 Equatorial Guinea 1968[177] See Equatorial Guinea–United States relations
 Eritrea 1993[178] See Eritrea–United States relations
 Ethiopia 1903[179] See Ethiopia–United States relations
 Gabon 1960[180] See Gabon–United States relations
 Ghana 1957[181] See Ghana–United States relations
 Guinea 1959[182] See Guinea–United States relations
 Guinea-Bissau 1975[183] See Guinea-Bissau–United States relations
 Kenya 1964[184] See Kenya–United States relations
 Lesotho 1966[185] See Lesotho–United States relations
 Liberia 1864[186] See Liberia–United States relations
 Libya 1951[150] See Libya-United States relations
 Madagascar 1874[187] See Madagascar–United States relations
 Malawi 1964[188] See Malawi–United States relations
 Mali 1960[189] See Mali–United States relations
 Mauritania 1960[190] See Mauritania–United States relations
 Mauritius 1968[191] See Mauritius–United States relations
 Mozambique 1975[192] See Mozambique–United States relations
 Namibia 1990[193] See Namibia–United States relations
 Niger 1960[194] See Niger–United States relations
 Nigeria 1960[195] See Nigeria–United States relations
 Rwanda 1962[196] See Rwanda–United States relations
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1976[197] See São Tomé and Príncipe–United States relations
 Senegal 1960[198] See Senegal–United States relations
 Seychelles 1976[199] See Seychelles–United States relations
 Sierra Leone 1961[200] See Sierra Leone–United States relations
 Republic of the Congo 1960[201] See Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Somalia 1960[202] See Somalia–United States relations

The United States recognizes the Federal Government of Somalia as the official national government of Somalia.[203]

 South Africa 1929[204] See South Africa–United States relations
 South Sudan 2011[205] See South Sudan-United States relations
 Swaziland 1968[206] See Swaziland–United States relations
 Tanzania 1961[207] See Tanzania–United States relations
 The Gambia 1965[208] See The Gambia–United States relations
 Togo 1960[209] See Togo–United States relations
 Uganda 1962[210] See Uganda–United States relations

Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Yoweri Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism.

 Zambia 1964[211] See United States–Zambia relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The U.S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Treasury, U.S. Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The majority of U.S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

 Zimbabwe 1980[212] See United States–Zimbabwe relations

After Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe's rival and leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe under a power-sharing agreement, the Barack Obama administration extended its congratulations to Tsvangirai, but said that the U.S. would wait for evidence of Mugabe's cooperation with the MDC before it would consider lifting its sanctions.[213] In early March 2009, Obama proclaimed that U.S. sanctions would be protracted provisionally for another year, because Zimbabwe's political crisis is as yet unresolved.[214]

Countries with Visa Services Suspended[215][edit]

Countries with no U.S. embassy[215][edit]

  •  Bhutan (Contact is made via the Government of India at the U.S. Embassy, and Bhutan consulates in New York City)
  •  Cook Islands (The U.S. recognizes the Cook Islands as part of the Realm of New Zealand)
  •  Iran (inactive, U.S. Interests Section at the Swiss Embassy acts as de facto embassy. Since December 2011, the United States has also maintained a virtual embassy online.)
  •  North Korea (Contact is made via the Government of Sweden through its embassy in Pyongyang)
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Antigua and Barbuda are located in Barbados)
  •  Dominica (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Dominica are located in Barbados)
  •  Grenada (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Grenada are located in Barbados)
  •  Niue (The U.S. recognizes Niue as part of the Realm of New Zealand)
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Saint Kitts and Nevis are located in Barbados)
  •  Saint Lucia (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Saint Lucia are located in Barbados)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are located in Barbados)
  •  Guinea-Bissau (Contact is made at the U.S. Embassy in Senegal and there is also a presence of the U.S. in Guinea-Bissau through a Liaison Office in Bissau and a virtual presence post online, there are currently no Guinea-Bissauan consulates for the U.S., except for a Permanent mission to the UN in New York)
  •  Somalia (U.S. Embassy and Consulates for Somalia are located in Nairobi, Kenya and there is also a presence of the U.S. in Somalia through a virtual presence post online, Somali Embassy and Consulates are located in Washington, D.C.)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Australia". The United States recognized Australia on January 8, 1940, when the Governments of the United States and Australia announced the establishment of bilateral diplomatic relations. 
  2. ^ "Australia is America's closest ally". "The United States does not have a closer or better ally than Australia," Mr Obama said after the pair's meeting. 
  3. ^ US ambassador accredited to the Cook Islands
  5. ^ American ambassador to New Zealand, Samoa, and the Cook Islands
  6. ^ These CIA World Factbook sites have the following entry for Ambassador to the Cook Islands: "Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)"
  7. ^ Foreign Consulates in California: The Honorable Metua Ngarupe, Honorary Consul of the Cook Islands
  8. ^ Foreign Consular Offices in the United States - Cook Islands - NAME AND RANK: MR. METUA NGARUPE, HONORARY CONSUL - DATE OF RECOGNITION: Feb. 22, 1995
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  214. ^ AFP 2009.
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External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes).