Orson Scott Card

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Orson Scott Card
Orson Scott Card at BYU Symposium 20080216 closeup.jpg
Born (1951-08-24) August 24, 1951 (age 63)
Richland, Washington
Residence Greensboro, North Carolina
Nationality American
Alma mater Brigham Young University
University of Utah (M.A.)
University of Notre Dame (1980s graduate student)
Occupation Author, critic, playwright / script writer, poet, public speaker, essayist, political activist, Prof. of Writing and Literature[1]
Notable work(s) Ender's Game series,
The Tales of Alvin Maker
Style Science fiction, fantasy, thriller, horror, historical fiction and fantasy and biblical fiction, LDS fiction
Board member of
Public television station UNC-TV (2013–present)[2]
National Organization for Marriage (2009–2013)[3]
Religion Latter-day Saint (Mormon)[4]
Spouse(s) Kristine Allen Card
Awards Selected list:
Hugo Award (Ender's Game, 1986
Speaker for the Dead, 1987
How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy, 1991)

Nebula Award (Ender's Game, 1986
Speaker for the Dead, 1987
"Eye for Eye," 1988)
 
Signature Signature Orson Scott Card.svg
Website
www.hatrack.com

Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951)[5] is an American novelist, critic, public speaker, essayist and columnist. He writes in several genres but is known best for science fiction. His novel Ender's Game (1985) and its sequel Speaker for the Dead (1986) both won Hugo[6][7] and Nebula Awards,[6][8] making Card the only author to win both science fiction's top U.S. prizes in consecutive years.[9][10] A feature film adaptation of Ender's Game, which Card co-produced, was released in late October 2013 in Europe and on November 1, 2013, in North America.[11][12]

Card is a professor of English at Southern Virginia University,[13] has written two books on the subject of creative writing, hosts writing bootcamps and workshops, and serves as a judge in the Writers of the Future contest.[14] A great-great-grandson of Brigham Young, Card is a practicing member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). In addition to producing a large body of fiction works, he has also offered political, religious, and social commentary in his columns and other writing.

Early life[edit]

Card is the son of Peggy Jane (née Park) and Willard Richards Card, third of six children and the older brother of composer and arranger Arlen Card.[15][16][17] Card was born in Richland, Washington, and grew up in Santa Clara, California as well as Mesa, Arizona and Orem, Utah. He served as a missionary for the LDS Church in Brazil and graduated from Brigham Young University (BYU) and the University of Utah; he also spent a year in a Ph.D. program at the University of Notre Dame.

For part of the 1970s Card worked as an associate editor of the Ensign, an official magazine of the LDS Church.[18]

Card lives in Greensboro, North Carolina,[15] an environment that has played a significant role in Ender's Game and many of his other works.

Fiction[edit]

Card began his writing career primarily as a poet, studying with Clinton F. Larson at BYU. During his studies as a theater major, he began "doctoring" scripts, adapting fiction for readers theater production, and finally writing his own one-act and full-length plays, several of which were produced by faculty directors at BYU. He also explored fiction writing, beginning with stories that eventually evolved into The Worthing Saga.

After returning to Provo, Utah from his LDS mission in Brazil, Card started the Utah Valley Repertory Theatre Company, which for two summers produced plays at "the Castle", a Depression-era outdoor amphitheater behind the state psychiatric hospital in Provo; his company's were the first plays ever produced at the Castle. Meanwhile, he took part-time employment as a proofreader at BYU Press, then made the jump to full-time employment as a copy editor. In 1976, in the midst of a paid role performing in the church's musical celebrating America's Bicentennial, he secured employment as an assistant editor at the Ensign, and moved to Salt Lake City. It was while working at Ensign that Card published his first piece of fiction. His short story "Gert Fram" appeared in the July 1977 fine arts issue of that magazine under the pseudonym Byron Walley.

Science fiction[edit]

He wrote the short story "Ender's Game" while working at the BYU press, and submitted it to several publications. The idea for the later novel of the same title came from the short story about a school where boys can fight in space. It was eventually purchased by Ben Bova at Analog Science Fiction and Fact and published in the August 1977 issue. Meanwhile, he started writing half-hour audioplays on LDS Church history, the New Testament, and other subjects for Living Scriptures in Ogden, Utah; on the basis of that continuing contract, some freelance editing work, and a novel contract for Hot Sleep and A Planet Called Treason, he left Ensign and began supporting his family as a freelancer.

He completed his master's degree in English at the University of Utah in 1981 and began a doctoral program at the University of Notre Dame, but the recession of the early 1980s caused the flow of new book contracts to temporarily dry up. He returned to full-time employment as the book editor for Compute! magazine in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1983. In October of that year, a new contract for the Alvin Maker "trilogy" (now up to six books) allowed him to return to freelancing.

Ender's Game and its sequel Speaker for the Dead were both awarded the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award, making Card the only author (as of 2013) to win both of science fiction's top prizes in consecutive years. Card continued the series with Xenocide, Children of the Mind, Ender's Shadow, Shadow of the Hegemon, Shadow Puppets, "First Meetings in the Enderverse", Shadow of the Giant, Shadows in Flight, the 2007 release of A War of Gifts, and the 2008 release of Ender in Exile, a book that takes place after Ender's Game and before Speaker for the Dead. Card has also announced his plan to write Shadows Alive, a book that connects the "Shadow" series and "Speaker" series together. He later also wrote the first formic war saga: Earth Unaware, Earth Afire, and Earth Awakens as a prequel to the Ender novels. This trilogy relays, among other things, the history of Mazer Rackham. In 2008 Card announced that Ender's Game would be made into a movie, but that he did not have a director lined up (Wolfgang Petersen had previously been scheduled to direct the movie subsequently moved on to other projects.) It was to be produced by Chartoff Productions, and Card was writing the screenplay himself.[19] The film was made several years later, and released in 2013, with Asa Butterfield in the title role and Gavin Hood directing.

Other works include the alternative histories The Tales of Alvin Maker, Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus, The Homecoming Saga, and Hidden Empire, a story about a near-future civil war in the United States, based on the Xbox Live Arcade video game Shadow Complex. He collaborated with Star Wars artist Doug Chiang on Robota and with Kathryn H. Kidd on Lovelock.

Other genres[edit]

He has since branched out into other areas of fiction with novels such as Lost Boys, Treasure Box and Enchantment. Other works include the novelization of the James Cameron film The Abyss, and the comic book Ultimate Iron Man for Marvel Comics' Ultimate Marvel Universe series. Outside the world of published fiction, Card contributed dialog to at least three video games: Loom, The Secret of Monkey Island and The Dig in the early 1990s.[20]

In 1983 Card published the novel Saints, a historical fiction based loosely on one of his ancestors and her experiences coming into the LDS Church during the early portion of its movement. It continues through her eyes into subsequent events up until the granting of Statehood to Utah.

In 2000, Card published the first novel in The Women of Genesis series. This series explores the lives of the principal women mentioned in the first book of the Bible and includes Sarah (2000), Rebekah (2002), and Rachel and Leah (2004).

In the fall of 2005, Card launched Orson Scott Card's InterGalactic Medicine Show.[21] He edited the first two issues, but found that the demands of teaching, writing, and directing plays for his local church theater group made it impossible to respond to writers' submissions in a timely manner; former Card student and experienced freelance writer and editor Edmund R. Schubert took over as editor on June 1, 2006.

The dialog and screenplay (but not the story) for the Xbox video game Advent Rising was written by Card and Cameron Dayton.[22]

In 2008, Card's novella Hamlet's Father, a retelling of Shakespeare's Hamlet, was published in the anthology The Ghost Quartet (Tor Books). The work re-interpreted all of the characters' personalities and motivations.

Pseudonyms[edit]

Over the years Orson Scott Card has used at least seven pseudonyms.

The names Frederick Bliss and P.Q. Gump were used by Card when he was asked to write an overview of Mormon playwrights "Mormon Shakespears: A Study of Contemporary Mormon Theatre" for Spring 1976 issue of Sunstone magazine. According to Card he used these pseudonyms because the article included a brief reference to himself and his play "Stone Tables".[23]

The name Byron Walley was used by Card on his first published piece of fiction "Gert Fram" which appeared in the July 1977 fine arts issue of Ensign magazine. According to Card he used this name because he had a non-fiction article, "Family Art", a poem, "Looking West", and a short play, "The Rag Mission", appearing in the same issue.[23] Card also used the name Byron Walley in stories he published in Friend magazine, New Era magazine and in the anthology Dragons of Darkness. Stories by Byron Walley include: "Gert Fram", Ensign magazine, July 1977; "Bicicleta", Friend magazine, October 1977; "The Best Family Home Evening Ever", Friend magazine, January 1978; "Billy's Box", Friend magazine, February 1978; "I Think Mom and Dad Are Going Crazy, Jerry", New Era magazine, May 1979; and "Middle Woman", Dragons of Darkness, Ace Books, 1982.

The name Brian Green was also used by Card in the July 1977 fine arts issue of Ensign magazine. He used this name for his short play "The Rag Mission" because he had three other pieces appearing in the same issue.[23]

The name Dinah Kirkham was used to write the short story "The Best Day", in 1983.[24]

The name Noam D. Pellume was used by Card for his short story "Damn Fine Novel" which appeared in the October 1989 issue of The Green Pages.[25]

Card wrote the novel Zanna's Gift (2004) under the pen name Scott Richards, saying, "I was trying to establish a separate identity in the marketplace, but for various reasons the marketing strategy didn't work as we'd hoped."[26]

On writing[edit]

Teaching[edit]

In 2005, Card accepted a permanent appointment as "distinguished professor" at Southern Virginia University in Buena Vista, Virginia, a small liberal arts college run according to the principles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Card has cited his frustration with dismal teaching methodology for creative writing in most universities as a reason for accepting this position, along with his desire to teach the techniques of effective fiction writing to writers whose values are more congruent with his own.[13] Card has worked closely with colleagues to develop ways to educate aspiring writers and has published two books on the subject. He was eager for the opportunity to apply these techniques in a university environment—his assorted workshops did not allow the follow-through he desired. After being deeply moved by stories of his students' parents in some of their essays, he decided to stop teaching regularly at the university to spend time with his youngest child who still lives at home.[27] Card returned to teaching for the spring semester of 2009.

Card has run an annual, one-week class that consists of an intensive critique workshop for aspiring writers called "Literary Boot Camp" and a two-day workshop called the "Writer's Workshop."[28]

Books on writing[edit]

Card has written two books on the subject of creative writing – Characters and Viewpoint, published in 1988, and How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy, published in 1990. He was also a co-writer for How to Write a Million (though his contribution is actually a reprint of an earlier work).

Card also offered advice about writing in an interview in Leading Edge #23 in 1991.

Writers of the Future[edit]

Card serves as a judge in Writers of the Future,[14] a science fiction and fantasy story contest for amateur writers. It originated in the early 1980s by L. Ron Hubbard, a science fiction writer and the founder of the Church of Scientology, and continues to be funded and organized by Author Services Inc., an entity that manages Hubbard's literary work.

Children's books[edit]

Card won the ALA Margaret Edwards Award in 2008 for his contribution in writing for teens, selected by a panel of YA librarians.[29] "What have I done that made some wonderfully deluded people think that I should get the [award] for lifetime achievement in writing young adult fiction?", he asked in his address, and asserted that "There is no such thing as children's literature." Furthermore:[30]

I have not worked with YA editors; my work has never been marketed that way until Tor put a YA cover and a new ISBN on Ender’s Game — fifteen years after the book first came out, and long after it had become popular with young readers. Ender's Game was written with no concessions to young readers. My protagonists were children, but the book was definitely not aimed at kids. I was perfectly aware that the rule of thumb for children’s literature is that the protagonist must be a couple of years older than the target audience. You want ten-year-old readers, you have a twelve-year-old hero.

At the beginning of the book, Ender is six. Who, exactly, is the target audience?

Opinion[edit]

Card's commentary[31] includes a column "Uncle Orson Reviews Everything," published at the Greensboro Rhinoceros Times, which featured personal reviews of movies, books, and restaurants in the greater Greensboro area, in addition to a variety of other topics.[32] The column also later appears on his website, Hatrack River. Since 2008 Card has authored a column for the Mormon Times.

Politics[edit]

Card regards his politics--as well as the foundational themes within his fiction--as essentially communitarian.[33][34] In 2000, Card said, "Most of the program of both the left and the right is so unbelievably stupid it's hard to wish to identify myself with either. But on economic matters, I'm a committed communitarian. I regard the Soviet Union as simply state monopoly capitalism. It was run the way the United States would be if Microsoft owned everything. Real communism has never been tried! I would like to see government controls expanded, laws that allow capitalism to not reward the most rapacious, exploitative behavior. I believe government has a strong role to protect us from capitalism."[35]

In a 2009 article Card denounced the treatment former Republican Vice-Presidential candidate Sarah Palin by "the liberal media," although "disagree[ing] with her on at least half the issues that matter to her.[36]

Early in the 2008 presidential campaign he had labeled himself a "Moderate Democrat" and lamented, "I am a Democrat, and wish fervently that my party would nominate someone I could vote for." At the same time he expressed keen dismay at "Mitt Romney's tough stand on illegal immigration" and its evident appeal to Republican voters. He said Mexican immigration, in particular, was "an issue that could well destroy the Republican Party for years to come."[37] On the day before the election, he called Republican John McCain "the centrist candidate I support" although "I wanted very badly for Obama to be a candidate I could vote for, and was sorry when he turned out not to be." He expressed agreement with a friend's comment on Barack Obama, that "even though I don't want him to win, I'm so happy that a black candidate was nominated by a major party. It's about time."[38]

During the 2012 presidential primary campaign, Card wrote: "A lot of Republicans hate Romney because he's Mormon, and they've been taught by their ministers that Mormons are an evil cult. This is absurdly false, but it's a serious factor in Republican politics. They don't dare admit their Mormon-hatred openly, because the Republican Party needs the Mormon vote the way Democrats need and count on the Jewish vote—a small and much-maligned religious minority, but one that votes as a bloc and contributes time and money far beyond their numbers... Romney probably won't be and shouldn't be the Republican nominee, because too many people on the Left and the Right just can't get over his being Mormon."[39]

In the same December 2011 column, Card said he was "leaning toward Newt Gingrich, a man who, as a human being, in my opinion does not measure up to either Romney or Obama. But I think he'd make a better President than either." Card said that he was particularly impressed by how effective Gingrich had been in helping balance the federal budget during the Clinton administration, and that "despite [Gingrich's] negatives, there is nobody smarter or more capable or with a better record of good government seeking the office of President right now."[39]

In an August 2013 essay he described as "an experiment in fictional writing," Card created an alternative future in which President Barack Obama ruled as a "Hitler- or Stalin-style dictator" with his own national police force of "young out-of-work urban men"; Obama and his wife Michelle would have amended the U.S. Constitution to allow presidents to remain in power for life, as in Nigeria, Zimbabwe, and Hitler's Germany.[40][41]

Religion[edit]

Card's immersion in the Mormon faith has been an important facet of his life from early on. He is a great-great-grandson of Brigham Young, an important leader in the Latter Day Saint movement, and all of Card's ancestors from at least three generations have been members of the LDS Church. His ancestors include several other figures notable in the LDS Church, including the Cardston colony founder Charles Ora Card. As such, his faith has been a source of inspiration and influence for both his writing and his personal views.[16]

Views about homosexuality[edit]

Card has publicly declared his opposition to homosexuality and same-sex marriage.[42][43] In a 1990 essay for Sunstone magazine, he wrote that the laws prohibiting homosexual behavior should "remain on the books, not to be indiscriminately enforced against anyone who happens to be caught violating them, but to be used when necessary to send a clear message that those who flagrantly violate society's regulation of sexual behavior cannot be permitted to remain as acceptable, equal citizens within that society." In May 2013, Card stated that he no longer advocated this.[44]

In a 2008 essay opposing same-sex marriage, Card stated that he regarded any government that would attempt to recognize same-sex marriage as a "mortal enemy" that he would act to destroy.[45] In 2009 he joined the board of directors of the National Organization for Marriage, a group that campaigns against same-sex marriage.[46] Card resigned from the board in mid-2013.[47]

Card has also expressed his opinion that paraphilia and homosexuality are linked. In a 2004 essay entitled "Homosexual 'Marriage' and Civilization", Card wrote: "The dark secret of homosexual society—the one that dares not speak its name—is how many homosexuals first entered into that world through a disturbing seduction or rape or molestation or abuse, and how many of them yearn to get out of the homosexual community and live normally."[48] Card's 1980 novel Songmaster depicts a homosexual relationship between a young man and a 15-year-old boy. Card described this relationship as "a mutually self-destructive path" and stated: "I was not trying to show that homosexuality was 'beautiful' or 'natural'—in fact, sex of any kind is likely to be 'beautiful' only to the participants, and it is hard to make a case for the naturalness of such an obviously counter-evolutionary trend as same-sex mating."[44] Additionally, in Card's 2011 novella Hamlet's Father, which re-imagines the backstory of Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Card was accused of directly trying to link the king's pedophilia with homosexuality. The novella prompted public outcry and its publishers were inundated with complaints.[49][50] Trade journal Publishers Weekly criticized Card's "flimsy novella", stating that the main purpose of it was to attempt to link homosexuality to pedophilia.[51] Card responded to the claim: "...[T]here is no link whatsoever between homosexuality and pedophilia in this book. Hamlet's father, in the book, is a pedophile, period. I don't show him being even slightly attracted to adults of either sex. It is the reviewer, not me, who has asserted this link, which I would not and did not make."[50]

In 2013, Card was selected as a guest author for DC Comics's new Adventures of Superman comic book series,[52] but critics of his hiring claimed his views conflicted with the ideals of Superman.[53][54] The LGBT activist website AllOut.org began an online petition asking DC Comics to drop Card from the project. DC Comics stated that it supported freedom of expression and that the personal views of individuals associated with the company were not the views of the company itself.[55] In March 2013, illustrator Chris Sprouse left the project due to the media attention[56] and some comic book stores announced a boycott.[57][58] DC Comics then opted to put Card's story on hold indefinitely.[59]

One studio executive suggested that Card's involvement in promotion for the movie adaptation of Ender's Game could be a liability for the film,[60] which was speculated as the reason why Card did not take part in the Ender's Game film panel at San Diego Comic Con in July 2013 with the other principal cast and crewmembers of the film.[61] An LGBT group, Geeks OUT!, proposed a boycott of the film calling Card's view anti-gay,[62][63] causing the movie studio Lionsgate to publicly distance itself from Card’s opinions.[64]

In July 2013, one week after the U.S. Supreme Court issued rulings in two cases that were widely interpreted as favoring recognition of same-sex marriages, Card wrote in Entertainment Weekly that the gay marriage issue is "moot" due to the Supreme Court's decision on DOMA.[65] He further stated, "now it will be interesting to see whether the victorious proponents of gay marriage will show tolerance toward those who disagreed with them when the issue was still in dispute."[65]

Science[edit]

Although he supports government-funded research into alternative energy sources and the phasing out of fossil fuel use, Card has also frequently criticized precipitous action on global warming, and has suggested that scientific evidence against global warming is suppressed because global warming has become an academic orthodoxy that discourages opposing evidence.[66] His short story "Angles" also features scientists fearing to pursue research because it would run counter to scientific dogma. Card has also said that opposition to intelligent design is based on scientific dogma rather than a substantive assessment of the evidence. He also stated he believed the intelligent design movement will never be supported by genuine scientific evidence.[67]

Personal life[edit]

Card (right) signing autographs at New York Comic Con in 2008

Card and his wife, Kristine, have had five children, each named after one or more authors he and his wife admire. Their children's names are Michael Geoffrey (Geoffrey Chaucer), Emily Janice (Emily Brontë and Emily Dickinson), Charles Benjamin (Charles Dickens), Zina Margaret (Margaret Mitchell) and Erin Louisa (Louisa May Alcott). Charles, who had cerebral palsy, died shortly after his 17th birthday and their daughter Erin died the day she was born.[15] Card and his wife live with their youngest child, Zina, in Greensboro, North Carolina.[15]

The life of their son, Charles, influenced some of Card's fiction, most notably the Homecoming series, Lost Boys and Folk of the Fringe. Their daughter, Emily, along with two other writers, adapted Card's short stories "Clap Hands and Sing", "Lifeloop" and "A Sepulchre of Songs" for the stage in Posing as People.[68]

In 2008, he appeared in the short film The Delivery, which starred his daughter, Emily. He plays an author reading an audiobook in this film, which won First Place in Fantasy at Dragon*Con Film Festival. He wrote an original story, "The Emperor of the Air," specifically for the short film by Gabrielle de Cuir and Stefan Rudnicki.[69]

Card is an avid fan of the science fiction television series Firefly and makes an appearance in the documentary Done the Impossible about Firefly fandom.

Card suffered a mild stroke on January 1, 2011, and was briefly hospitalized. He reported expecting to make a full recovery despite impairment of his left hand.[70][71]

Awards[edit]

The ALA Margaret A. Edwards Award recognizes one writer and a particular body of work for "significant and lasting contributions to young adult literature". Card won the annual award in 2008, citing Ender's Game (1985), which inaugurated the science fiction Ender Saga, and Ender's Shadow (1999), the so-called parallel novel featuring another boy in the Battle School. According to the citation, the two boys' "experiences echo those of teens, beginning as children navigating in an adult world and growing into a state of greater awareness of themselves, their communities and the larger universe."[29] In the same year, Card won the Lifetime Achievement Award for Mormon writers (Whitney Awards).[72]

He has won numerous awards for single works, too.

Works[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Orson Scott Card at Southern Virginia University". Hatrack.com. 2005-05-09. Retrieved 2013-07-24. 
  2. ^ September 12, 2013. "Orson Scott Card named to UNC-TV board - News-Record.com: North State Politics". News-Record.com. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  3. ^ Lapidos, Juliet (2013-07-20). "The ‘Ender's Game' Boycott". The New York Times. 
  4. ^ Eric W. Jepson. "Orson Scott Card Interview". Mormon Artist. 
  5. ^ "Orson Scott Card". The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "1986 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  7. ^ a b "1987 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  8. ^ a b "1985 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  9. ^ Kellogg, Carolyn (2011-04-25). "2011 Hugo Award nominees announced". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  10. ^ "Nebula Rules". Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. October 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  11. ^ Ender's Game (2013) - Release dates
  12. ^ McNary, Dave (May 31, 2012), 'Lone Ranger' to get July 2013 release, Variety 
  13. ^ a b "Why I Am Teaching at SVU... and Why SVU is Important" from LDSMag.com
  14. ^ a b "Writers of the Future contest.". Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Who Is Orson Scott Card?". Hatrack River Enterprises Inc. Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  16. ^ a b Willett, Edward (2006). Orson Scott Card: Architect of Alternate Worlds. New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7660-2354-0. 
  17. ^ Edith S. Tyson (Jan 1, 2003). Orson Scott Card: Writer of the Terrible Choice. Scarecrow Press. p. xiv. 
  18. ^ Ensign reference to Card as Associate Editor
  19. ^ "Ender's Game Movie Searching for New Director". Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  20. ^ "Interview with Author Orson Scott Card". Gaming Today. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  21. ^ "Orson Scott Card's Intergalactic Medicine Show". Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  22. ^ Card's comments on working on Advent Rising from his official website
  23. ^ a b c Pseudonyms "Orson Scott Card's website The Hatrack".
  24. ^ Card bio from FantasticFiction.co.uk
  25. ^ The Locus Index to Science Fiction: 1984–1998, Locus Online, retrieved March 28, 2011 
  26. ^ Card, Orson Scott (November 2, 2008), Uncle Orson Reviews Everything: Bean on Baseball and Parker's Trilogies, Hatrack River Enterprises Inc, retrieved March 28, 2011 
  27. ^ "Uncle Orson Reviews Everything: Politically Incorrect Literature, Audio Drama, "My American Culture"". Hatrack River Enterprises Inc. 2007-05-27. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  28. ^ Roberts, Judson (November 2001), Former Boot Campers Published, Hatrack River Enterprises, Inc., retrieved March 28, 2011 
  29. ^ a b "2008 Margaret A. Edwards Award". Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA). American Library Association (ALA).
      "Edwards Award". YALSA. ALA. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
  30. ^ "Looking Back". YALSA. ALA. Retrieved 2013-10-13. Card won the 20th anniversary Edwards Award in 2008, when YALSA asked previous winners to reflect on the experience. Some live remarks by Card are published online with the compiled reflections but transcripts of acceptance speeches are available to members only.
  31. ^ Martin, Tim (2013-10-24). "Ender's Game: will the film be derailed by the author's homophobia?". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-11-05. 
  32. ^ Cowles, G (2012-01-27). "TBR Inside the List: Uncle Orson". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  33. ^ "Orson Scott Card interview – the extended version - Books". The Listener. Retrieved 2013-11-05. 
  34. ^ Martin, Bill (April 1995). "Approaches to Zion: Why Liberalism Is Not the Answer". Sunstone magazine. pp. 28–34. 
  35. ^ Minkowitz, Donna (February 3, 2000). "My favorite author, my worst interview: I worshipped militaristic Mormon science-fiction writer Orson Scott Card -- until we met.". Salon. 
  36. ^ Card (2009-12-20). "WorldWatch - Sarah Palin's Book - The Ornery American". Ornery.org. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 
  37. ^ Card (2008-01-06). "WorldWatch - Please Don't Throw Away This Election - The Ornery American". Ornery.org. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 
  38. ^ Card (2008-11-04). "WorldWatch – This Very Good Election Year – The Ornery American". Ornery.org. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  39. ^ a b Card (December 1, 2011). "Hugo, Scorsese, Romney, and Gingrich". Uncle Orson Reviews Everything. Hatrack.com. 
  40. ^ Child, Ben (August 16, 2013). "Ender's Game author Orson Scott Card compares Obama to Hitler". The Guardian. 
  41. ^ Horn, John (August 15, 2013). "'Ender's Game' author compares Obama to Hitler". Los Angeles Times. 
  42. ^ Romano, Aja (May 7, 2013). "Orson Scott Card’s long history of homophobia". Salon.com. Salon Media Group Inc. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  43. ^ "NYC-based group calls for boycott of sci-fi movie over author's gay rights views". CBS New York. July 9, 2013. 
  44. ^ a b "The Hypocrites of Homosexuality". Retrieved 15 Sep 2011. 
  45. ^ "Orson Scott Card: State job is not to redefine marriage". Deseret News (original: Mormon Times). July 24, 2008. 
  46. ^ "NOM Latest News". National Organization for Marriage. April 27, 2009. 
  47. ^ Cieply, Michael (July 12, 2013 ). "Author’s Views on Gay Marriage Fuel Call for Boycott". The New York Times.
  48. ^ Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization (Orson Scott Card) – published in The Rhinoceros Times (republished by The Ornery American.com – Feb 15, 2004)
  49. ^ Flood, Alison. "Outcry over Hamlet novel casting old king as gay pedophile: Publisher showered with complaints over Orson Scott Card's Hamlet's Father" The Guardian 8 September 2011
  50. ^ a b "''OSC Responds to False Statements about Hamlet's Father'' (Orson Scott Card) – September 2011". Hatrack.com. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 
  51. ^ "Review of Hamlet's Father". Publishersweekly.com. 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 
  52. ^ Jase Peeples (February 12, 2013). "DC Comics Responds to Backlash Over Hiring Antigay Writer". The Advocate. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Man Of Tomorrow: Superman, Orson Scott Card And Me". NPR. 2013-02-17. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  54. ^ Posted: 03/05/2013 5:10 pm EST (2013-03-05). "Chris Sprouse, 'Superman' Artist, Drops Orson Scott Card Project After Anti-Gay Controversy". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  55. ^ Truitt, Brian (February 14, 2013). "Orson Scott Card's Superman comic causes a furor". USA Today. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  56. ^ Truitt, Brian (March 5, 2013). "Artist leaves Orson Scott Card's Superman comic". USA Today. Retrieved March 15, 2013. 
  57. ^ "Three more stores decide not to stock Card’s Superman comic". February 15, 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2013. 
  58. ^ Nease, Kristy (February 24, 2013). "Ottawa comic shop pulls books of anti-gay writer". CBC News. Retrieved March 15, 2013. 
  59. ^ McMillan, Graeme (March 5, 2013). "Orson Scott Card’s Controversial Superman Story Put on Hold". Wired.com. Retrieved May 3, 2013. 
  60. ^ Andy Lewis, Borys Kit (February 20, 2013). "'Ender's Game' Author's Anti-Gay Views Pose Risks for Film". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
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Other sources

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Interviews and videos[edit]

Marvel.com: "Videos"