Pacific Highway (Australia)
Queensland – New South Wales
|Length||960 km (597 mi)|
|Former allocation||Only former and current NSW sections included
|Brisbane to Mayfield West|
|North end||North Quay Brisbane|
|South end||Industrial Drive|
|Wickham to Tuggerah then Ourimbah to Wyoming|
|NE end||Stewart Avenue|
|SW end||Mann Street|
|Kariong to North Sydney|
|North end|| Pacific Motorway
Central Coast Highway
|South end||Warringah Freeway, North Sydney, Sydney|
|Highways in Australia
National Highway • Freeways in Australia
Highways in Queensland
The Pacific Highway is a major transport route along part of the east coast of Australia, with the majority part of Australia's national route 1.
It is 960 km long and links Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, to Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, along the coast, via Gosford, Newcastle, Taree, Port Macquarie, Kempsey, Coffs Harbour, Grafton, Ballina, and the Gold Coast. Although one of the busiest highways in Australia, it is still an undivided road for almost half its length.
- 1 History
- 2 Current status
- 3 Safety
- 4 Route description
- 5 Speed limits (south to north)
- 6 Cities, towns and major river crossings
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Initially, the primary mode of transport of the coastal areas between Sydney and Brisbane was by boat. From the roads radiating out from the port towns, the intervening hills were eventually crossed to create a continuous route along the coast, but this did not occur until the first decade of the 20th century. By contrast a continuous inland route from Newcastle to Brisbane via the tablelands had been in existence since the 1840s. A direct coastal route between Sydney and Newcastle was not completed until 1930, and completion of the sealing of the Pacific Highway did not occur until 1958 (at Koorainghat, south of Taree). The last of the many ferries across the coastal rivers was not superseded by a bridge until 1966 (the Harwood Bridge across the south channel of the Clarence River – the north channel had been bridged in 1931).
In 1928 the road from Sydney to Newcastle (still under construction) was proclaimed as part of the Great Northern Highway, and the road from Hexham to Tweed Heads as the North Coast Highway. In 1931 the full length from Sydney to Brisbane was proclaimed as the Pacific Highway.
Until the 1990s most road freight between Sydney and Brisbane passed along the New England Highway instead, due to the easier topography of the Northern Tablelands it traverses. Between 1950 and 1967, traffic on the Pacific Highway quadrupled due to the attraction of coastal towns between Sydney and Brisbane for retirement living and tourism.
Two major coach accidents on the Pacific Highway in 1989 near Grafton (in which 20 people died) and at Clybucca near Kempsey (in which 35 people died) resulted in a public outcry over the poor quality of the road and its high fatality rate. The Pacific Highway was never part of the Federally funded system of National Highways. This appears to be because when the Commonwealth funding of the 'national highway' system began in 1974, the longer New England Highway was chosen rather than the Pacific Highway as the Sydney–Brisbane link due to its easier topography and consequent lower upgrade costs.
Yet the highway was undeniably heavily used by interstate traffic and its upgrade was beyond the resources of the New South Wales Government alone. The NSW Government and the Commonwealth Government argued for years about how the responsibility for funding the highway's upgrade should be divided between themselves, only coming up with a mutually acceptable upgrade package just after the 1996/97 financial year.
Former highway sections
Pacific Highway used to be an undivided road from Sydney to Brisbane when it was first proclaimed. Now it is made up of 4 divided sections.
Before the Central Coast Highway was proclaimed, one of the sections from Ourimbah to Sydney were undivided. When a part of the highway (Kariong to Gosford section) was converted to Central Coast Highway, this section is split into 2: Kariong to Sydney, and Ourimbah to Wyoming. The short section from Gosford to Wyoming was renamed as Mann Street.
Even though these sections are not gazetted as the highway anymore, maps continue to show both the current road name and "Pacific Highway" together.
Single carriageway sections from Tweed Heads to Newcastle are progressively being converted to freeway or dual carriageway standards. Numerous sections of single carriageway road have been upgraded by the addition of sections of overtaking lane and pavement widening. Many towns have been bypassed by freeway-standard stretches, though the highway still traverses several large towns such as Coffs Harbour and Macksville. Overall the highway has become safer and travelling times have been substantially reduced, particularly during holiday periods. However, about 44% of the Pacific Hwy remains one lane in each direction with some form of overtaking opportunity occasionally (or three lanes undivided on occasions), 56% (368 km) is dual carriageway and a further 11% (76 km) of dual carriageway is under construction. From time to time, there are proposals in the media for the private sector to build a fully controlled-access high-speed tollway between Newcastle and the Queensland border, possibly using the BOT system of infrastructure provision. Nothing has eventuated from these proposals.
The Pacific Highway was replaced by the then Sydney–Newcastle Freeway (now Pacific Motorway) as the national route between Sydney and Black Hill in sections between 1965 and 1993. Dual carriageway extends from the New England Highway at Beresfield near the end of the freeway north to a point 3 kilometres south of Bulahdelah, with the section immediately south of Bulahdelah having been completed in October 2009. That section will join with the dual carriageway Bulahdelah bypass currently under construction and due for completion in mid 2013. North of Buladelah the Pacific Highway is dual carriageway for 163 km (101 mi) to the Oxley Highway interchange.
North of the Oxley Highway there are dual carriageway sections from Kempsey South to Frederickton (Kempsey Bypass), Eungai-Warrell Creek, North Urunga to Coffs Harbour, the Coffs Harbour urban area (not freeway standard – but still 4 lanes), the Ballina bypass and short sections at Halfway Creek and Glenugie.
Projects currently under construction are the Sapphire-Woolgoolga Upgrade (due for completion in 2014), and the Tintenbar-Ewingsdale Upgrade. Construction of the 17 kilometre Tintenbar-Ewingsdale commenced in late 2011. The upgrade includes a new alignment between Tintenbar and Ewingsdale and a twin-tube road tunnel under St Helena Hill is expected to be completed in 2014.
Preferred routes have been selected for the following future projects: Woodburn to Ballina Upgrade, Wells Crossing to Iluka Road, Woolgoolga to Wells Crossing F3 Freeway to Raymond Terrace Upgrade.
- Banora Point deviation (2.5 km) – In 2010–2015 – completed
- 4-way (full diamond) access ramps of Kirkwood Road – In 2015–2020
- The Tweed Heads/Tugun bypass (5 km) widening to six lanes (3 lanes in each direction) – In 2020–2025.
These projects form part of a 2009–2016 program jointly funded on a 50–50 basis by the Commonwealth and NSW governments to upgrade the Hexham-Gold Coast stretch of the Pacific Highway to dual-carriageway standard.
The five major objectives for the Pacific Highway upgrade are:
- Four lanes from Brisbane to Ewingsdale Interchange (Byron Bay exit) by 2007 – completed
- Four lanes from north Urunga to Coffs Harbour by 2008 – completed
- Four lanes from Sydney to Oxley Highway Interchange (Port Macquarie exit) by 2009 – completed
- Four lanes from Brisbane to Ballina by 2014.
- Four lanes for all the rest of the Pacific Highway by 2016.
In 2007 mounting pressure was place on the Federal Government to provide additional funding for the highway. On 10 October 2007 the Federal Minister for Transport and Regional Services pledged $2.4 billion in funding for the highway, subject to dollar for dollar funding by the NSW state government. However, the NSW state government refused to match funding. In the lead up to the 2007 Federal election, then opposition leader Kevin Rudd pledged $1.5 billion in funding. As part of Auslink 2 (Nation Building Program), the Federal Govt announced in its 2009 Federal budget that $3.1 billion would be spent on the highway up until 2014 at which time just 63% of the highway would be duplicated. The NSW Government will spend just $500 million over that same period, with $300 million cut as a result of the 2008 mini budget.
The upgrading of the Pacific Highway is occasionally a subject of political contention. Greens Senator Lee Rhiannon has claimed that "much of our transport funding has gone into the Pacific Highway in response to a very powerful lobby that comes from the trucking industry". On the other hand, journalist Miranda Devine has charged that "Pacific Highway construction has been bogged down and delayed by absurd bureaucratic processes, mostly to do with trivial environmental and heritage concerns".
The Pacific Highway is one of the most dangerous and deadly stretches of road in Australia. Between 1995 and 2009, over 400 people died on the highway. In 1989, two separate bus crashes, the Grafton bus crash (in which 20 people died) and the Kempsey bus crash (in which 35 died), led to the deaths of 55 people on the highway, two of the worst road accidents in Australia's history. In 2010, 38 people died on the Pacific Highway, and in 2011, 25 people. Over the past 15 years, the New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority reports that about 1,200 people have been injured each year.
Much of the danger of the Pacific Highway lies in the fact that it contains long stretches of undivided road along which all types of vehicles, including private automobiles, buses, vans and trucks, simultaneously travel at speeds approaching and in excess of 100 km/h. The undivided sections carry a high risk of head-on collisions. After the 1989 crashes, the investigating coroner, Kevin Waller, recommended that the highway be fully divided along its entire length, but only 51% had been divided by 2012. Motorists surveyed by the National Roads and Motorists' Association voted the Pacific Highway the worst road in New South Wales in 2012.
From Sydney the Pacific Highway starts as the continuation of the Bradfield Highway at the northern end of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, immediately north of the Sydney Central Business District and is the main route as far as the suburb of Wahroonga. From the Harbour Bridge to the Gore Hill Freeway at Artarmon it has no route number and from the Gore Hill Freeway to Wahroonga it is designated as A1.
From Wahroonga, the Pacific Highway is mostly parallel to the freeway until Kariong (at which point it diverts into the Central Coast through Gosford and Wyong). The section of the highway from Cowan to Kariong follows a scenic winding route with varying speed limits, typically 60 or 70 km/h (37 or 43 mph). This section was damaged quite severely during severe weather in June 2007. Five people died when a bridge over Piles Creek collapsed and the entire section was closed due to subsidence 2 km (1.2 mi) further south. The road was reopened in 2009 when the Holt-Bragg Bridge was opened, named after the family that had perished.
Between 1925 and 1930 the then-Main Roads Board reconstructed a route between Hornsby and Calga that had been abandoned some forty years earlier, in order to provide a direct road link between Sydney and Newcastle. In addition a replacement route, from Calga into the gorge of Mooney Mooney Creek and up to the ridge at Kariong above Gosford, was also required. This new Sydney–Newcastle route via Calga and Gosford was some 80 km shorter than the previous route via Parramatta, McGraths Hill, Maroota, Wisemans Ferry, Wollombi and Cessnock. At first Peats Ferry was reinstituted to cross the Hawkesbury River, with construction of the bridge not beginning until 1938, due to the Great Depression. Due to the onset of World War II, the Peats Ferry Bridge was not completed until May 1945.
The section of what was formerly the Pacific Highway from the Wiseman's Ferry Road junction at Somersby, through to the Pacific Hwy exit at Gosford (adjacent to Brian McGowan Bridge), has been rebadged as the Central Coast Highway with the route number A49. Then the highway continues north without a route number through the Central Coast suburbs of Ourimbah and Wyong as a regional route before meeting with a spur of the Pacific Motorway near Doyalson numbered as "A43". At this point the Pacific Highway becomes "A43" for most of its length, and is a four-lane regional highway passing Lake Macquarie and on through the suburbs of the cities of Lake Macquarie and Newcastle before rejoining national route 1 at Hexham.
From Bennetts Green to Sandgate it is supplemented by the Newcastle Inner City Bypass, through New Lambton and Jesmond. Two lengths of this route (Bennetts Green-Kotara Heights and Jesmond-Shortland) have been replaced by freeway.
From Hexham, the Pacific Highway (A1) passes up the NSW north coast to Pacific Motorway (M1)., where it becomes the
Speed limits (south to north)
Hexham to Port Macquarie
- Hexham bridges – 80 km/h northbound / 60 km/h southbound
- Hexham bridges to Motto Farm – 80 km/h
- Motto Farm to Raymond Terrace bypass – 70 km/h
- Raymond Terrace bypass to 1 km north of Seven Mile Creek – 110 km/h
- Seven Mile Creek to Medowie Road – 100 km/h northbound / 110 km/h southbound
- Medowie Road to 1 km east of the Bucketts Way at-grade intersection – 100 km/h
- 1 km east of the Bucketts Way at-grade intersection to Wootton Way (North) – 110 km/h
- Wootton Way (North) to Coolongnook – 100 km/h
- Coolongolook – 80 km/h
- Coolongolook to Possum Brush – 100 km/h (in-between Failford Road and Tritton Road, northbound only – 90 km/h)
- Possum Brush to just north of Cundletown Interchange – 110 km/h
- Just north of Cundletown Interchange to just north of Herons Creek – 100 km/h
- Just north of Herons Creek to Oxley Hwy interchange (Port Macquarie exit) – 110 km/h (in-between Herons Creek and Stills Road, northbound only – 80 km/h)
Port Macquarie to Coffs Harbour
- Oxley Hwy interchange to Hastings River Bridge – 100 km/h
- Hastings River Bridge & Hastings River Drive intersection – 80 km/h
- Hastings River Bridge to South Kempsey – 100 km/h (fixed speed camera near Kundabung)
- South Kempsey to Frederickton – 110 km/h
- Frederickton to Macksville – 100 km/h (40 km/h school zone at Bellimbopinni, many bends at Warrell Creek)
- Macksville town area – 50 km/h (Sharp bend, narrow bridge and traffic light)
- Macksville to Nambucca Heads – 100 km/h (fixed speed camera 6 km south of Nambucca Heads)
- Nambucca Heads town area – 60 km/h
- Nambucca Heads to Valla Beach – 100 km/h
- Valla Beach to Urunga – 80 km/h (fixed speed camera near Hungry Head turnoff)
- Urunga town area – 50 km/h (fixed speed camera)
- Urunga to Boambee – 110 km/h
- Boambee to Coffs Harbour – 100 km/h
Coffs Harbour to Ballina
- Coffs Harbour town area – 60 km/h (approx 12 traffic lights, heavy traffic area)
- Coffs Harbour to Korora – 80 km/h
- Korora to Sandy Beach north turn off – 100 km/h (fixed speed camera at Korora)
- Sandy Beach north turn off to Woolgoolga – 80 km/h
- Woolgoolga town area – 60 km/h (roundabout)
- Woolgoolga to Grafton – 100 km/h (Kangaroos 5 to 20 km south of Grafton, Horses near Corindi, 3 km divided road at Halfway creek)
- Grafton town area – 60 km/h (Centenary Drive or High Level Bypass – 80 km/h)
- Grafton to Ulmarra – 100 km/h
- Ulmarra town area – 50 km/h (School Zone 40 km/h, sharp curves)
- Ulmarra to Clarence River Bridge (Maclean) – 100 km/h
- Clarence River Bridge – 80 km/h (fixed speed camera, opening bridge)
- Clarence River Bridge (Harwood Island) to Woodburn – 100 km/h (25 km of kangaroo zone)
- Woodburn town area – 50 km/h (fixed speed camera at northern end of town)
- Woodburn to Broadwater – 100 km/h
- Broadwater town area – 50 km/h
- Broadwater to Wardell – 100 km/h
- Wardell town area (including Richmond River Bridge) – 80 km/h (fixed speed camera at northern edge of Wardell)
- Wardell to Pimlico Road 100 km/h
- Pimlico Road to Teven Road 80 km/h
Ballina to Brisbane
- Teven Road Interchange to Tintenbar – 100 km/h
- Tintenbar to Knockrow – 90 km/h
- Knockrow to Newrybar – 100 km/h
- Newrybar to Bangalow Bypass – 80 km/h
- Bangalow Bypass to Coolamon Scenic Drive – 100 km/h
- Coolamon Scenic Drive to Macleods Shoot – 80 km/h
- Macleods Shoot to Ewingsdale interchange (Byron Bay exit) – 60 km/h (fixed speed camera, 140 m climb/descent)
Cities, towns and major river crossings
The Pacific Highway passes through some of Australia's fastest growing regions, the NSW's Central Coast and North Coast and also the Brisbane-Gold Coast corridor, with tourism and leisure being the primary economic activity. Hence the traffic is heavy, particularly during holiday seasons, resulting in major congestion. For direct Sydney–Brisbane travel, the New England Highway is preferred as it passes through fewer major towns and carries less local traffic. Another alternate route is via the scenic Bucketts Way and Thunderbolts Way to the Northern Tablelands at Walcha before rejoining the New England Highway at Uralla. This route reduces the distance of the Sydney to Brisbane trip by about 70 km.
Major cities and towns along the Pacific Highway include: Gosford, Wyong, Newcastle, Taree, Port Macquarie, Kempsey, Coffs Harbour, Grafton, Ballina and Byron Bay, all in New South Wales; and Gold Coast in Queensland.
Gosford is the commercial centre of the Central Coast, Australia's ninth largest urban area at the 2001 census. Gosford is located on Brisbane Water which is an inlet off Broken Bay. The Central Coast has a moderate climate, good beaches and pretty bushland areas. It includes popular holiday resorts such as Terrigal, The Entrance and Ettalong Beach. A 50 km section of road between the Sydney Newcastle Freeway at Kariong, and the Pacific Highway at Doyalson was renamed the Central Coast Highway from 9 August 2006.
Newcastle is the second largest city in New South Wales and is the commercial, administrative and industrial hub of the Hunter Valley, a region with a population of approximately 590,000. Once a major industrial city, it is now an elegant destination full of historic buildings, beaches, interesting sights and cultural activities.
The preferred method of reaching Newcastle from the freeway is to take the Newcastle Link Road (the Newcastle/Wallsend exit) from the Newcastle Freeway. Alternatively, Newcastle may be reached by taking the Doyalson exit from the Freeway and following the Pacific Highway (route 111), or by continuing to the end of the freeway and turning right onto John Renshaw Drive and then the New England Highway, travelling through Hexham.
Bulahdelah is about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Newcastle with a population just over 1,000. Bulahdelah is the last town that is to be bypassed (between Hexham and Port Maquarie). A joint Commonwealth-New South Wales A$315 million initiative was approved in July 2007, and enabled the construction of about 8.6 kilometres (5.3 mi) of four lane divided road with an eastern bypass of the Bulahdelah township. A temporary opening of the bypass will occur during Easter 2013.
Taree is a major Mid North Coast town. It is a major service centre and stopover point rather than a tourist destination. Among the attractions apart from forests and waterways is the 'Big Oyster'. The Highway now passes to the east of the town, following the opening of a bypass in December 1997. The highway crosses the Manning River south of Coopernook.
Port Macquarie is the major resort on the Mid North Coast. It is located slightly off the Pacific Highway via the Oxley Highway. It was first settled in 1821 and has historic buildings, a museum, nature reserves, surfing beaches, fishing locations and a variety of accommodation. West of Port Macquarie, the Pacific Highway crosses the Hastings River.
Kempsey is a large town located on the Macleay River, approximately halfway between Sydney and the Gold Coast, making it a popular stopping point for people making the journey along the Pacific Highway. Akubra Hats are made in Kempsey and it was the home town of Slim Dusty.
Coffs Harbour is the commercial and administrative centre of the Mid North Coast and is the major resort of the NSW North Coast. With a subtropical climate, Coffs Harbour is popular with retirees and tourists. This is evident from its suburban development, more akin to big cities than North Coast towns. It is also famous for its banana plantations, celebrated by 'The Big Banana' tourist destination. Apart from banana growing fishing is important here. The Jetty area of the city includes a marina, a large harbour with an accessible jetty, shops, restaurants and cafes, as well as the Muttonbird Island reserve, famous for its muttonbird population. South is Sawtell, which is a fast-developing coastal resort with attractive beaches and its famous main street with cafes, clubs and shops. To the north of Coffs Harbour is Woolgoolga, which has similar attractions, and a large immigrant Sikh population.
Grafton is a regional city with wide streets, ornamental parks and Victorian buildings, located on the banks of the Clarence River, the highway crosses the river via the Grafton Bridge. The city holds a Jacaranda Festival in November when the jacarandas which line almost every street are in full bloom.
Ballina is a major centre on the Far North Coast, attracting large numbers of retirees. It is located among sugarcane plantations at the mouth of the Richmond River. It is also holiday destination. A famous piece of kitsch, 'The Big Prawn' advertises Ballina as a desirable fishing spot. Ballina is one of the fastest growing areas in Australia.
The 12.4 kilometres (7.7 mi) long Ballina Bypass was completed and open to traffic from 28 April 2012 at a cost of A$640 million. The northern section of the bypass (Cumbalum Interchange to Ross Lane Interchange) opened in March 2011 while the central section (Teven Road Interchange to Cumbalum Interchange) partially opened in December 2011; with northbound lanes from Teven to Bruxner opened in February 2012.
- Highway One – NSW Section, Ozroads Website. Retrieved on 15 May 2013[self-published source]
- NSW State Route 111, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[self-published source]
- NSW State Route 83, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[self-published source]
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- NSW State Route 14, Ozroads, Retrieved on 3 June 2013.[self-published source]
- Metroad 10, Ozroads, Retrieved on 1 June 2013.[self-published source]
- "Pacific Highway Upgrade". Parliament of New South Wales. 3 December 2003.
- "Schedule of Classified Roads and Unclassified Regional Roads page 4". Roads and Maritime Services. August 2013.
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- Lewis, Steve (28 June 2007). "Drivers hit with more toll roads". news.com.au.
- Karuah to Bulahdelah sections 2 & 3 construction progress.
- "Bulahdelah upgrade". Pacific Highway Upgrade. Roads and Maritime Services. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Hexham to Port Macquarie – Road Projects. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority.
- Kempsey Bypass – Road Projects. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority.
- Sapphire to Woolgoolga – Road Projects. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority.
- Tintenbar to Ewingsdale – Road Projects. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority.
- "Another stage of Pacific Hwy duplication gets all clear". Australasian Transport News. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Warrell Creek to Urunga
- Pacific Highway Upgrade – Oxley Highway to Kempsey
- Welcome to the Woodburn to Ballina Website
- Wells Crossing to Iluka Road
- Pacific Highway Upgrade – Woolgoolga to Wells Crossing
- F3 Freeway to Raymond Terrace upgrade
- Fears over funding for new bypass – Coffs Coast Advocate – 2007-06-20 08:00:00.0 – localnews[dead link]
- "RTA and Tweed Council traffic master plan"
- New highway is heaven for drivers – Lismore Northern Star – 2007-07-12 08:00:00.0 – localnews[dead link]
- "Media Release". Ministers for Transport and Regional Services. TBA. Retrieved 21 November 2007. [dead link]
- Pressing Ahead With The Pacific And Hume Highways
- "Pacific Highway – Karuah to Bulahdelah Sections 2 and 3". Department of Transport and Regional Services (Australia). Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Pacific Highway – Joint Australian and NSW Government Upgrading Program". Department of Transport and Regional Services (Australia). Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- "Pacific Highway – Bulahdelah Bypass". Department of Transport and Regional Services (Australia). Retrieved 13 October 2007.
- Master Plan for the Pacific Highway upgrade. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority.
- Pacific Highway Safety Works Set To Start[dead link]
- Truss Welcomes Pacific Highway Pledge From Stoner[dead link]
- MP pleased with Pacific Hwy Budget funds – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
- "Rudd pledges $1.5b for Pacific Hwy upgrade". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
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- Gordon, Josh (8 March 2009). "Pacific Highway to hell". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- Greens say highway funds a gift to truckies – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Abc.net.au (10 November 2011). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Miranda Devine. Smh.com.au. Retrieved on 16 July 2013.
- Belinda Scott (22 December 2009). "Australia's worst crash". The Coffs Coast Advocate (North Coast News). Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Crash statistics < Downloads < NSW Centre for Road Safety < www.rta.nsw.gov.au. Rta.nsw.gov.au (11 June 2013). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- Motorists vote Pacific Highway worst | 2012 Press Releases | NRMA Motoring & Services. Mynrma.com.au. Retrieved on 16 July 2013.
- Kariong to Doyalson. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority.
- "Part of Buladelah bypass to open". NBN News (Newcastle). 12 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Ballina Bypass". Road projects: Pacific Highway upgrade. Roads and Maritime Services. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Media related to Pacific Highway at Wikimedia Commons