Pakistani architecture includes various structures built during different time periods. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C., for the first time in the area which encompasses today's Pakistan an advanced urban culture developed with large structural facilities, some of which survive to this day. This was followed by the Gandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from the Ancient Greece. These remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila.
Indus Valley civilization 
Archaeologists excavated numerous ancient cities, among them Mohenjo Daro, Harappa and Kot Diji, which have a uniform, appropriate structure with broad roads as well as well thought out sanitary and drainage facilities. The majority of the discovered brick constructions are public buildings such as bath houses and workshops. Wood and loam served as construction materials. Large scale temples, such as those found in other ancient cities are missing. With the collapse of the IVC culture the architecture also suffered considerable damage. View of Mohenjo-Daro towards the Great Bath.
Unfortunately little is known about this civilization, often called Harappan, partly because it disappeared about 1700 BC for reasons unknown and because its language remains undeciphered; its existence was revealed only in the midst of the 19th century (your text says the 1920s), and excavations have been limited. Surviving evidence indicates a sophisticated civilization. Cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (=the "City of the Dead") had populations of some 35,000, they were laid out according to grid system. Inhabitants lived in windowless baked brick houses built around a central courtyard. These cities also had a citadel, where the public and religious buildings were located, large pools for ritual bathing, granaries for the storage of food, and a complex system of covered drains and sewers. The latter rivaled the engineering skill of the Romans some 2,000 years later.
Buddhist and Hindu architecture 
With the rise of Buddhism outstanding architectural monuments were again developed, which have lasted into the present. In addition, the Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century A.D.. The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara style. Important remnants of Buddhist construction are stupas and other buildings with clearly recognizable Greek statues and style elements like support columns which, beside ruins from other epochs, are found in the Gandhara capital Taxila in the extreme north of the Punjab. A particularly beautiful example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the northwest province.
Mughal architecture 
The arrival of Islam in today's Pakistan - first in Sindh - during 8th century A.D. meant a sudden end of Buddhist architecture. However, a smooth transition to predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture occurred. The way early mosques were built with decorations oriented them strongly to the Arab style. The earliest example of a mosque from the days of infancy of Islam in South Asia is the Mihrablose mosque of Banbhore, from the year 727, the first Muslim place of worship on the Indian Subcontinent. Under the Delhi Sultan the Persian-centralasiatic style ascended over Arab influences. Most important characteristic of this style is the Iwan, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. Further characteristics are wide prayer halls, round domes with mosaics and geometrical samples and the use of painted tiles. The most important of the few completely discovered buildings of Persian style is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam (built 1320 to 1324) in Multan. At the start of the 16th century, the Indo-Islamic architecture was at the height of the its boom. During the Mughal era design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of the Hindustani art. Lahore, occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire, among them the Badshahi mosque (built 1673-1674), the fortress of Lahore (16th century and 17th century) with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, still strongly Persian seeming Wazir Khan Mosque (1634-1635) as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums. Also the Shahjahan Mosque of Thatta in Sindh originates from the epoch of the Mughals. However, it exhibits partially different stylistic characteristics. Singularly, the innumerable tombs of the Chaukhandi are of eastern influence. Although constructed between 16th and 18th centuries, they do not possess any similarity to Mughal architecture. The stonemason works show rather typical Sindhi workmanship, probably from before Islamic times. The building activity of the Mughals came close to succumbing by the late 18th century. Afterwards hardly any special native architectural projects were undertaken.
British colonial architecture 
In the British colonial age predominantly representative buildings of the Indo-European style developed, from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. Amongst the more prominent works are Mohatta Palace and Frere Hall in Karachi.
Post - independence architecture 
After independence Pakistan strove to express its new found national identity through architecture. This reflects itself particularly in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque in the capital built during the 1960s. In addition, buildings of monumental importance such as the Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore or the mausoleum established with white marble known as Mazar-e-Quaid for the founder of the state expressed the self-confidence of the nascent state. The National Monument in Islamabad is one the latest examples of integrating culture, independence and modern architecture.
World Heritage Sites 
- Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro
- Buddhist Ruins at Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol
- Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)
- Historic Monuments of Thatta
- Rohtas Fort
See also 
- Culture of Pakistan
- Architecture of Lahore
- List of Pakistani architects
- Islamic architecture
- Indo-Greek Kingdom
- Sikh architecture
- Buddhist architecture
- Indo-Islamic Architecture
- Persian architecture
- Guisepi, R.A. The Indus Valley And The Genesis Of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved on February 6, 2008
- Meister , M.W. (1997). Gandhara-Nagara Temples of the Salt Range and the Indus. Kala, the Journal of Indian Art History Congress. Vol 4 (1997-98), pp. 45-52.
- Meister , M.W. (1996). Temples Along the Indus. Expedition, the Magazine of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Vol 38, Issue 3. pp. 41-54
Further reading 
- Mumtaz, Kamil Khan. Architecture in Pakistan. Singapore: Concept Media Pte Ltd, 1985.
- Maurizio, Taddei and De Marco, Giuseppe. Chronology of Temples in the Salt Range, Pakistan. South Asian Archaeology. Rome: Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, 2000.
- Crossing Lines, Architecture in Early Islamic South Asia. Anthropology and Aesthetics 43 (2003)
- Malot and the Originality of the Punjab. Punjab Journal of Archaeology and History 1 (1997)
- Pattan Munara: Minar or Mandir?. Hari Smiriti: Studies in Art, Archaeology and Indology, Papers Presented in Memory of Dr. H. Sarkar, New Delhi: Kaveri Books, 2006.
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